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Comparative and Foreign Law

University of Washington School of Law

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Diversification Of The Japanese Judiciary, Daniel H. Foote Dec 2017

Diversification Of The Japanese Judiciary, Daniel H. Foote

Washington International Law Journal

Japan has a career judiciary. The Courts Act of 1947 provides that judges may be appointed from among prosecutors, attorneys, and law professors. In practice, however, the vast majority of judges come from a fourth category, “assistant judges,” who are appointed directly upon completion of the legal training program and typically serve through retirement. This continues a career tradition that dates back to the late nineteenth century. For nearly that long, the Japanese bar has been advocating that the career system should be abolished and that a substantial portion of the judiciary, if not all judges, should be drawn from ...


The "Chaudhry Court": Deconstructing The "Judicialization Of Politics" In Pakistan, Moeen H. Cheema Jun 2016

The "Chaudhry Court": Deconstructing The "Judicialization Of Politics" In Pakistan, Moeen H. Cheema

Washington International Law Journal

The Supreme Court of Pakistan underwent a remarkable transformation in its institutional role and constitutional position during the tenure of the former Chief Justice of Pakistan, Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry (2005–2013). This era in Pakistan’s judicial history was also marked by great controversy as the court faced charges that it had engaged in “judicial activism,” acted politically, and violated the constitutionally mandated separation of powers between institutions of the state. This article presents an in-depth analysis of the judicial review actions of the Chaudhry Court and argues that the charge of judicial activism is theoretically unsound and analytically obfuscating ...


The Rise And Fall Of Historic Chief Justices: Constitutional Politics And Judicial Leadership In Indonesia, Stefanus Hendrianto Jun 2016

The Rise And Fall Of Historic Chief Justices: Constitutional Politics And Judicial Leadership In Indonesia, Stefanus Hendrianto

Washington International Law Journal

In the decade following its inception, the Indonesian Constitutional Court has marked a new chapter in Indonesian legal history, one in which a judicial institution can challenge the executive and legislative branches. This article argues that judicial leadership is the main contributing factor explaining the emergence of judicial power in Indonesia. This article posits that the newly established Indonesian Constitutional Court needed a strong and skilled Chief Justice to build the institution because it had insufficient support from political actors. As the Court lacked a well-established tradition of judicial review, it needed a visionary leader who could maximize the structural ...


Constitutional Fig Leaves In Asia, Po Jen Yap Jun 2016

Constitutional Fig Leaves In Asia, Po Jen Yap

Washington International Law Journal

Constitutional landscapes in Asia are littered with fig leaves. These proverbial fig leaves are legal principles, doctrines, and theories of interpretation that judges appeal to when resolving constitutional disputes. This article uncovers and examines three constitutional fig leaves that are prevalent and flourishing in Asia: 1) formalism and its conceptual variants; 2) the exercise of judicial review that is merely symbolic; and 3) the invocation of vacuous constitutional doctrines. This article further argues that judicial recourse to fig leaves is not intended to deceive anyone about what courts are doing; the fig leaves are on public display merely to demonstrate ...


The Role Of Courts In "Making" Law In Japan: The Communitarian Conservatism Of Japanese Judges, John O. Haley Jun 2013

The Role Of Courts In "Making" Law In Japan: The Communitarian Conservatism Of Japanese Judges, John O. Haley

Washington International Law Journal

Professor Haley is an outstanding international and comparative law scholar, widely credited with having popularized Japanese legal studies in the United States. In 1969, Haley received a fellowship from the University of Washington and was in one of the first classes to graduate from the Asian Law Program, now, the Asian Law Center. After working for several years in law firms in Japan, he joined the law faculty at the University of Washington, where he remained for nearly twenty-six years during which time he directed the Asian and Comparative Law Program. In June 2012, Professor Haley was awarded The Order ...


The Training, Appointment, And Supervision Of Islamic Judges In Indonesia, Euis Nurlawlawati, Abdurrahman Rahim Jan 2012

The Training, Appointment, And Supervision Of Islamic Judges In Indonesia, Euis Nurlawlawati, Abdurrahman Rahim

Washington International Law Journal

This essay discusses the creation and training of Islamic court judges in Indonesia. This includes an examination of the qualifications for appointment as a judge, the recruitment of new judges, the pre-appointment and in-service training provided for Islamic judges, and the substantive and administrative supervision of the Islamic judiciary. The paper shows that significant changes have occurred in the system of recruitment and training of Islamic court judges with the establishment of new educational qualifications and the implementation of broader and more systematic training programs. As a result of these changes, the quality, professionalism, and standing of the Islamic judiciary ...


