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Full-Text Articles in Law and Race

Complicated Lives: Free Blacks In Virginia, 1619-1865, Sherri L. Burr Jul 2019

Complicated Lives: Free Blacks In Virginia, 1619-1865, Sherri L. Burr

Faculty Book Display Case

Would the United States have developed differently if Virginia had not passed a law in 1670 proclaiming all subsequently arriving Africans as servants for life, or slaves? What if the state had not stripped all Free Blacks and Indians of voting rights in 1723, or outlawed interracial sex for 337 years?

Complicated Lives upends the pervasive belief that all Africans landing on the shores of Virginia beginning in late August 1619, became slaves. In reality, many of these kidnap victims received the status of indentured servants. Indeed, hundreds of thousands of free African Americans in the South and North owned ...


Evaluating Judicial Standards Of Conduct In The Current Political And Social Climate: The Need To Strengthen Impropriety Standards And Removal Remedies To Include Procedural Justice And Community Harm, Joshua E. Kastenberg Jan 2019

Evaluating Judicial Standards Of Conduct In The Current Political And Social Climate: The Need To Strengthen Impropriety Standards And Removal Remedies To Include Procedural Justice And Community Harm, Joshua E. Kastenberg

Faculty Scholarship

Chief Justice Warren Burger warned that when “people who have long been exploited . . . come to believe that courts cannot vindicate their legal rights from fraud,” an “incalculable damage [is done] to society.”

Part I of this Article presents an examination of the current common frameworks shared by the states for addressing judicial conduct appealing to popular social and political influences. Included in this section is an analysis of the interrelationship between implicit bias and impropriety, as well as on community harm and procedural justice.

Part II provides both a historical and contemporary analysis of “populism,” including the effect of populism ...


Hls 200: A Latina's Story About The Bicentennial, Margaret E. Montoya Apr 2018

Hls 200: A Latina's Story About The Bicentennial, Margaret E. Montoya

Faculty Scholarship

This essay sketches an arc from my childhood to being an Harvard Law School student to my academic work and professional commitments as a law professor and an alumna of Harvard Law School, working to increase access and success in the legal and medical professions for students and faculty of color. I compare aspects of legal and medical education using demographic data as well as some observations about how diverse faculty have transformed the two professions in their respective approaches to and rationales for diversifying the professions and examine the work being done by diverse faculty in law and health ...


Federalism And The State Police Power: Why Immigration And Customs Enforcement Must Stay Away From State Courthouses, George Bach Apr 2018

Federalism And The State Police Power: Why Immigration And Customs Enforcement Must Stay Away From State Courthouses, George Bach

Faculty Scholarship

The Trump Administration’s rhetoric and increased immigration enforcement actions have raised the level of fear in immigrant communities. The increased enforcement has included having United States Immigrant and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agents appear at state and local courthouses to detain undocumented immigrants when they arrive for court. This presence has had an adverse effect on domestic violence victims who are immigrants, as they fear encountering immigrations officials at the courthouse. In El Paso, for example, agents detained a woman who was bringing a case of domestic violence against her abuser. There were claims that ICE was tipped off about ...


Name Narratives: A Tool For Examining And Cultivating Identify, Margaret E. Montoya, Irene Morris Vasquez, Diana V. Martinez Jan 2014

Name Narratives: A Tool For Examining And Cultivating Identify, Margaret E. Montoya, Irene Morris Vasquez, Diana V. Martinez

Faculty Scholarship

This paper uses Critical Race Theory and LatCrit terminology, analytical approaches, and discursive conventions, including autobiographical narratives. From their inception, names are embedded with meaning and coded with identity, and over time, they become layered with nuance and memory. We divide this article into three sections, Part I is a brief overview of recent commentaries in newspapers and public radio related to names, particularly as they pertain to identity and specifically to Latinas/os. Part II is a description of how Professor Irene Vasquez has used Name Narratives in the undergraduate classroom to help students deepen their understanding of their ...


