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Civil Rights and Discrimination

2005

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Articles 1 - 30 of 31

Full-Text Articles in Law and Race

Documenting Discrimination In Voting: Judicial Findings Under Section 2 Of The Voting Rights Act Since 1982, Ellen D. Katz, Margaret Aisenbrey, Anna Baldwin, Emma Cheuse, Anna Weisbrodt Dec 2005

Documenting Discrimination In Voting: Judicial Findings Under Section 2 Of The Voting Rights Act Since 1982, Ellen D. Katz, Margaret Aisenbrey, Anna Baldwin, Emma Cheuse, Anna Weisbrodt

Other Publications

This year marks the fortieth anniversary of one of the most remarkable and consequential pieces of congressional legislation ever enacted. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 ("the VRA") targeted massive disfranchisement of African-American citizens in numerous Southern states. It imposed measures drastic in scope and extraordinary in effect. The VRA eliminated the use of literacy tests and other "devices" that Southern jurisdictions had long employed to prevent black residents from registering and voting. The VRA imposed on these jurisdictions onerous obligations to prove to federal officials that proposed changes to their electoral system would not discriminate against minority voters. Resistance ...


Stepping Through Grutter'S Open Doors: What The University Of Michigan Affirmative Action Cases Mean For Race-Conscious Government Decisionmaking, Helen L. Norton Oct 2005

Stepping Through Grutter'S Open Doors: What The University Of Michigan Affirmative Action Cases Mean For Race-Conscious Government Decisionmaking, Helen L. Norton

Faculty Scholarship

In Grutter, a majority of the Court for the first time identified an instrumental justification for race-based government decisionmaking as compelling -- specifically, a public law school’s interest in attaining a diverse student body. Grutter not only recognized the value of diversity in higher education, but left open the possibility that the Court might find similar justifications compelling as well. The switch to instrumental justifications for affirmative action appears a strategic response to the Court’s narrowing of the availability of remedial rationales. A number of thoughtful commentators, however, have reacted to this trend with concern and even dismay, questioning ...


Applying 42 U.S.C. § 1981 To Claims Of Consumer Discrimination, Abby Morrow Richardson Oct 2005

Applying 42 U.S.C. § 1981 To Claims Of Consumer Discrimination, Abby Morrow Richardson

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Note explores several interesting legal questions regarding the proper interpretation of 42 U.S.C. § 1981, which prohibits racial discrimination in contracting, when discrimination arises in the context of a consumer retail contract. The Note further explores how the Fifth Circuit's and other federal courts' narrow interpretation of § 1981's application in a retail setting (which allows plaintiffs to invoke the statute only when they have been prevented from completing their purchases) is contrary to the statute's express language, congressional intent, and to evolving concepts of contract theory, all of which reflect a commitment to the strict ...


Fair Representation On Juries In The Eastern District Of Michigan: Analyzing Past Efforts And Recommending Future Action, Andrew J. Lievense Jul 2005

Fair Representation On Juries In The Eastern District Of Michigan: Analyzing Past Efforts And Recommending Future Action, Andrew J. Lievense

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Note builds on past recommendations to reform jury selection systems to make juries more representative of the community. Juries representing a fair cross section of the community are both a statutory and constitutional requirement, as well as a policy goal. How a judicial district designs and implements its jury selection system is important to meeting this requirement.

Part I of this Note analyzes the history and development of the representativeness interest on juries, explains how the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan attempted to meet this interest in the 1980s and 1990s, and reports and ...


Reforming U.S. Immigration Policy In An Era Of Latin American Immigration: The Logic Inherent In Accommodating The Inevitable, Ryan D. Frei May 2005

Reforming U.S. Immigration Policy In An Era Of Latin American Immigration: The Logic Inherent In Accommodating The Inevitable, Ryan D. Frei

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Oral History: Rodney Hurst. Interviewed By The University Of Florida, Kristin Dodek, Rodney Lawrence Hurst Feb 2005

Oral History: Rodney Hurst. Interviewed By The University Of Florida, Kristin Dodek, Rodney Lawrence Hurst

Textual material from the Rodney Lawrence Hurst, Sr. Papers

An Oral history about Jacksonville's Civil Rights on 2/18/2005. Box 1, Folder 4.