The Training, Appointment, And Supervision Of Islamic Judges In Malaysia, Najibah M. Zin Jan 2012

The Training, Appointment, And Supervision Of Islamic Judges In Malaysia, Najibah M. Zin

Washington International Law Journal

Shari‛a court judges and the decisions they make clearly have an effect on the interpretation and application of Islamic law in contemporary Muslim societies, and the educational background of those who staff these courts obviously informs the way they understand, interpret, and apply the law. To date, however, little research has been done on the educational processes by which judges who serve on Islamic courts are trained to think about Islamic law. Likewise, the means by which Islamic court judges are appointed and regulated has received little scholarly attention. This article offers a descriptive overview of the training, work ...


The Training, Appointment, And Supervision Of Islamic Judges In Singapore, Muhammad Haniff Hassan, Sharifah Thuraiya Su'ad Ahmad Alhadshi Jan 2012

The Training, Appointment, And Supervision Of Islamic Judges In Singapore, Muhammad Haniff Hassan, Sharifah Thuraiya Su'ad Ahmad Alhadshi

Washington International Law Journal

Syariah court judges and the decisions they make clearly have an effect on the interpretation and application of Islamic law in contemporary Muslim societies, and the educational background of those who staff these courts obviously informs the way they understand, interpret, and apply the law. To date, however, little research has been done on the educational processes by which Islamic court judges are trained to think about Islamic law. Likewise, the means by which Islamic court judges are appointed and regulated has received little scholarly attention. This article offers a descriptive overview of the training, work, and professional regulation of ...


Explaining Constitutional Review In New Democracies: The Case Of Taiwan, Nuno Garoupa, Veronica Grembi, Shirley Ching-Ping Lin Jan 2011

Explaining Constitutional Review In New Democracies: The Case Of Taiwan, Nuno Garoupa, Veronica Grembi, Shirley Ching-Ping Lin

Washington International Law Journal

This paper extends the empirical analysis of the determinants of judicial behavior by considering the Taiwanese case. Taiwan is a particularly interesting case because the establishment and development of constitutional review corresponds to a political transition from an authoritarian regime dominated by one party to an emerging democracy. We test the attitudinal hypothesis by making use of a new dataset of ninety-seven decisions issued by the Taiwanese constitutional court in the period between 1988 and 2008. The attitudinal hypothesis is that the Taiwanese constitutional judges respond to party interests, either because their preferences coincide with the appointer or because they ...


Judicial Reform And The State Of Japan's Attorney System: A Discussion Of Attorney Reform Issues And The Future Of The Judiciary, Part Ii, Kohei Nakabō, Yohei Suda Jan 2002

Judicial Reform And The State Of Japan's Attorney System: A Discussion Of Attorney Reform Issues And The Future Of The Judiciary, Part Ii, Kohei Nakabō, Yohei Suda

Washington International Law Journal

Based on the Judicial Reform Council's article, "Points at Issue in Judicial Reform," this paper analyzes basic issues regarding the current status of the Japanese attorney system and areas to be addressed in judicial reform. [This Article formed the basis of Mr. Nakabō's report at the thirteenth meeting of the Judicial Reform Council on February 22, 2000. It was originally published as the second part of a two part paper in SERIES JUDICIAL REFORM I: [LEGAL PROFESSIONAL TRAINING: THE LAW SCHOOL CONCEPT] (2000). The first part of the paper was translated in Kohei Nakabō, Judicial Reform and the ...


Judicial Reform And The State Of Japan's Attorney System: A Discussion Of Attorney Reform Issues And The Future Of The Judiciary, Kohei Nakabō, Yohei Suda May 2001

Judicial Reform And The State Of Japan's Attorney System: A Discussion Of Attorney Reform Issues And The Future Of The Judiciary, Kohei Nakabō, Yohei Suda

Washington International Law Journal

Based on the Judicial Reform Council's article "Points at Issue in Judicial Reform," this paper presents basic issues on the current status of the Japanese attorney system and areas to be addressed in judicial reform. [[Translator's Note] This Article formed the basis of Nakabō's report at the twelfth meeting of Judicial Reform Council held on February 8, 2000. It was originally published as the first of a two part paper in SERIES JUDICIAL REFORM I: [LEGAL PROFESSIONAL TRAINING; THE LAW SCHOOL CONCEPT] (2000).]