Mascaras Y Trenzas: Reflexiones. Un Proyecto De Identidad Y Analysis A Traves De Veinte Anos (Masks And Braids: Reflections, A Project On Identity And Analysis Over Twenty Years), Margaret E. Montoya Jan 2014

Mascaras Y Trenzas: Reflexiones. Un Proyecto De Identidad Y Analysis A Traves De Veinte Anos (Masks And Braids: Reflections, A Project On Identity And Analysis Over Twenty Years), Margaret E. Montoya

Faculty Scholarship

This article uses Critical Race Theory and LatCrit methodologies, vocabulary, categories, and pedagogical approaches. In this Section, titled 'On Mascaras,' I am grappling with race (and gender secondarily) in public space -- un/masking my professional persona. In using the word 'wrestle' in the subheading I am referring to this struggle over a re-allocation of the social power that inheres in racial hierarchies, namely, the back-and-forth exchanges involved in changing the racial ambiance by exposing and transforming the presumptions, especially regarding notions of inferiority, that cabin our thinking and restrain our relationships. My original paper was something of an outburst, challenging ...


The Story Behind A Letter In Support Of Professor Derrick Bell, Margaret E. Montoya Jan 2014

The Story Behind A Letter In Support Of Professor Derrick Bell, Margaret E. Montoya

Faculty Scholarship

Jointly authored with Cheryl Nelson Butler, Sherrilyn Ifill, Suzette Malveaux, Natsu Taylor Saito, Nareissa L. Smith and Tanya Washington. Professor Derrick A. Bell, Jr. had a long and proud history of disturbing authority. He is widely noted as one of the founders of Critical Race Theory. His scholarship on race was not only a direct challenge to the traditionally conservative legal academy, but also to the more liberal bastions within the academy, such as the Critical Legal Studies movement. His writings about the role of race in American law have made him one of the most prominent legal scholars of ...


Threats Demand Our Action, Margaret E. Montoya Mar 2013

Threats Demand Our Action, Margaret E. Montoya

Faculty Scholarship

Those of us who identify as progressive see this as a time when speaking up and engaging on public policy is our duty. I am writing to express my deep concern and dismay about the state of the federal government under Donald Trump. Like others, I have marched, donated, and joined Wednesday’s International Women’s Day protests against the administration of Donald Trump.


Las Voces De America: Reflecting On Mari Matsuda's Voice, Stories, And Analysis, Margaret E. Montoya Jan 2013

Las Voces De America: Reflecting On Mari Matsuda's Voice, Stories, And Analysis, Margaret E. Montoya

Faculty Scholarship

Professor Matsuda's exhortation to listen to people of color was certainly heard and seized by people of color. It spoke to me personally and inspired me as I was writing my first article, Mascaras, Trenzas y Grerias. Once the multiracial group of scholars that took the name "LatCrit" organized ourselves, we deliberately and intentionally centered our annual conferences around listening to the voices at the bottom, including the local activists in the cities in which we met. We listened to such voices as both method and substance.


Legal Education, Social Justice And The Law School Dean: Latinas At The Center, Margaret E. Montoya Jan 2012

Legal Education, Social Justice And The Law School Dean: Latinas At The Center, Margaret E. Montoya

Faculty Scholarship

The opening of LatCrit XVI in San Diego, CA, on October 9, 2011, coincided with the events that are identified as the start of the global expression of the Occupy Movement. The Occupy Movement began to gain media attention on September 17, 2011, in Zuccotti Park in New York City. By October 9, protests had taken place or were ongoing in eighty-two countries and over 600 communities in the United States. The broad theme for LatCrit XVI was "Global Justice" and the conference was billed as "an opportunity to explore theories, histories, and futures of global justice. Of particular importance ...


Report & Recommendations Legal Scholar Team, Margaret E. Montoya, Tucker Culbertson, Marc-Tizoc González Apr 2010

Report & Recommendations Legal Scholar Team, Margaret E. Montoya, Tucker Culbertson, Marc-Tizoc González

Faculty Scholarship

The Report’s Recommendations for next steps reflect and incorporate the multiple experiences, false starts, insights, frustrations and new beginnings that represent the various ways that diversity works within the different sectors of the legal profession. We have included Recommendations that are already being used as well as some that are ambitious and aspirational. Within each of the four sectors of the profession, the recommendations are broadly categorized, but not prioritized. We recognize that every individual or organization will have its own priorities based on its unique circumstances. We do encourage the Report’s users to select and prioritize recommendations ...


