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Full-Text Articles in Juvenile Law

J.E.F.M. V. Lynch: The Jurisdictional Exclusion Of Legal Representation For Immigrant Children, Kourtney Speer Dec 2022

J.E.F.M. V. Lynch: The Jurisdictional Exclusion Of Legal Representation For Immigrant Children, Kourtney Speer

Golden Gate University Law Review

The border crisis created a perfect storm in immigration courts, as children wind their way from border crossings to immigration proceedings. The storm has battered immigration courtrooms crowded with young defendants but lacking lawyers and judges to handle the sheer volume of cases.


The Law Of Disposable Children: Searches In Schools, Tonja Jacobi, Riley Clafton Dec 2022

The Law Of Disposable Children: Searches In Schools, Tonja Jacobi, Riley Clafton

UC Irvine Law Review

It’s the forgotten, discarded, disposable people. That’s so often who you find in jail—the forgotten.

—Rev. David Kelly, explaining why he devotes himself to working with children coming out of the juvenile detention system.

Many schools treat children as “disposable.”

—Francisco Arenas, Juvenile Probation Officer at Cook County Juvenile Probation.

Schoolchildren are being strip-searched based on little or no reasonable suspicion, and schoolchildren are being targeted for searches based on their race, disability status, gender, or homelessness. This is possible because the Supreme Court has issued only two opinions in its history about the right of schoolchildren to be free …


Maturity As A Condition Of Criminal Liability In Islamic Jurisprudence Under The Libyan And The Emirati Legislations, Mustafa Khaled Dr. Nov 2022

Maturity As A Condition Of Criminal Liability In Islamic Jurisprudence Under The Libyan And The Emirati Legislations, Mustafa Khaled Dr.

مجلة جامعة الإمارات للبحوث القانونية UAEU LAW JOURNAL

Maturity is considered as one of the essential conditions for criminal liability; whether the crimes involve Taazer or Hudood or Quesas Crimes.

This study deals with the issue of how Libyan and the UAE Legislation treat with adulthood as a condition of criminal liability.

The research aims to achieve some of the most important goals:

To highlight the methodology of Islamic law to address the issue of maturity as a condition of criminal liability. In addition, this study attempted to assess the methodology of Libyan and Emirati legislators in determining their age of puberty and the extent of their compliance …


On Account Of Youth: Winning Asylum For Children, Linda Kelly Oct 2022

On Account Of Youth: Winning Asylum For Children, Linda Kelly

University of Cincinnati Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Impermissibility Of Police Deception In Juvenile Interrogations, Gina Kim Oct 2022

The Impermissibility Of Police Deception In Juvenile Interrogations, Gina Kim

Fordham Law Review

Although perjury is a criminal offense in all states and a felony in many, law enforcement may routinely lie to suspects during interrogations. This widespread, judicially authorized practice consists of interrogators making false promises of leniency that the suspect will receive a lighter sentence in exchange for a confession, and making misrepresentations about the evidence against the suspect. Police deception in interrogations becomes even more problematic when used against juvenile suspects because the psychological vulnerability of minors may lead them to succumb to deceptive pressures and even to falsely confess.

This Note explores the debate surrounding the use of police …


Are Child Sex Offenders Truly Predators? Proposed Change To The Minnesota Legislature Requiring Mandatory Sex Offender Registration For Juveniles, Mackenzie Sedlack Oct 2022

Are Child Sex Offenders Truly Predators? Proposed Change To The Minnesota Legislature Requiring Mandatory Sex Offender Registration For Juveniles, Mackenzie Sedlack

University of St. Thomas Law Journal

No abstract provided.


How Muralists, Street Artists, And Graffiti Writers Can Protect Their Artworks, Enrico Bonadio Oct 2022

How Muralists, Street Artists, And Graffiti Writers Can Protect Their Artworks, Enrico Bonadio

University of St. Thomas Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Two Essays On Intellectual Property And Social Justice, Thomas C. Berg Oct 2022

Two Essays On Intellectual Property And Social Justice, Thomas C. Berg

University of St. Thomas Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Leave Them Kids Alone: State Constitutional Protections For Gender-Affirming Healthcare, Jessica Matsuda Oct 2022

Leave Them Kids Alone: State Constitutional Protections For Gender-Affirming Healthcare, Jessica Matsuda

Washington and Lee Law Review

State legislatures across the nation are continually targeting the rights of transgender individuals with a variety of laws affecting everything from bathrooms to medical care. One particularly invasive type of legislation, the gender-affirming healthcare ban, seeks to prohibit all forms of healthcare that align a person’s physical traits with their gender identity for individuals under eighteen. Bans like this severely impede the treatment necessary for transgender youth suffering from gender dysphoria, which carries serious physical consequences and sometimes fatal psychological repercussions. As legislative sessions pass, more and more states are introducing and actually enacting these bans

