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Evidence Commons

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Articles 1 - 18 of 18

Full-Text Articles in Evidence

Bait Questions As Source Of Misinformation In Police Interviews: Does Race Or Age Of The Suspect Increase Jurors' Memory Errors?, Matilde Ascheri Jun 2018

Bait Questions As Source Of Misinformation In Police Interviews: Does Race Or Age Of The Suspect Increase Jurors' Memory Errors?, Matilde Ascheri

Student Theses

Bait questions—hypothetical questions about evidence, often used by detectives during interrogations—can activate the misinformation effect and alter jurors’ perceptions of the evidence of a case. Here, we were interested in investigating whether mock jurors’ implicit biases could amplify the magnitude of the misinformation effect. We accomplished this by manipulating the age and race of the suspect being interrogated. As an extension of Luke et al. (2017), we had participants read a police report describing evidence found at a crime scene, then read a transcript of a police interrogation where the detective used bait questions to introduce new evidence ...


Accelerated Creative Problem Solving And Product Improvement Applied To Experimental Devices In A Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation Class--Improving The Role Of Insight Development Tools As A Generator Of New Ideas In Novel Situations, Douglas Ridolfi May 2018

Accelerated Creative Problem Solving And Product Improvement Applied To Experimental Devices In A Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation Class--Improving The Role Of Insight Development Tools As A Generator Of New Ideas In Novel Situations, Douglas Ridolfi

Creative Studies Graduate Student Master's Projects

This project uses an action research centered study protocol to examine the effects of a problem-based learning exercise related to bloodstain pattern interpretation in a crime scene processing and general criminalistics class taught as part of an upper division forensic chemistry major in a four year college. The goal is to apply design principles and creative problem solving methods directly adapted to a project involving interpreting a set of crime scene photographs depicting blood spatter and with the aid of guided exercises in ideation and design, lead students into the development of alternate theories of how the bloodstains were created ...


Problems With Using Statistics To Justify Institutional Policies, Justin Shin Jan 2017

Problems With Using Statistics To Justify Institutional Policies, Justin Shin

Senior Projects Spring 2017

It is becoming increasingly common for institutions to use statistics to inform policy decisions. We should be prepared to ask ourselves what regulatory principles should be imposed on institutions that seek to justify certain policies through deference to a statistical analysis. This paper will examine the difficulties that come with using statistics to justify actions, and argue that certain standards of transparency and verifiability should be expected from any institution that seeks to involve a statistical analysis in the formation of policies. I will first use Market Share Liability, an established use of statistics, to draw out what responsibilities an ...


Lost In Translation? The Difference Between Hearsay Rule's Historical Rationale And Practical Application, Christopher Lloyd Sewrattan Sep 2016

Lost In Translation? The Difference Between Hearsay Rule's Historical Rationale And Practical Application, Christopher Lloyd Sewrattan

LLM Theses

An examination of the difference between the hearsay rules historical rationale and current application. The analysis occurs in three steps. In section 1, the historical rationale of the hearsay rule is identified through a reconciliation of competing theories. Section 2 analyses the difference between the hearsay rules historical rationale and the application of the exclusionary hearsay rule. Section 3 analyses the difference between the hearsay rules historical rationale and the application of some categorical hearsay exceptions.

Overall, the thesis finds that the hearsay rules historical rationale has three aspects: concern with the inherent reliability of hearsay evidence, concern with procedural ...


What Judges Say And Do In Deciding National Security Cases: The Example Of The State Secrets Privilege, Anthony John Trenga Jan 2016

What Judges Say And Do In Deciding National Security Cases: The Example Of The State Secrets Privilege, Anthony John Trenga

Duke Law Master of Judicial Studies Theses

From the criminal trial of Aaron Burr on charges of treason to modern-day litigation involving the CIA, the state secrets privilege presents a thorny issue for federal judges. Judge Trenga examines the legal issues at the heart of this privilege—separation of powers, non-justiciability, evidentiary privilege, national security interests, and military secrets—and the two primary doctrinal tracks judges invoke. Then, based on interviews with thirty-one federal judges, Judge Trenga offers insights into how judges think about applying the state secrets privilege to sensitive material.