Seeking Educational Self-Determination: Raza Studies For Revolution, Margaret E. Montoya, Marcos Pizarro, Monica Nanez, Ray Chavez, Nadine Bermudez Jan 2010

Seeking Educational Self-Determination: Raza Studies For Revolution, Margaret E. Montoya, Marcos Pizarro, Monica Nanez, Ray Chavez, Nadine Bermudez

Faculty Scholarship

This article is a multi-textured effort to explain the educational, social justice work of MAESTR@S, an innovative, organic group of educational activists fighting to address the needs of Latina/o youth. It is unlike anything we have ever written and probably unlike anything you are likely to read in an academic journal such as Equity & Excellence in Education.We do not have a well-defined result that we are reporting to you. Instead, we see ourselves on a quest, with a deep concern about the current educational choices facing most raza youth and their teachers, and a commitment to try ...


Commencement Address, Cuny School Of Law, Margaret E. Montoya May 2009

Commencement Address, Cuny School Of Law, Margaret E. Montoya

Faculty Scholarship

Who we are, how we see ourselves, how we want to be seen, what we value, how our memories connect us to specific histories in specific places — we communicate this information best through narratives. In Spanish we sometimes call such stories cuentos — an accounting. I encourage all of you to take time over the next few days to celebrate your graduation, this singular accomplishment of your lives, by accounting — by telling stories to those who have helped you, held you up, fed you, wiped your tears, paid your bills. Share your recollections.


Latina/Os' And Latina/O Legal Studies: A Critical And Self-Critical Review Of Latcrit Theory And Legal Models Of Knowledge Production, Margaret E. Montoya, Francisco Valdes Jan 2009

Latina/Os' And Latina/O Legal Studies: A Critical And Self-Critical Review Of Latcrit Theory And Legal Models Of Knowledge Production, Margaret E. Montoya, Francisco Valdes

Faculty Scholarship

For the twelfth time in as many years, the LatCrit community convened its annual conference to underscore the importance of location and locality in the work that we do. The conference theme's framing around Critical Localities: Epistemic Communities, Rooted Cosmopolitans and Knowledge Processes not only focused our collective attention on questions of epistemic community and intellectual (as well as physical) location, but also invited reflection on the meanings we inscribe onto the positions we elect to stake out for ourselves and our work in light of the options and traditions that serve as background. The "Critical Localities" theme invites ...


Uniendo Comunidades By Learning Lessons And Mobilizing For Change, Margaret E. Montoya Jan 2008

Uniendo Comunidades By Learning Lessons And Mobilizing For Change, Margaret E. Montoya

Faculty Scholarship

Building community, that is, sustaining our connections to family and our ancestry is often hampered by going to law school. Law schools are highly adept at assimilating you into a profession and a worldview that can be at odds with who you were and how you saw the world before you began law school. Unfortunately, in order to fit in, it can seem advantageous to forget tus ralces, your roots. I began by talking about unigndo comunidades as a progressive objective and have been talking about the second part of your conference theme, learning lessons and mobilizing for change, as ...


Latinas/Os' And The Politics Of Knowledge Production: Latcrit Scholarship And Academic Activism As Social Justice Action, Margaret E. Montoya, Francisco Valdes Jan 2008

Latinas/Os' And The Politics Of Knowledge Production: Latcrit Scholarship And Academic Activism As Social Justice Action, Margaret E. Montoya, Francisco Valdes

Faculty Scholarship

In this article, Professors Montoya and Valdes examine various ways of developing Latina/o legal studies in the United States. As background, they first outline and examine the three main models of knowledge-production established within legal academia during the past century or so: 1) the traditional or imperial model; 2) the safe-space or vanguard model, and; 3) the big-tent or democratic model. Using this historical template to contextualize current efforts in Latina/o legal studies both substantively and methodologically, they next review the record of LatCrit theorists over the past dozen years. With this analytical framework in place, they situate ...


