Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law and Race Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 12 of 12

Full-Text Articles in Law and Race

Reforming Policing, André Douglas Pond Cummings Jul 2018

Reforming Policing, André Douglas Pond Cummings

Faculty Scholarship

Law enforcement killing of unarmed black men and police brutality visited upon minority citizens continues to confound the United States. Despite protests, clarion calls for reform, admitted training shortcomings and deficiencies among U.S. law enforcement officers, conferences, summits, and movements to reform policing, the solution to ending undisciplined police violence and the hostile killings of unarmed minority individuals at the hands of U.S. police seems to elude us. Why should this be? The United States is home to some of the most creative, innovative, pathmarking, and course-changing thinkers the world has ever known. This challenge — police killing of ...


"Lord Forgive Me, But He Tried To Kill Me": Proposing Solutions To The United States’ Most Vexing Racial Challenges, André Douglas Pond Cummings Jan 2016

"Lord Forgive Me, But He Tried To Kill Me": Proposing Solutions To The United States’ Most Vexing Racial Challenges, André Douglas Pond Cummings

Faculty Scholarship

While great progress has been made in the United States in the past fifty years in connection with race relations, three critical issues continue to vex our nation. The United States, despite its progress, continues to struggle mightily with (a) the police killing of unarmed black men; (b) racially disproportionate mass incarceration; and (c) violent homicides of black men and boys. Nightly newscasts detail seemingly weekly killings of unarmed African American men by law enforcement officers. Mass incarceration, while plateauing in the last several years, continues to see millions of United States citizens incarcerated at rates unmatched by any other ...


Richard Delgado And Ice Cube: Brothers In Arms, André Douglas Pond Cummings Jun 2015

Richard Delgado And Ice Cube: Brothers In Arms, André Douglas Pond Cummings

Faculty Scholarship

Critical Race Theory as a movement is best understood through the lens of founding voice Richard Delgado. Delgado’s prolific and fearless writings have inspired thousands and launched theories that have literally changed the course of race law in the United States. In fact, two explosive movements were born in the United States in the 1970s. While the founding of both movements was humble and lightly noticed, both grew to become global phenomena that have profoundly changed the world. Founded by prescient agitators, these two movements were borne of disaffect, disappointment, and near desperation — a desperate need to give voice ...


Families Of Color In Crisis: Bearing The Weight Of The Financial Market Meltdown, André Douglas Pond Cummings Jul 2012

Families Of Color In Crisis: Bearing The Weight Of The Financial Market Meltdown, André Douglas Pond Cummings

Faculty Scholarship

The financial market crisis of 2008 landed heaviest and hardest upon communities of color. In the minority communities that continue to bear the crushing weight of this crisis—which continues unrequited—women of color, and by extension, their families, are by far the group most devastated by the global market meltdown. In an ultimate irony, most economists, scholars, and commentators now agree that the collapse, which continues to ravage Main Street, was caused primarily by a select group of privileged white men–i.e., Wall Street executives, bankers, and the politicians purchased by Wall Street largess. The impact of Wall ...


Post Racialism?, André Douglas Pond Cummings Aug 2011

Post Racialism?, André Douglas Pond Cummings

Faculty Scholarship

The 2008 election of President Barack Obama represents a halcyon moment in U.S. history. President Obama’s election begs a critical question: whether his nationwide landslide victory catapulted the United States, with its sordid racial past, into a truly post-racial place as many claim. While Obama’s election was possible due to important changes that have taken place in the United States in the past fifty years, the reality is that profound disparities continue to exist between minority and white Americans that show no sign of dissipating during this Obama presidency. Of these profound disparities, some of the most ...


Why Reparations To African Descendants In The United States Are Essential To Democracy, Adjoa A. Aiyetoro Jan 2011

Why Reparations To African Descendants In The United States Are Essential To Democracy, Adjoa A. Aiyetoro

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Associated Dangers Of "Brilliant Disguises," Color-Blind Constitutionalism, And Postracial Rhetoric, André Douglas Pond Cummings May 2010

The Associated Dangers Of "Brilliant Disguises," Color-Blind Constitutionalism, And Postracial Rhetoric, André Douglas Pond Cummings

Faculty Scholarship

Affirmative action, since its inception in 1961, has been under siege. The backlash against affirmative action began in earnest almost immediately following its origination through President John F. Kennedy’s and President Lyndon B. Johnson’s Executive Orders. Organized hostility in opposition to affirmative action crystallized early with “color-blind” theories posited and adopted, “reverse discrimination” alleged and embraced, and constitutional narrowing through adoption of white-privileged justifications. Enmity against affirmative action continues unabated today as exemplified by recent academic writings and studies purporting to prove that affirmative action positively injures African Americans and recent state-wide campaigns seeking to eradicate affirmative action ...


Historic And Modern Social Movements For Reparations: The National Coalition Of Blacks For Reparations In America (N'Cobra) And Its Antecedents, Adjoa A. Aiyetoro, Adrienne D. Davis Jan 2010

Historic And Modern Social Movements For Reparations: The National Coalition Of Blacks For Reparations In America (N'Cobra) And Its Antecedents, Adjoa A. Aiyetoro, Adrienne D. Davis

Faculty Scholarship

Most of the legal scholarship on reparations for Blacks in America focuses on its legal or political viability. This literature has considered both procedural obstacles, such as statutes of limitations and sovereign immunity, as well as the substantive conception of a defensible cause of action. Indeed, Congressman John Conyers introduced H.R. 40, a bill to study reparations, in 1989 and every Congressional session since, and there have been three law suits that have received national attention. This Essay takes a different approach, considering reparations as a social movement with a rich and under-explored history. As Robin Kelley explains, such ...


Shift Happens: The U.S. Supreme Court's Shifting Antidiscrimination Rhetoric, Theresa M. Beiner Jan 2010

Shift Happens: The U.S. Supreme Court's Shifting Antidiscrimination Rhetoric, Theresa M. Beiner

Faculty Scholarship

The United States Supreme Court’s discourse on discrimination affects how fundamental civil rights - such as the right to be free from gender and race discrimination - are adjudicated and conceptualized in this country. Shortly after Congress passed Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Court established precedent that assumed discrimination, absent some other compelling explanation for employer conduct. While the Court was more reluctant to presume such discrimination by governmental actors, it was deferent to Congress’s ability to set standards that would presume discrimination. Over time, however, that presumption and the Court’s deference to Congress ...


Can We Talk? How Triggers For Unconscious Racism Strengthen The Importance Of Dialogue, Adjoa A. Aiyetoro Jan 2009

Can We Talk? How Triggers For Unconscious Racism Strengthen The Importance Of Dialogue, Adjoa A. Aiyetoro

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Pushing Weight, André Douglas Pond Cummings Jun 2008

Pushing Weight, André Douglas Pond Cummings

Faculty Scholarship

The plight of the black athlete in United States professional and collegiate sports reflects a historical road burdened by strident discrimination, yielding assimilation and gleeful exploitation. As African American athletes began to be permitted to enter the lineups of storied professional sports clubs beginning in the 1950s, they did so only on the strict conditions placed upon them by the status quo white male dominated regime. Often the very terms of black athlete participation required a rigid commitment to - covering - racial identity and outright suppression of self. Once African American athletes burst onto the nation's consciousness in the forms ...


Truth Matters: A Call For The American Bar Association To Acknowledge Its Past And Make Reparations To African Descendants, Adjoa A. Aiyetoro Jan 2007

Truth Matters: A Call For The American Bar Association To Acknowledge Its Past And Make Reparations To African Descendants, Adjoa A. Aiyetoro

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.