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Amending Codes Of Judicial Conduct To Impose Campaign Contribution And Expenditure Limits On Judicial Campaigns, Hugh D. Spitzer, Philip A. Talmadge Jan 2018

Amending Codes Of Judicial Conduct To Impose Campaign Contribution And Expenditure Limits On Judicial Campaigns, Hugh D. Spitzer, Philip A. Talmadge

Articles

Every judicial campaign year, millions of dollars pour into individual court races around the country. The bulk of that money is donated by lawyers, businesses, and others with financial interests in how judges, especially appellate judges, decide cases. United States Supreme Court rulings on political contributions and spending have hamstrung the ability of states to control larges-cale expenditures in judicial races. This essay reviews empirical research by political scientists who have documented the effect of large campaign donations on how judges decide cases and on the public's perception of court impartiality. It describes how legislatures and courts have addressed ...


Diversification Of The Japanese Judiciary, Daniel H. Foote Dec 2017

Diversification Of The Japanese Judiciary, Daniel H. Foote

Washington International Law Journal

Japan has a career judiciary. The Courts Act of 1947 provides that judges may be appointed from among prosecutors, attorneys, and law professors. In practice, however, the vast majority of judges come from a fourth category, “assistant judges,” who are appointed directly upon completion of the legal training program and typically serve through retirement. This continues a career tradition that dates back to the late nineteenth century. For nearly that long, the Japanese bar has been advocating that the career system should be abolished and that a substantial portion of the judiciary, if not all judges, should be drawn from ...


The Wars Of The Judges, Stephen I. Vladeck Jan 2017

The Wars Of The Judges, Stephen I. Vladeck

Washington Law Review Online

This piece is a response to J. Jonas Anderson, Judicial Lobbing, 91 Wash. L. Rev. 401 (2016).


Judicial Lobbying, J. Jonas Anderson Jun 2016

Judicial Lobbying, J. Jonas Anderson

Washington Law Review

Judges who lobby Congress for legal reform tread into an ethical gray area: lobbying is legally permissible, but generally frowned upon. Currently, there are no legal or ethical constraints on judges speaking publicly regarding proposed legislative changes, only an ill-defined norm against the practice. Scholars have largely dismissed judicial lobbying efforts as the result of haphazard, one-off events, driven by the unique interests, expertise, or ideology of the individual judge involved. According to scholars, there is nothing that should be done—not to mention little that could be done—to restrict judges from lobbying. Judicial lobbying occurs, in large part ...


Constitutional Fig Leaves In Asia, Po Jen Yap Jun 2016

Constitutional Fig Leaves In Asia, Po Jen Yap

Washington International Law Journal

Constitutional landscapes in Asia are littered with fig leaves. These proverbial fig leaves are legal principles, doctrines, and theories of interpretation that judges appeal to when resolving constitutional disputes. This article uncovers and examines three constitutional fig leaves that are prevalent and flourishing in Asia: 1) formalism and its conceptual variants; 2) the exercise of judicial review that is merely symbolic; and 3) the invocation of vacuous constitutional doctrines. This article further argues that judicial recourse to fig leaves is not intended to deceive anyone about what courts are doing; the fig leaves are on public display merely to demonstrate ...


The "Chaudhry Court": Deconstructing The "Judicialization Of Politics" In Pakistan, Moeen H. Cheema Jun 2016

The "Chaudhry Court": Deconstructing The "Judicialization Of Politics" In Pakistan, Moeen H. Cheema

Washington International Law Journal

The Supreme Court of Pakistan underwent a remarkable transformation in its institutional role and constitutional position during the tenure of the former Chief Justice of Pakistan, Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry (2005–2013). This era in Pakistan’s judicial history was also marked by great controversy as the court faced charges that it had engaged in “judicial activism,” acted politically, and violated the constitutionally mandated separation of powers between institutions of the state. This article presents an in-depth analysis of the judicial review actions of the Chaudhry Court and argues that the charge of judicial activism is theoretically unsound and analytically obfuscating ...