Certificate: Appreciation To Rodney Hurst For 2nd Annual Black History Leader Luncheon Feb 2005

Certificate: Appreciation To Rodney Hurst For 2nd Annual Black History Leader Luncheon

Textual material from the Rodney Lawrence Hurst, Sr. Papers

A certificate of appreciation from Stanton College Preparatory school on the 2nd annual Black History Leader Luncheon, February 15, 2005


Engendering Legal History, Felice J. Batlan Jan 2005

Engendering Legal History, Felice J. Batlan

Felice J Batlan

No abstract provided.


After Georgia V. Ashcroft: The Primacy Of Proportionality, Felix B. Chang Jan 2005

After Georgia V. Ashcroft: The Primacy Of Proportionality, Felix B. Chang

Michigan Journal of Race and Law

This Note argues that the majority in Ashcroft have left courts with an unadministerable standard-not so much for reasons that Justice Souter articulated in his dissent, but rather because the Court provided no guidance on navigating around the myriad of factors in the convoluted totality analyses. In the face of this uncertainty, lower courts will rely increasingly on the proportionality standard of Johnson v. De Grandy, which marked the midpoint in the judicial shift from Justice Brennan's worldview to Justice O'Connor's world-view. Part I examines two cases after Ashcroft which represent different degrees of racial vote dilution ...


Discrimination In Sentencing On The Basis Of Afrocentric Features, William T. Pizzi, Irene V. Blair, Charles M. Judd Jan 2005

Discrimination In Sentencing On The Basis Of Afrocentric Features, William T. Pizzi, Irene V. Blair, Charles M. Judd

Michigan Journal of Race and Law

This Article does not challenge the prior research on sentencing discrimination between racial categories that found no significant difference in sentences given to similarly-situated African Americans and Whites. In fact, in the jurisdiction investigated- Florida- no discrimination between African Americans and Whites was found in the sentences imposed on defendants, looking only at racial category differences. Rather, the research suggests that in focusing exclusively on discrimination between racial groups, the research has missed a type of discrimination related to race that is taking place within racial categories: namely, discrimination on the basis of a person's Afrocentric features. By Afrocentric ...


Felon Disenfrachisement Laws: Partisan Politics In The Legislatures, Jason Belmont Conn Jan 2005

Felon Disenfrachisement Laws: Partisan Politics In The Legislatures, Jason Belmont Conn

Michigan Journal of Race and Law

This examination of the institutional changes to state legislatures, synthesized with an analysis of the handling of felon disenfranchisement laws by state legislatures, presents a troubling realization about the law today: in the twenty-first century, partisan politics moderates decisions about even the most basic and fundamental principles of democracy. This Note suggests that because state legislators follow their party leadership and position, a state's traditional treatment of racial minorities, geographic location, and even ideology are not the strongest indicators of a state's disenfranchisement laws. Rather, partisan politics drives changes to the state laws governing felon voter eligibility.


Two "Wrongs" Do/Can Make A Right: Remembering Mathematics, Physics, & Various Legal Analogies (Two Negatives Make A Positive; Are Remedies Wrong?) The Law Has Made Him Equal, But Man Has Not, John C. Duncan Jr Jan 2005

Two "Wrongs" Do/Can Make A Right: Remembering Mathematics, Physics, & Various Legal Analogies (Two Negatives Make A Positive; Are Remedies Wrong?) The Law Has Made Him Equal, But Man Has Not, John C. Duncan Jr

Journal Publications

This article demonstrates the incomplete logic and inconsistent legal reasoning used in the argument against affirmative action. The phrase "two wrongs don't make a right" is often heard in addressing various attempts to equalize, to balance, and to correct the acknowledged wrongs of slavery and segregation and their derivative effects. Yet, "two wrongs do/can make a right" has a positive connotation. This article reviews the history of societal and judicial wrongs against Blacks, as well as the evolution of the narrowing in legal reasoning concerning discrimination against minorities, including Blacks. Next, the legal reasoning behind legacy programs will ...


"Every Shut Eye, Ain't Sleep": Exploring The Impact Of Crack Cocaine Sentencing And The Illusion Of Reproductive Rights For Black Women From A Critical Race Feminist Perspective, Deleso Alford Washington Jan 2005

"Every Shut Eye, Ain't Sleep": Exploring The Impact Of Crack Cocaine Sentencing And The Illusion Of Reproductive Rights For Black Women From A Critical Race Feminist Perspective, Deleso Alford Washington

Journal Publications

For purposes of this paper, I will address societal regulations imposed upon the Black wombman's ability to control her reproductive rights. As we - Critical Race Feminist ("CRF") theorists who are becoming more empowered Critical Race Feminist activists - engage in necessary dialogue, there must be an appropriate point of departure. Once CRF theorists open our eyes, we will see what I refer to as "her-story." We will also see that it is time to move into action mode in order to address the illusion of reproductive rights for Black women.