Flaws In The Justice System: Examining The Angel Cordero Case, Rose C. Itzcovitz Dec 2015

Flaws In The Justice System: Examining The Angel Cordero Case, Rose C. Itzcovitz

Capstones

This article examines a case in criminal law that started 17 years ago and has yet to be resolved. Despite a plethora of mounting evidence, including a confession, more than a dozen witnesses, a proven false alibi, impeaching evidence against police and DNA evidence, Bronx-born Angel Cordero's conviction has yet to be overturned. The article breaks down what went wrong in the initial trial, discusses Cordero's multiple appeals and takes a broader look at what needs to change in today's judicial system.


The Greenhouse Effect: Decomposition Rates In Human Remains Wrapped In Plastic, Barbara R. Forman Aug 2015

The Greenhouse Effect: Decomposition Rates In Human Remains Wrapped In Plastic, Barbara R. Forman

Masters Theses

Determining an accurate estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) of human remains is important for several reasons. First, it is used to determine whether the individual is recently deceased, and therefore of medicolegal concern. If so, the estimated PMI is used in narrowing the possible identities of the deceased. PMI can also be used in excluding, or convicting, a murder suspect.

Though deviations may occur, it has been found that PMI can be calculated from the decomposition stages with reasonable accuracy (Galloway 1989, Megyesi 2001, Megyesi et al. 2005, Schiel 2008, Simmons et al. 2010). Some factors, such as low ...


Putting The Microscope On Crime Labs: The Effects Of Evidence Complexity And Laboratory Type On Jurors' Perceptions Of Forensic Evidence, Miliaikeala S.J. Heen Aug 2014

Putting The Microscope On Crime Labs: The Effects Of Evidence Complexity And Laboratory Type On Jurors' Perceptions Of Forensic Evidence, Miliaikeala S.J. Heen

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

An experiment was conducted to test the effects of evidence complexity and laboratory type on jurors' perceptions of forensic evidence. The study specifically focused on three types of labs: public labs, private labs, and "corporate labs." Public labs are managed by a federal, state, or local law enforcement agency, where evidence is usually analyzed internally at an agency. Private labs are those that have been formed as private businesses to provide services to federal, state, and local crime labs with overflow work. Corporate labs are managed by major retail corporations, and primarily service the needs of their store businesses, but ...


Juror Perceptions Of Eyewitness Identification Evidence, Timothy G. Wykes Jan 2014

Juror Perceptions Of Eyewitness Identification Evidence, Timothy G. Wykes

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Jurors rely on eyewitness testimony in deciding a defendant’s guilt or innocence. Archival analyses of hundreds of post-conviction DNA exonerations have identified eyewitness misidentification as the highest individual factor contributing to wrongful convictions (Innocence Project, 2014). Internationally, criminal justice systems have employed procedural safeguards (PSs) to educate juries on factors affecting eyewitness identification accuracy. Two such safeguards include the introduction of eyewitness expert testimony during trial proceedings and the reading of cautionary instructions by a presiding judge. In an independent factorial design, this research sought to examine the effects of a model judicial caution drafted by the Ontario Judicial ...


Elm In The Courtroom: Application To Trial Juries, Natalie Claire Hopkins Jun 2013

Elm In The Courtroom: Application To Trial Juries, Natalie Claire Hopkins

Communication Studies

No abstract provided.


Psychopathy And Sentencing: An Investigative Look Into When The Pcl-R Is Admitted Into Canadian Courtrooms And How A Pcl-R Score Affects Sentencing Outcome, Katie Davey Apr 2013

Psychopathy And Sentencing: An Investigative Look Into When The Pcl-R Is Admitted Into Canadian Courtrooms And How A Pcl-R Score Affects Sentencing Outcome, Katie Davey

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Little is known about how and when the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R) is being introduced into Canadian Courts or how it affects sentencing outcomes. Using the Lexis-Nexis Quicklaw Academic Database to retrieve judge’s sentencing decisions, all 274 cases with PCL-R information for Canadian courts were included in this study. It was hypothesized correctly that PCL-R information would most often be introduced in Long Term Offender (LTO) and Dangerous Offender (DO) applications as well as sentencing cases for murderers and sex offenders. The 274 cases were then reduced to 37 cases in order to focus on sentencing without Dangerous Offender ...