The Rise And Fall Of Historic Chief Justices: Constitutional Politics And Judicial Leadership In Indonesia, Stefanus Hendrianto Jun 2016

The Rise And Fall Of Historic Chief Justices: Constitutional Politics And Judicial Leadership In Indonesia, Stefanus Hendrianto

Washington International Law Journal

In the decade following its inception, the Indonesian Constitutional Court has marked a new chapter in Indonesian legal history, one in which a judicial institution can challenge the executive and legislative branches. This article argues that judicial leadership is the main contributing factor explaining the emergence of judicial power in Indonesia. This article posits that the newly established Indonesian Constitutional Court needed a strong and skilled Chief Justice to build the institution because it had insufficient support from political actors. As the Court lacked a well-established tradition of judicial review, it needed a visionary leader who could maximize the structural ...


Judicial Lobbying, J. Jonas Anderson Jun 2016

Judicial Lobbying, J. Jonas Anderson

Washington Law Review

Judges who lobby Congress for legal reform tread into an ethical gray area: lobbying is legally permissible, but generally frowned upon. Currently, there are no legal or ethical constraints on judges speaking publicly regarding proposed legislative changes, only an ill-defined norm against the practice. Scholars have largely dismissed judicial lobbying efforts as the result of haphazard, one-off events, driven by the unique interests, expertise, or ideology of the individual judge involved. According to scholars, there is nothing that should be done—not to mention little that could be done—to restrict judges from lobbying. Judicial lobbying occurs, in large part ...


Robots As Legal Metaphors, Ryan Calo Jan 2016

Robots As Legal Metaphors, Ryan Calo

Articles

This Article looks at the specific role robots play in the judicial imagination. The law and technology literature is replete with examples of how the metaphors and analogies that courts select for emerging technology can be outcome determinative. Privacy law scholar Professor Daniel Solove argues convincingly, for instance, that George Orwell's Big Brother metaphor has come to dominate, and in ways limit, privacy law and policy in the United States. Even at a more specific, practical level, whether a judge sees email as more like a letter or a postcard will dictate the level of Fourth Amendment protection she ...


Justice Robert Utter, The Supreme Court Of Washington, And The New Judicial Federalism: Judging And Teaching?, Robert F. Williams Jan 2016

Justice Robert Utter, The Supreme Court Of Washington, And The New Judicial Federalism: Judging And Teaching?, Robert F. Williams

Washington Law Review Online

This is an expanded version of a talk given at a conference in Seattle, Washington organized by Professor Hugh Spitzer, an accomplished state constitutional law scholar, to honor the contributions of Justice Robert Utter to the field of state constitutional law, both in Washington State and the nation.


On Legal Scholarship: Questions For Judge Harry T. Edwards, Ronald K.L. Collins Jan 2016

On Legal Scholarship: Questions For Judge Harry T. Edwards, Ronald K.L. Collins

Articles

The life of Judge Harry T. Edwards is one very much steeped in writing. His passion dates back at least to his years at Uniondale High School when he was the editor of the school newspaper. In the legal realm, that passion traces back to 1964 and his days on the Michigan Law Review when he published two student Notes. In the half-century since then, Judge Edwards has authored six books and more than 90 scholarly articles or essays. As a lawyer, educator, administrator, arbitrator, and now jurist, Harry Edwards has put his ideas into print concerning an array of ...


Changing The Rules Of The (International) Game: How International Law Is Turning National Courts Into International Political Actors, Osnat Grady Schwartz Jan 2015

Changing The Rules Of The (International) Game: How International Law Is Turning National Courts Into International Political Actors, Osnat Grady Schwartz

Washington International Law Journal

Courts are known to be political actors. National courts play the political game in the national domain. International courts play it in the international sphere. This article studies the transformation of national courts into international political actors (IPAs), and the part international law plays in so making them. The article identifies, categorizes, and demonstrates the influence of national courts and judges on international relations (IR), separating the influence into two main categories: direct and indirect. Direct influence, is the effect of a national court taking a position on international issues in concrete situations with immediate IR implications. Indirect influence is ...


The Role Of Courts In "Making" Law In Japan: The Communitarian Conservatism Of Japanese Judges, John O. Haley Jun 2013

The Role Of Courts In "Making" Law In Japan: The Communitarian Conservatism Of Japanese Judges, John O. Haley

Washington International Law Journal

Professor Haley is an outstanding international and comparative law scholar, widely credited with having popularized Japanese legal studies in the United States. In 1969, Haley received a fellowship from the University of Washington and was in one of the first classes to graduate from the Asian Law Program, now, the Asian Law Center. After working for several years in law firms in Japan, he joined the law faculty at the University of Washington, where he remained for nearly twenty-six years during which time he directed the Asian and Comparative Law Program. In June 2012, Professor Haley was awarded The Order ...


