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University of Nevada, Las Vegas -- William S. Boyd School of Law

Fourth Amendment

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A Genealogy Of Programmatic Stop And Frisk: A Discourse-To-Practice-Circuit, Frank Rudy Cooper Jan 2018

A Genealogy Of Programmatic Stop And Frisk: A Discourse-To-Practice-Circuit, Frank Rudy Cooper

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President Trump has called for increased use of the recently predominant policing methodology known as programmatic stop and frisk. This Article contributes to the field by identifying, defining, and discussing five key components of the practice: (1) administratively dictated (2) pervasive Terry v. Ohio stops and frisks (3) aimed at crime prevention by means of (4) data-enhanced profiles of suspects that (5) target young racial minority men. Whereas some scholars see programmatic stop and frisk as solely the product of individual police officer bias, this Article argues for understanding how we arrived at specific police practices by analyzing three levels ...


Post-Racialism And Searches Incident To Arrest, Frank Rudy Cooper Jan 2012

Post-Racialism And Searches Incident To Arrest, Frank Rudy Cooper

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For 28 years the Court held that an officer's search incident to arrest powers automatically extended to the entire passenger compartment of a vehicle. In 2009, however, the Arizona v. Gant decision held that officers do not get to search a vehicle incident to arrest unless they satisfy (1) the Chimel v. California Court's requirement that the suspect has access to weapons or evanescent evidence therein or (2) the United States v. Rabinowitz Court's requirement that the officer reasonably believe evidence of the crime of arrest will be found therein. While many scholars read Gant as a ...


Surveillance And Identity Performance: Some Thoughts Inspired By Martin Luther King, Frank Rudy Cooper Jan 2008

Surveillance And Identity Performance: Some Thoughts Inspired By Martin Luther King, Frank Rudy Cooper

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In this article, Professor Frank Cooper explores self-actualization, the process whereby people create their own identity by means of experimenting with different behaviors, in the context of Martin Luther King, Jr. and the FBI surveillance he was subjected to in the time leading up to his death. He argues that it is possible for people to live in an environment that is more or less alienating to the way in which they perform their identities. Performativity scholars such as Devon Carbado and Mitu Gulati say that people can have an internal sense of self that is distinct from the identity ...


The Spirit Of 1968: Toward Abolishing Terry Doctrine, Frank Rudy Cooper Jan 2007

The Spirit Of 1968: Toward Abolishing Terry Doctrine, Frank Rudy Cooper

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In this essay, Professor Frank Rudy Cooper summarizes how the Terry opinion's refusal to apply the probable cause standard made Fourth Amendment doctrine more conservative. He then suggests that the result has gone largely unchallenged because whites have been willing to trade decreases in the civil liberties of blacks for perceived increases in crime control. Prof Cooper concludes by calling on us to consider returning to the spirit of the beginning of 1968 by abolishing Terry doctrine.


Cultural Context Matters: Terry's "Seesaw Effect", Frank Rudy Cooper Jan 2003

Cultural Context Matters: Terry's "Seesaw Effect", Frank Rudy Cooper

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This Article investigates why the enforcement of a given legal doctrine may vary with changes in the cultural context in which it is applied. It argues that officials apply the law along an "enforcement practices continuum" in accord with changes in the prevailing articulations of the meaning of cultural identity norms associating particular groups with crime.

Terry v. Ohio doctrine allows police officers to make "stops" and "frisks" of limited scope upon reasonable suspicion of crime rather than requiring the higher standard of probable cause. The Article contends the officer discretion resulting from this "scope continuum" approach permits cultural identity ...


The Un-Balanced Fourth Amendment: A Cultural Study Of The Drug War, Racial Profiling And Arvizu, Frank Rudy Cooper Jan 2002

The Un-Balanced Fourth Amendment: A Cultural Study Of The Drug War, Racial Profiling And Arvizu, Frank Rudy Cooper

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In this Article, Professor Frank Rudy Cooper provides a cultural studies approach to the encoding and decoding of the drug war that will allow us to draw important conclusions about the effects of the drug war on the Court. In Part I of this Article, he describes how the field of cultural studies reads popular culture through the analytical tools of "encoding" and "decoding." In Part II, he analyzes why and how law enforcement has encoded the drug war as requiring increased prosecution of drug users and drug dealers. In Part III, he considers how the Court's decoding of ...