Striking down these bans …


International Child Law And The Settlement Of Ukraine-Russia And Other Conflicts, Diane Marie Amann Sep 2022

International Child Law And The Settlement Of Ukraine-Russia And Other Conflicts, Diane Marie Amann

International Law Studies

The Ukraine-Russia conflict has wreaked disproportionate harms upon children. Hundreds reportedly were killed or wounded within the opening months of the conflict, thousands lost loved ones, and millions left their homes, their schools, and their communities. Yet public discussions of how to settle the conflict contain very little at all about children. This article seeks to change that dynamic. It builds on a relatively recent trend, one that situates human rights within the structure of peace negotiations, to push for particularized treatment of children’s experiences, needs, rights, and capacities in eventual negotiations. The article draws upon twenty-first century projects that …


Family | Home | School, Latoya Baldwin Clark Aug 2022

Family | Home | School, Latoya Baldwin Clark

Northwestern University Law Review

The state grants residents who live within a school district’s border an ownership interest in that district’s schools. This interest includes the power to exclude nonresidents. To attend school in a school district, a child must prove that she lives at an in-district address and is a bona fide resident. But in highly-sought-after districts and schools, establishing a child’s bona fide residence may be highly contested.

In this Essay, I show that education law, policies, and practices fail to recognize a child’s residence when the child’s family and living situation do not comport with a particular ideal of family life. …


Is Age Just A Number: The Intersection Of The Fair Labor Standards Act And Professional Sports, Kacey Mccann Aug 2022

Is Age Just A Number: The Intersection Of The Fair Labor Standards Act And Professional Sports, Kacey Mccann

Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal

No abstract provided.


A More Grown-Up Response To Ordinary Adolescent Behaviors: Repealing Pins Laws To Protect And Empower D.C. Youth, Mae C. Quinn, Tierra Copeland, Tatyana Hopkins, Mary Brody Jul 2022

A More Grown-Up Response To Ordinary Adolescent Behaviors: Repealing Pins Laws To Protect And Empower D.C. Youth, Mae C. Quinn, Tierra Copeland, Tatyana Hopkins, Mary Brody

University of the District of Columbia Law Review

In February 2020, the District of Columbia (“District” or “D.C.”) Juvenile Justice Advisory Group (“JJAG”), issued an important report calling for decriminalization of “status offenses.” Status offenses are alleged youthful wrongdoings that are prosecuted in the District as “Persons in Need of Supervision” cases.1 This Position Paper provides additional support for JJAG’s recommendations. It offers guidance and suggestions to help the District successfully transition away from PINS prosecutions—while also ensuring community youth feel safe, supported, and empowered in their own lives as they transition to adulthood. The D.C. Metropolitan Police Department has historically been the enforcement arm to address youth …


The Missing Piece Of The Puzzle: The Intersection Of Race And Special Education, Tsega Zewdneh Shiferaw Jul 2022

The Missing Piece Of The Puzzle: The Intersection Of Race And Special Education, Tsega Zewdneh Shiferaw

University of the District of Columbia Law Review

The privileges allotted to Americans cannot be compared to any other country’s citizens. Americans have the liberty of saying what they want, thinking what they want, and acting freely in public. Nebiyat Shiferaw (“Nebiyat”) is a thirty-year-old African American man who is unable to speak and live independently because he has autism, also known as autism spectrum disorder (“ASD”). Nebiyat does not experience the same liberties as most Americans; he has gone through special education programs and has overcome discrimination, not because of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (“IDEA”), but because of his parents advocating for him. As a …


An Exploratory Multiple Case Study Of Discipline Practices In A Major Metropolitan Public School District: A Look Into The School To Prison Pipeline, Neil French, Kristin Calvert-French, Phyllis Jackson, Erin King Jul 2022

An Exploratory Multiple Case Study Of Discipline Practices In A Major Metropolitan Public School District: A Look Into The School To Prison Pipeline, Neil French, Kristin Calvert-French, Phyllis Jackson, Erin King

Dissertations

The school to prison pipeline is a phenomenon fed by exclusionary discipline practices that increase the likelihood that a student will have an interaction with the juvenile or criminal justice system at some time in their life; this phenomenon disproportionately affects Black students. Understanding the problem is key to slowing down the school to prison pipeline. This study of a school district in Missouri explores questions about how interpersonal relationships, implicit bias awareness, and school policies influence the learning environment, and how those factors relate to school discipline, which ultimately can lead to the school to prison pipeline. Drawing data …


What's My Age Again?: Adolescent Development And The Case For Expanding Original Juvenile Court Jurisdiction And Investing In Alternatives For Emerging Adults Involved In Maine's Justice System, Christopher M. Northrop, Jill M. Ward, Jonathan J. Ruterbories, Jess N. Mizzi Jul 2022