Judges And Their Papers, Kathryn A. Watts Jan 2013

Judges And Their Papers, Kathryn A. Watts

Articles

Who should own a federal judge’s papers?

This question has rarely been asked. Instead, it has generally been accepted that the Justices of the U.S. Supreme Court and other federal judges own their working papers, which include papers created by judges relating to their official duties, such as internal draft opinions, confidential vote sheets, and case-related correspondence. This longstanding tradition of private ownership has led to tremendous inconsistency. For example, Justice Thurgood Marshall’s papers were released just two years after he left the bench, revealing behind-the-scenes details about major cases involving issues such as abortion and flag ...


Antiformalism At The Federal Circuit: The Jurisprudence Of Chief Judge Rader, Peter Lee Apr 2012

Antiformalism At The Federal Circuit: The Jurisprudence Of Chief Judge Rader, Peter Lee

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

Commentators have long noted that the Federal Circuit tends to produce formalistic patent doctrine that favors bright-line rules over extensive engagement with facts and context. This Article, however, argues that Chief Judge Rader’s approach to patent law diverges sharply from this methodological tendency. In particular, it explores Chief Judge Rader’s rejection of formalism by examining his contributions to three areas of patent doctrine: claim construction, patentable subject matter, and the written description requirement. Throughout his engagement with patent law, Chief Judge Rader exhibits a striking sensitivity to context, policy considerations, and exogenous sources of authority that distinguishes himself ...


Celebrating Contributions Of Chief Judge Rader To Patent Infringement Jurisprudence, Katherine E. White Apr 2012

Celebrating Contributions Of Chief Judge Rader To Patent Infringement Jurisprudence, Katherine E. White

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

Chief Judge Rader’s judicial opinions contribute significantly to patent infringement jurisprudence. He writes from a teacher’s perspective, providing context and a clear lens through which legal issues may be examined. His deep reverence for the rule of law pervades his opinions, as he injects a cadre of principles governing his approach. Each opinion builds a foundation made of consistency and clarity in upholding the fundamental purposes underlying the patent grant.


Developments In The Jurisprudence On The Use Of Experts, Marilyn L. Huff Apr 2012

Developments In The Jurisprudence On The Use Of Experts, Marilyn L. Huff

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

No abstract provided.


The Training, Appointment, And Supervision Of Islamic Judges In Indonesia, Euis Nurlawlawati, Abdurrahman Rahim Jan 2012

The Training, Appointment, And Supervision Of Islamic Judges In Indonesia, Euis Nurlawlawati, Abdurrahman Rahim

Washington International Law Journal

This essay discusses the creation and training of Islamic court judges in Indonesia. This includes an examination of the qualifications for appointment as a judge, the recruitment of new judges, the pre-appointment and in-service training provided for Islamic judges, and the substantive and administrative supervision of the Islamic judiciary. The paper shows that significant changes have occurred in the system of recruitment and training of Islamic court judges with the establishment of new educational qualifications and the implementation of broader and more systematic training programs. As a result of these changes, the quality, professionalism, and standing of the Islamic judiciary ...


The Training, Appointment, And Supervision Of Islamic Judges In Singapore, Muhammad Haniff Hassan, Sharifah Thuraiya Su'ad Ahmad Alhadshi Jan 2012

The Training, Appointment, And Supervision Of Islamic Judges In Singapore, Muhammad Haniff Hassan, Sharifah Thuraiya Su'ad Ahmad Alhadshi

Washington International Law Journal

Syariah court judges and the decisions they make clearly have an effect on the interpretation and application of Islamic law in contemporary Muslim societies, and the educational background of those who staff these courts obviously informs the way they understand, interpret, and apply the law. To date, however, little research has been done on the educational processes by which Islamic court judges are trained to think about Islamic law. Likewise, the means by which Islamic court judges are appointed and regulated has received little scholarly attention. This article offers a descriptive overview of the training, work, and professional regulation of ...