Antigona: A Voice Rebuking Power, Margaret E. Montoya Jan 2007

Antigona: A Voice Rebuking Power, Margaret E. Montoya

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Defending The Future Voices Of Critical Race Feminism, Margaret E. Montoya Jan 2006

Defending The Future Voices Of Critical Race Feminism, Margaret E. Montoya

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Latcrit At Ten Years, Margaret E. Montoya Jan 2006

Latcrit At Ten Years, Margaret E. Montoya

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Who Gets In? The Quest For Diversity After Grutter, Margaret E. Montoya, Athena Mutua, Sheldon Zedeck, Frank H. Wu, Charles E. Daye, David L. Chambers Jan 2004

Who Gets In? The Quest For Diversity After Grutter, Margaret E. Montoya, Athena Mutua, Sheldon Zedeck, Frank H. Wu, Charles E. Daye, David L. Chambers

Faculty Scholarship

Transcript of The 2004 James McCormick Mitchell Lecture. On March 8, 2004, the University at Buffalo Law School hosted its annual Mitchell Lecture,1 a panel discussion entitled, "Who Gets In? The Quest for Diversity After Grutter." The Mitchell Committee decided to focus this year's lecture on innovative proposals to ensure diversity in law school admissions in light of the Supreme Court's ruling in Grutter v. Bollinger, which confirmed that race and ethnicity could be taken into consideration in admission decisions for diversity purposes. Noting that much of the debate about Grutter thus far has emphasized the decision ...


Un/Braiding Stories About Law, Sexuality And Morality, Margaret E. Montoya Jan 2003

Un/Braiding Stories About Law, Sexuality And Morality, Margaret E. Montoya

Faculty Scholarship

Traditional doctrine insists that we tame sexual desire by pretending that goodness and Godliness is defined by celibacy and abstinence, but the Church is simply wrong to insist that we accept a theology that negates and silences and suppresses a central part of our lives. To the extent that we believe in a life after death, many of us have won a chance at Heaven not by denying and suppressing our sexuality but by struggling to develop our capacity to experience joy through sexual desire and to honor the responsibility of not generating misery for ourselves and others through that ...


The Future Of Civil Rights: A Dialogue, Margaret E. Montoya Jan 2002

The Future Of Civil Rights: A Dialogue, Margaret E. Montoya

Faculty Scholarship

Eight social science, humanities, and legal scholars discuss a wide range of perspectives on civil rights (edited by John Paul Ryan). The conversation traverses civil rights stories in the U.S. and abroad since 1968, the relationships between immigration and civil rights, the enforcement of civil rights and the role of the courts, and the impact of September 11 on civil rights in the future. Co-authored with John Paul Ryan, Angelo Ancheta, Erik Bleich, Tim Borstelmann, Gloria Browne-Marshall, Chai Feldblum, Anita Hodgkiss, & John D. Skrentny


A Brief History Of Chicana/O School Segregation: One Rationale For Affirmative Action, Margaret E. Montoya Jan 2002

A Brief History Of Chicana/O School Segregation: One Rationale For Affirmative Action, Margaret E. Montoya

Faculty Scholarship

This article uses Critical Race Theory methodologies, such as autobiographical narratives, and analytical approaches, such as revising the history of the civil rights struggle, especially as it applies to the Chicano-Latino communities. This paper represents a student-faculty collaboration in that the students organized the conference at which some of this analysis was first proposed. This was the conference at which now Justice Sonia Sotomayor made her now iconic comments about being a "wise Latina." People can't get to be judges without first going to law school, and Latinas/as can't get to law school, at least in significant ...


Class In Latcrit: Theory And Praxis In A World Of Economic Inequality (Foreword), Margaret E. Montoya Jan 2001

Class In Latcrit: Theory And Praxis In A World Of Economic Inequality (Foreword), Margaret E. Montoya

Faculty Scholarship

The fifth annual Latina/o critical legal theory ("LatCrit") conference was held on May 4-7, 2000 in Breckenridge, Colorado. The mountain resorts of Colorado present an almost metaphorical location for a critical theory meeting. The majesty and apparent harmony of the natural environment contrast so vividly with the cotidian conflicts in the human environment, and the elites exhibit a banal oblivion to the vicious racial and class-based violence that provide the grist for critical theorists. These resort locations dedicated to a lifestyle of money, recreation and pampering and infused with the invisible oxygen of privilege offer a space for theoretical ...