What's My Age Again?: Adolescent Development And The Case For Expanding Original Juvenile Court Jurisdiction And Investing In Alternatives For Emerging Adults Involved In Maine's Justice System, Christopher M. Northrop, Jill M. Ward, Jonathan J. Ruterbories, Jess N. Mizzi

Maine Law Review

While many aspects of Maine’s Juvenile Justice system are ripe for reform, this Article advocates for improving the system’s response to one group of offenders often overlooked by policymakers: emerging adults. The Supreme Court, in Roper v. Simmons, stated that “[t]he qualities that distinguish juveniles from adults do not disappear when an individual turns 18.” In fact, studies have shown that criminal conduct attributable to the unstable and impulsive nature of the adolescent mind continues well into a person’s mid-twenties. These eighteen to twenty-five-year-old offenders, termed “emerging adults” by researchers, experience much of the same developmental and physiological challenges as …


The Inappropriate Use Of Juvenile Records In Immigration Discretion, Sarah Diaz, Lisa Jacobs Jul 2022

The Inappropriate Use Of Juvenile Records In Immigration Discretion, Sarah Diaz, Lisa Jacobs

Center for the Human Rights of Children

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Juvenile Offender Race On Public Perception Of Crime Seriousness, Megan Whitaker Jul 2022

The Impact Of Juvenile Offender Race On Public Perception Of Crime Seriousness, Megan Whitaker

Dissertations

Public perception of crime is an important focus of research, especially when considering juvenile offenders. However, there is very limited research in this area. This study looked at how the public perceives crime seriousness and how race of the juvenile offender impacts the overall seriousness rating. An online survey that included 15 crime scenarios was completed by 176 participants. It was hypothesized that a crime would be rated as more severe when the juvenile offender is African American as compared to a Caucasian juvenile offender. Results found that participants overall rated the seriousness of offenses as significantly higher for Caucasian …


The Doctor Will See You Now: The Fourth Circuit Revives The Juvenile Detainee's Right To Treatment By Adopting The Professional Judgment Standard In Doe 4, Matthew Skolnick Jun 2022

The Doctor Will See You Now: The Fourth Circuit Revives The Juvenile Detainee's Right To Treatment By Adopting The Professional Judgment Standard In Doe 4, Matthew Skolnick

Villanova Law Review

No abstract provided.


The United States And Its Obligations Under The Optional Protocol To The Convention On The Rights Of The Child On The Sale Of Children, Child Prostitution And Child Pornography To Combat Child Exploitation In The Digital World, Audrey Cunningham Jun 2022

The United States And Its Obligations Under The Optional Protocol To The Convention On The Rights Of The Child On The Sale Of Children, Child Prostitution And Child Pornography To Combat Child Exploitation In The Digital World, Audrey Cunningham

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Future Of The Habitual Residence Analysis In The United States Post-Monasky, Katherine A. Fleming Jun 2022

The Future Of The Habitual Residence Analysis In The United States Post-Monasky, Katherine A. Fleming

Buffalo Law Review

No abstract provided.


Racial Trauma In Civil Rights Representation, Angela Onwuachi-Willig, Anthony V. Alfieri Jun 2022

Racial Trauma In Civil Rights Representation, Angela Onwuachi-Willig, Anthony V. Alfieri

Articles

Narratives of trauma told by clients and communities of color have inspired an increasing number of civil rights and antiracist lawyers and academics to call for more trauma-informed training for law students and lawyers. These advocates have argued not only for greater trauma-sensitive practices and trauma-centered interventions on behalf of adversely impacted individuals and groups but also for greater awareness of the risks of secondary or vicarious trauma for lawyers who represent traumatized clients and communities. In this Article, we join this chorus of attorneys and academics. Harnessing the recent civil rights case of P.P. v. Compton Unified School District, …


The Not-So-Straight First Amendment: Why Prohibitions On Conversion Therapy For Children Survive Strict Scrutiny, Samuel G. Bernstein May 2022

The Not-So-Straight First Amendment: Why Prohibitions On Conversion Therapy For Children Survive Strict Scrutiny, Samuel G. Bernstein

Boston College Law Review

In November 2020, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, in Otto v. City of Boca Raton (Otto II), became the first federal appellate court to hold that bans on Sexual Orientation Change Efforts (“SOCE”) therapy, also known as conversion therapy, for minors are unconstitutional restrictions of freedom of speech. In reviewing the bans under the strict scrutiny standard, the Eleventh Circuit’s decision in Otto departs from the other circuits’ decisions not only in outcome but also in analysis. The Eleventh Circuit, following recent Supreme Court’s decisions, concluded that courts must apply strict scrutiny and that …


Race And Regulation Podcast Episode 1 - Black Families Matter, Dorothy E. Roberts May 2022

Race And Regulation Podcast Episode 1 - Black Families Matter, Dorothy E. Roberts

Penn Program on Regulation Podcasts

Drawing on her latest book, Torn Apart: How the Child Welfare System Destroys Black Families—And How Abolition Can Build a Safer World, law and sociology expert Dorothy Roberts of the University of Pennsylvania examines the fundamental racism of the child welfare system, which she argues regulates families in ways that disproportionately and negatively affect people of color. She explains why this system of family regulation should be dismantled and replaced with one that better protects children.