The Training, Appointment, And Supervision Of Islamic Judges In Malaysia, Najibah M. Zin Jan 2012

The Training, Appointment, And Supervision Of Islamic Judges In Malaysia, Najibah M. Zin

Washington International Law Journal

Shari‛a court judges and the decisions they make clearly have an effect on the interpretation and application of Islamic law in contemporary Muslim societies, and the educational background of those who staff these courts obviously informs the way they understand, interpret, and apply the law. To date, however, little research has been done on the educational processes by which judges who serve on Islamic courts are trained to think about Islamic law. Likewise, the means by which Islamic court judges are appointed and regulated has received little scholarly attention. This article offers a descriptive overview of the training, work ...


Let's Be Cautious Friends: The Ethical Implications Of Social Networking For Members Of The Judiciary, Aurora J. Wilson Jan 2012

Let's Be Cautious Friends: The Ethical Implications Of Social Networking For Members Of The Judiciary, Aurora J. Wilson

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

In recent advisory opinions, courts and ethics committees have considered whether and to what extent judges may use social networking sites such as Facebook without violating the applicable code of judicial conduct. While the committees agree that judges may generally use social networking sites, they disagree as to whether judges may use those sites to connect with lawyers who have appeared or may appear in a proceeding before them. Four states—California, Florida, Massachusetts, and Oklahoma—forbid judges frombecoming online “friends” with attorneys who may appear before them in court, while four states—Ohio, Kentucky, New York, and South Carolina ...


Justice Stevens's Black Leather Arm Chair, Kathryn A. Watts Jan 2012

Justice Stevens's Black Leather Arm Chair, Kathryn A. Watts

Articles

As a law clerk to Justice Stevens in the October Term 2002, I felt that the very best part of the job came almost every afternoon. Without any advance warning, the Justice would get up from his desk and walk through chambers to the law clerks’ main office and plop down into a well-worn black leather arm chair that formed part of a cozy seating area flanked by tall bookshelves filled with volumes of case reporters and the United States Code.

As soon as the Justice started settling himself into his arm chair, my co-clerks and I all knew that ...


Explaining Constitutional Review In New Democracies: The Case Of Taiwan, Nuno Garoupa, Veronica Grembi, Shirley Ching-Ping Lin Jan 2011

Explaining Constitutional Review In New Democracies: The Case Of Taiwan, Nuno Garoupa, Veronica Grembi, Shirley Ching-Ping Lin

Washington International Law Journal

This paper extends the empirical analysis of the determinants of judicial behavior by considering the Taiwanese case. Taiwan is a particularly interesting case because the establishment and development of constitutional review corresponds to a political transition from an authoritarian regime dominated by one party to an emerging democracy. We test the attitudinal hypothesis by making use of a new dataset of ninety-seven decisions issued by the Taiwanese constitutional court in the period between 1988 and 2008. The attitudinal hypothesis is that the Taiwanese constitutional judges respond to party interests, either because their preferences coincide with the appointer or because they ...


From Chevron To Massachusetts: Justice Stevens's Approach To Securing The Public Interest, Kathryn A. Watts Jan 2010

From Chevron To Massachusetts: Justice Stevens's Approach To Securing The Public Interest, Kathryn A. Watts

Articles

During the past three decades, one Supreme Court justice— John Paul Stevens—has authored two of the most significant administrative law decisions that speak to the judiciary’s role in checking agency interpretations of the statutes that they administer. In Chevron U.S.A. Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., Justice Stevens’s landmark 1984 decision unanimously upheld the EPA’s construction of a term found in the Clean Air Act. Subsequently, in Massachusetts v. EPA, Justice Stevens’s 2007 opinion for a five-justice majority handed a major win to global environmental security by ordering the EPA to reconsider ...


Forceful Minimization, Hein V. Freedom From Religion Foundation, Inc., And The Prudence Of "Not Doing", Brendan R. Mcnamara May 2008

Forceful Minimization, Hein V. Freedom From Religion Foundation, Inc., And The Prudence Of "Not Doing", Brendan R. Mcnamara

Washington Law Review

Proponents of judicial minimalism argue that courts should issue narrow rulings that address only the issues necessary to resolve the case at hand and should avoid needlessly broad rulings that could result in unforeseen consequences. The recent Supreme Court decision in Hein v. Freedom From Religion Foundation, Inc. provides a compelling case study of judicial minimalism. Resisting opposing calls for broader rulings from both the concurring and dissenting justices, a plurality of the Court followed a minimalist approach to resolve a difficult question of taxpayer standing. Generally, federal taxpayers do not have standing to challenge government expenditures of tax funds ...