Silence And Silencing: Their Centripetal And Centrifugal Forces In Cultural Expression, Pedagogy And Legal Discourse, Margaret E. Montoya Jan 2000

Silence And Silencing: Their Centripetal And Centrifugal Forces In Cultural Expression, Pedagogy And Legal Discourse, Margaret E. Montoya

Faculty Scholarship

This article uses Critical Race Theory and LatCrit Theory in its analysis, methodologies, and purpose. I seek to disrupt silences around race and to provide the knowledge and skills for effective work on racial equity and justice. Language and voice have been subjects of great interest to scholars working in the areas of Critical Race Theory and Latina/o Critical Legal Theory. Silence, a counterpart of voice, has not, however, been well theorized. This Article is an invitation to attend to silence and silencing. The first part of the Article argues that one's use of silence is an aspect ...


Introduction: Latcrit Theory: Mapping It's Intellectual And Political Foundations And Future Self-Critical Directions, Margaret E. Montoya Jan 1999

Introduction: Latcrit Theory: Mapping It's Intellectual And Political Foundations And Future Self-Critical Directions, Margaret E. Montoya

Faculty Scholarship

The third annual gathering of LatCrit scholars has resulted in this cluster of essays and articles that continue the work of defining the foundations and the future directions of this legal scholarship movement. As described in some of the articles within this cluster, LatCrit has had the benefit of learning valuable lessons from other slightly older schools of critical legal theory, most particularly from the Critical Race Theory ("CRT") Workshop. The LatCrit movement has been strengthened because scholars identified primarily with CRT working with and alongside scholars identified primarily with LatCrit have struggled to recognize, name and address the hetero-normativity ...


Religious Rituals And Latcrit Theorizing, Margaret E. Montoya Jan 1998

Religious Rituals And Latcrit Theorizing, Margaret E. Montoya

Faculty Scholarship

After the first annual LatCrit conference held at La Jolla, California, Professor Keith Aoki observed that "issues of religion and spirituality are submerged not far below the surface of emerging Latina/o Critical Theory." He proposed that LatCrits begin to "unbracket" religious affiliation and identity in the construction and representation of individual and group racial identities. Professor Aoki further posited that "[i]n a paradoxical way, religion simultaneously may be both more and less difficult to voluntarily discard than race, language or nationality as a constitutive element of one's individual and group identity.


Of 'Subtle Prejudices,' White Supremacy And Affirmative Action: A Reply To Paul Butler, Margaret E. Montoya Jan 1997

Of 'Subtle Prejudices,' White Supremacy And Affirmative Action: A Reply To Paul Butler, Margaret E. Montoya

Faculty Scholarship

I analyze the connection of affirmative action to two models of race and racism. I contend that the Supreme Court Justices who continue to support affirmative action adhere to a "prejudice" model in which race is a concept to be overcome and racism is merely a condition of individual ignorance. 13 On the other hand, I posit that Professor Butler's proposals fall within a "white supremacy" model, which looks at race as a historically contingent concept that has been used to subordinate non-white peoples from precolonial times through the present. This historical perspective offers the possibility that the concept ...


Voicing Differences (Comment), Margaret E. Montoya Jan 1997

Voicing Differences (Comment), Margaret E. Montoya

Faculty Scholarship

Jane Aiken and Kimberly O'Leary undertake the difficult work of developing specific approaches and techniques for taking account of characteristics such as race/ethnicity, gender, dis/ability, and sexual identity in clinical pedagogy. Carolyn Grose uses outsider narratives and popular culture to challenge the "pre-understanding" of students, and to assist them to accept client stories as true and valid. Focusing on the professional value of striving to promote justice, fairness, and morality identified in the MacCrate Report, Professor Aiken exhorts us to promote justice by unmasking privilege, the invisible package of unearned assets--about which I (we? or you?) was ...


Academic Mestizaje: Re/Producing Clinical Teaching And Re/Framing Wills As Latina Praxis, Margaret E. Montoya Jan 1997

Academic Mestizaje: Re/Producing Clinical Teaching And Re/Framing Wills As Latina Praxis, Margaret E. Montoya

Faculty Scholarship

What follows is an analysis that draws connections between activist teaching and activist scholarship and posits that it is the activism, the focus on the needs of Latinas/as, that makes them community service. In Part I, I describe the community lawyering program, one of the clinical law options, available at the University of New Mexico School of Law. In Part Il, I undertake to re-frame the law of wills in order to make this end-of-life ritual more relevant to the lives of Latinas/os. I then I enact a LatCritique of academic discussions and Outsider discourses. I conclude by ...