An Overview Of Small Scale Digital Forensics, Susan Fowler Jan 2011

An Overview Of Small Scale Digital Forensics, Susan Fowler

Senior Honors Theses & Projects

No abstract provided.


Optimization Of The Microprecipitation Procedure For Nuclear Forensics Applications, Lyndsey Renee Kelly Jan 2009

Optimization Of The Microprecipitation Procedure For Nuclear Forensics Applications, Lyndsey Renee Kelly

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Microprecipitation has become one of the most widely used sample preparation techniques for alpha spectroscopy. Many factors during the precipitation process can affect the yield and energy resolution by adding unwanted mass to the sample. Current applications in nuclear forensics call for an optimization of energy resolution and yield in order to improve identification and quantify specific radionuclides. The purpose of this research is to determine the optimal parameters used for microprecipitation. The optimal solution temperature, precipitation time, carrier amount, and hydrofluoric acid amount are used to investigate the influence of varying the type of carrier, as well as, the ...


The Effect Of Expert Testimony On Juror Decision Making In Eyewitness Identification Cases, Pamela J. Sullivan Jan 1996

The Effect Of Expert Testimony On Juror Decision Making In Eyewitness Identification Cases, Pamela J. Sullivan

Theses : Honours

The provision of expert testimony for the defence has been demonstrated to sensitise jurors to the variables that may reduce the reliability of an eyewitness identification (Cutler, Dexter, & Penrod, 1989). However, research examining the variables that reduce identification reliability has revealed conflicting findings (Yuille & Cutshall, 1986). Given this disparity in psychological opinion, a situation may arise where opposing expert testimony for the prosecution and the defence is delivered within the same criminal trial This thesis examined the effect of each form of expert testimony about eyewitness identification issues on the decision of the individual juror. The decision making process was ...


Subpopulation Heterogeneity And Statistical Unreliability In Forensic Dna Typing, Nick Craig Jan 1995

Subpopulation Heterogeneity And Statistical Unreliability In Forensic Dna Typing, Nick Craig

Presidential Scholars Theses (1990 – 2006)

This paper consists of an overview of the procedures and criticisms involved in current forensic DNA typing. The opening presents a brief introduction to the genetic characteristics of DNA, followed by a review of the typing procedure. The main emphasis of the paper is the criticisms of the current procedure. These criticisms include an attack on the independence assumption and its justification of the use of the multiplication rule in calculating test results. A number of experts have proposed that heterogeneity within ethnic subpopulations may significantly undermine the independence assumption and render invalid the use of the multiplication rule. Others ...


Applications Of Character Evidence In Civil And Criminal Cases, Gerald Chargin Jan 1929

Applications Of Character Evidence In Civil And Criminal Cases, Gerald Chargin

Student Theses

The various rules of evidence which permit or exclude the
introduction of one's character or reputation, as possessing
probative value are all based upon a policy of the law, the
aim of which is to safeguard the courts against the risks of
erroneous verdicts. This policy assumes that truth in the long
run will best be attained by the exclusion of certain kinds
of evidence or if allowable, upon certain conditions imposed,
in order to guide the deliberations of the judge or juries to
just verdicts.


Expert Testimony, Gordon Courtenay Hamilton Jan 1895

Expert Testimony, Gordon Courtenay Hamilton

Historical Theses and Dissertations Collection

No abstract provided.


Admissibility Of Evidence Of Intoxication As A Defense To Crime, Harrison Foster Johnson Jan 1895

Admissibility Of Evidence Of Intoxication As A Defense To Crime, Harrison Foster Johnson

Historical Theses and Dissertations Collection

No abstract provided.