Stepping Through Grutter's Open Doors: What The University Of Michigan Affirmative Action Cases Mean For Race-Conscious Government Decisionmaking, Helen Norton Jan 2005

Stepping Through Grutter's Open Doors: What The University Of Michigan Affirmative Action Cases Mean For Race-Conscious Government Decisionmaking, Helen Norton

Articles

In Grutter, a majority of the Court for the first time identified an instrumental justification for race-based government decisionmaking as compelling - specifically, a public law school's interest in attaining a diverse student body. Grutter not only recognized the value of diversity in higher education, but left open the possibility that the Court might find similar justifications compelling as well.

The switch to instrumental justifications for affirmative action appears a strategic response to the Court's narrowing of the availability of remedial rationales. A number of thoughtful commentators, however, have reacted to this trend with concern and even dismay, questioning ...


The Civil Rights Act Of 1964 And Coalition Politics, Sheryll Cashin Jan 2005

The Civil Rights Act Of 1964 And Coalition Politics, Sheryll Cashin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Professor Days began his Childress Lecture by recounting his personal experience with Jim Crow segregation. I too have such a story. I was born and raised in Hunstville, Alabama, a city that is notable, among other things, for having desegregated its public accommodations in 1962, two full years before the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The turning point in the non-violent sit-in movement in Hunstville was when a young, African- American woman was arrested with a four-month-old baby in her arms, along with a friend who was eight months pregnant. This caused some outrage and widespread press ...


Against Prediction: Sentencing, Policing, And Punishing In An Actuarial Age, Bernard E. Harcourt Jan 2005

Against Prediction: Sentencing, Policing, And Punishing In An Actuarial Age, Bernard E. Harcourt

Faculty Scholarship

Actuarial methods – i.e., the use of statistical rather than clinical methods on large datasets of criminal offending rates to determine different levels of offending associated with one or more group traits, in order to (1) predict past, present or future criminal behavior and (2) administer a criminal justice outcome – now permeates the criminal law and its enforcement. With the single exception of racial profiling against African-Americans and Hispanics, most people view the turn to the actuarial as efficient, rational, and wealth-maximizing. The fact is, law enforcement agencies can detect more crime with the same resources if they investigate citizens ...


How The Border Crossed Us: Filling The Gap Between Plume V. Seward And The Dispossession Of Mexican Landowners In California After 1848, 52 Clev. St. L. Rev. 297 (2005), Kim D. Chanbonpin Jan 2005

How The Border Crossed Us: Filling The Gap Between Plume V. Seward And The Dispossession Of Mexican Landowners In California After 1848, 52 Clev. St. L. Rev. 297 (2005), Kim D. Chanbonpin

UIC John Marshall Law School Open Access Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Subjective Decisionmaking And Unconscious Discrimination, Melissa Hart Jan 2005

Subjective Decisionmaking And Unconscious Discrimination, Melissa Hart

Articles

Unconscious bias is widely recognized as the most pervasive barrier to equal employment opportunity for minorities and women in the workplace today and yet many argue that federal laws prohibiting discrimination do not prohibit unconscious discrimination. This article argues that the law does in fact provide some redress for unconscious discrimination. Title VII may not be a perfect method for attacking unconscious bias, but it is a mistake to assume that it is without potential. The article challenges the assumption commonly held by judges that a finding of discrimination must be preceded by the belief that an employer is lying ...


Statutes Of Limitations: A Policy Analysis In The Context Of Reparations Litigation, Suzette M. Malveaux Jan 2005

Statutes Of Limitations: A Policy Analysis In The Context Of Reparations Litigation, Suzette M. Malveaux

Articles

This article discusses the underlying policy rationales for statutes of limitations and their exceptions, as demonstrated by Supreme Court precedents. This article explores limitations law in the context of a case brought by African-American survivors of the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 who sought restitution from the local government for its participation in one of the worst race riots in American history, in violation of their constitutional and federal civil rights. Using the Tulsa case as an exemplar, this article analyzes the propriety of the case’s dismissal as time-barred, and contends that this outcome was unwarranted under precedents and ...