Judicial Reform And The State Of Japan's Attorney System: A Discussion Of Attorney Reform Issues And The Future Of The Judiciary, Part Ii, Kohei Nakabō, Yohei Suda Jan 2002

Judicial Reform And The State Of Japan's Attorney System: A Discussion Of Attorney Reform Issues And The Future Of The Judiciary, Part Ii, Kohei Nakabō, Yohei Suda

Washington International Law Journal

Based on the Judicial Reform Council's article, "Points at Issue in Judicial Reform," this paper analyzes basic issues regarding the current status of the Japanese attorney system and areas to be addressed in judicial reform. [This Article formed the basis of Mr. Nakabō's report at the thirteenth meeting of the Judicial Reform Council on February 22, 2000. It was originally published as the second part of a two part paper in SERIES JUDICIAL REFORM I: [LEGAL PROFESSIONAL TRAINING: THE LAW SCHOOL CONCEPT] (2000). The first part of the paper was translated in Kohei Nakabō, Judicial Reform and the ...


Judicial Reform And The State Of Japan's Attorney System: A Discussion Of Attorney Reform Issues And The Future Of The Judiciary, Kohei Nakabō, Yohei Suda May 2001

Judicial Reform And The State Of Japan's Attorney System: A Discussion Of Attorney Reform Issues And The Future Of The Judiciary, Kohei Nakabō, Yohei Suda

Washington International Law Journal

Based on the Judicial Reform Council's article "Points at Issue in Judicial Reform," this paper presents basic issues on the current status of the Japanese attorney system and areas to be addressed in judicial reform. [[Translator's Note] This Article formed the basis of Nakabō's report at the twelfth meeting of Judicial Reform Council held on February 8, 2000. It was originally published as the first of a two part paper in SERIES JUDICIAL REFORM I: [LEGAL PROFESSIONAL TRAINING; THE LAW SCHOOL CONCEPT] (2000).]


Advocacy And Contempt: Constitutional Limitations On The Judicial Contempt Power. Part One: The Conflict Between Advocacy And Contempt, Louis S. Raveson Jul 1990

Advocacy And Contempt: Constitutional Limitations On The Judicial Contempt Power. Part One: The Conflict Between Advocacy And Contempt, Louis S. Raveson

Washington Law Review

The courts' inherent power to punish misconduct that interferes with the judicial process as criminal contempt often conflicts with attorneys' first amendment and due process rights, and their clients' sixth amendment rights to vigorous legal representation. In balancing these competing interests, the Supreme Court has employed seemingly diverse standards to demarcate the constitutional limitations on the substantive scope of the contempt power. Professor Raveson argues that the Constitution should limit the contempt power so that it may only be used to punish actual obstructions of the administration of justice. He maintains that because the goals of our system of justice ...


Remarks On Writing Separately, Ruth Bader Ginsburg Jan 1990

Remarks On Writing Separately, Ruth Bader Ginsburg

Washington Law Review

Judge Ginsburg compares the styles of appellate opinion writing in United States courts and in those of Great Britain and the civil law countries. She describes as a "middle way" the United States practice of opinions for the court, sometimes accompanied by separate concurrences and dissents. This practice, she observes, contrasts with the British tradition of seriatim opinions by each member of the bench, and with the single, anonymous judgment characteristic of civil law systems. While noting that the Anglo-United States practice of writing separately has gained adherents in the civil law world, she concludes that judges in the United ...


Towards Greater Openness In Judicial Conduct Commission Proceedings: Temporary Confidentiality As An Alternative To Inviolate Confidentiality—Garner V. Cherberg, 111 Wash. 2d 811, 765 P.2d 1284 (1988), Tom Montgomery Oct 1989

Towards Greater Openness In Judicial Conduct Commission Proceedings: Temporary Confidentiality As An Alternative To Inviolate Confidentiality—Garner V. Cherberg, 111 Wash. 2d 811, 765 P.2d 1284 (1988), Tom Montgomery

Washington Law Review

In Garner v. Cherberg, the Washington Supreme Court upheld certain rules of inviolate confidentiality adopted by the Washington Commission on Judicial Conduct. This Note examines the justifications for such confidentiality rules, and proposes temporary, rather than inviolate, confidentiality to better balance interests of fairness and the public's right to know.