Falling Through The Cracks: The American Indian Foster Care To Sexual Exploitation Pipeline And The Need For Expanded American Indian Community Services In Minnesota, Sadie Hart May 2022

Falling Through The Cracks: The American Indian Foster Care To Sexual Exploitation Pipeline And The Need For Expanded American Indian Community Services In Minnesota, Sadie Hart

DePaul Journal for Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Hopefully Enduring: How North Carolina’S Divorce Laws Violate The First Amendment, Maren H. Lowrey May 2022

Hopefully Enduring: How North Carolina’S Divorce Laws Violate The First Amendment, Maren H. Lowrey

Child and Family Law Journal

The phrase “til death do us part” is both poetic and aspirational. It is the ubiquitous vow Americans make to one another when they marry[1] and embark on what is “hopefully enduring.”[2] But life does not always meet the aspirational marks we set and that is most true in the context of marriage and divorce. Each state enjoys nearly exclusive control over this intimate relationship, which results in different regulatory schemes across the United States.[3] Changes in Supreme Court jurisprudence over time ensured state regulation of marriage did not run afoul of the Constitution.[4] These decisions …


Floridians' Right To Choose Or Refuse Vaccinations, Patrick E. Tolan Jr. May 2022

Floridians' Right To Choose Or Refuse Vaccinations, Patrick E. Tolan Jr.

Child and Family Law Journal

Every state must strike the right balance between an individual's freedom to make medical choices and the state's role in protecting the public health and the welfare of its people. Florida, by and through its Constitution, has afforded heightened protections for individual self-determination over medical treatment decisions and evaluates infringement of these private medical rights with strict scrutiny. This article is about legal rights for adults to obtain or refuse vaccines and for parents to decide the timing or administration of any vaccine or group of vaccines proposed for their school-aged, preschool, newborn, or unborn children.

I argue that States …


Covid-“14-17”: A Case For Florida Teens To Choose The Covid Vaccine Without Requiring Parental Consent, Kait Ramsay May 2022

Covid-“14-17”: A Case For Florida Teens To Choose The Covid Vaccine Without Requiring Parental Consent, Kait Ramsay

Child and Family Law Journal

The novel COVID-19 pandemic has created a huge disruption to almost everyone, forcing many individuals to adapt to entirely new ways of life. In the United States, COVID safety protocols and restrictions, such as mask and vaccine mandates, have been met with huge political polarization and resistance.[1] Even as COVID variants have kept infections in a perpetual cycle of rising and falling, Florida has lifted mask mandates for businesses and schools, and its governor has been one of the largest vocal opponents to requiring vaccines for school attendance.[2] Furthermore, with the passing of Florida’s Parental Consent for Health …


Marketing Research And Children’S Consumer Privacy Rights: A Battle In The Digital Age, Hadley Johnson May 2022

Marketing Research And Children’S Consumer Privacy Rights: A Battle In The Digital Age, Hadley Johnson

Child and Family Law Journal

Advancements in technology and social media have led to a decreased level of personal data privacy. Companies are now provided with limitless ways to extract information about their customers, even without their knowledge. This is especially concerning when it is the personal information of a child that is being collected, as in the United States, few regulations exist to protect them on social media. Even fewer regulations exist to protect children between the ages of thirteen and seventeen. The purpose of this Note is to discuss the importance between market research practices and children’s consumer privacy rights in the digital …


Parental Alienation In Family Court: Attacking Expert Testimony, John E.B. Myers, Jean Mercer May 2022

Parental Alienation In Family Court: Attacking Expert Testimony, John E.B. Myers, Jean Mercer

Child and Family Law Journal

In child custody litigation, when a parent raises the possibility of child abuse, the accused parent may respond that the parent wo has raised the possibility of abuse is alienating the child in an effort to gain an unfair advantage in court. The parent accused of abuse may offer expert testimony on parental alienation. A voluminous and contentious social science literature exists on parental alienation. Family law attorneys often lack ready access to social science literature. The purpose of this article is to give family law attorneys information from the parental alienation literature that can be used to cross-examine experts …