Credit Where It Counts: The Community Reinvestment Act And Its Critics, Michael S. Barr Jan 2005

Credit Where It Counts: The Community Reinvestment Act And Its Critics, Michael S. Barr

Articles

Despite the depth and breadth of U.S. credit markets, low- and moderate-income communities and minority borrowers have not historically enjoyed full access to credit. The Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) was enacted in 1977 to help overcome barriers to credit that these groups faced. Scholars have long leveled numerous critiques against CRA as unnecessary, ineffectual, costly, and lawless. Many have argued that CRA should be eliminated. By contrast, I contend that market failures and discrimination justify governmental intervention and that CRA is a reasonable policy response to these problems. Using recent empirical evidence, I demonstrate that over the last decade ...


What You Don't Know Can Hurt You: The Importance Of Information In The Battle Against Environmental Class And Racial Discrimination, Browne C. Lewis Jan 2005

What You Don't Know Can Hurt You: The Importance Of Information In The Battle Against Environmental Class And Racial Discrimination, Browne C. Lewis

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

People across the country have witnessed the quality of their local environment decline in the name of progress but Lewis argues that tow-income and minority persons have observed the disproportionate placement of environmental hazards in their communities. That disparity has partially resulted from environmental discrimination based upon class and race. Acknowledging unequal treatment of low-income and minority persons has led to the development of the concept of "environmental justice. "

The premise of this Article is that, in order to effectively combat environmental discrimination, people must have access to quality information. Information may be used as a remedial measure. This Article ...


Destabilizing The Normalization Of Rural Black Land Loss: A Critical Role For Legal Empiricism, Thomas W. Mitchell Jan 2005

Destabilizing The Normalization Of Rural Black Land Loss: A Critical Role For Legal Empiricism, Thomas W. Mitchell

Faculty Scholarship

Mitchell's study exemplifies the New Legal Realist goal of combining qualitative and quantitative empirical research to shed light on important legal and policy issues. He also demonstrates the utility of a ground-level contextual analysis that examines legal problems from the bottom up. The study tracks processes by which black rural landowners have gradually been dispossessed of more than 90% of the land held by their predecessors in 1910. Mitchell points out that despite the continuing practices that contribute to this problem, there has been very little research on the issue, and what little attention legal scholars have paid to ...


Introduction: Brown Is Dead? Long Live Brown!, Denise C. Morgan Jan 2005

Introduction: Brown Is Dead? Long Live Brown!, Denise C. Morgan

NYLS Law Review

No abstract provided.


Why Segregation Is Inherently Unequal: The Abandonment Of Brown And The Continuing Failure Of Plessy, Gary Orfield Jan 2005

Why Segregation Is Inherently Unequal: The Abandonment Of Brown And The Continuing Failure Of Plessy, Gary Orfield

NYLS Law Review

No abstract provided.


Perspectives On Brown: The South African Experience, Penelope E. Andrews Jan 2005

Perspectives On Brown: The South African Experience, Penelope E. Andrews

NYLS Law Review

No abstract provided.


Is Brown Dying? Exploring The Resegregation Trend In Our Public Schools, Danielle R. Holley Jan 2005

Is Brown Dying? Exploring The Resegregation Trend In Our Public Schools, Danielle R. Holley

NYLS Law Review

No abstract provided.


Judicial Notice: How Judicial Bias Impacts The Unequal Application Of Equal Protection Principles In Affirmative Action Cases, Victor Suthammanont Jan 2005

Judicial Notice: How Judicial Bias Impacts The Unequal Application Of Equal Protection Principles In Affirmative Action Cases, Victor Suthammanont

NYLS Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Unintended Lessons In Brown V. Board Of Education, Derrick A. Bell Jr. Jan 2005

The Unintended Lessons In Brown V. Board Of Education, Derrick A. Bell Jr.

NYLS Law Review

No abstract provided.


Are Reports Of Brown‘S Demise Exaggerated? Perspectives Of A School Desegregation Litigator, Dennis D. Parker Jan 2005

Are Reports Of Brown‘S Demise Exaggerated? Perspectives Of A School Desegregation Litigator, Dennis D. Parker

NYLS Law Review

No abstract provided.


Environmental Justice And The Integration Ideal, Rachel D. Godsil Jan 2005

Environmental Justice And The Integration Ideal, Rachel D. Godsil

NYLS Law Review

No abstract provided.