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Full-Text Articles in Evidence

Supreme Court Lets Light Shine On Flaws With Eyewitness Testimony, Timothy P. O'Neill Feb 2016

Supreme Court Lets Light Shine On Flaws With Eyewitness Testimony, Timothy P. O'Neill

Timothy P. O'Neill

No abstract provided.


The Hearsay Rule At Work: Has It Been Abolished De Facto By Judicial Decision, Eleanor Swift Dec 2015

The Hearsay Rule At Work: Has It Been Abolished De Facto By Judicial Decision, Eleanor Swift

Eleanor Swift

No abstract provided.


Amicus Brief: Kumho Tire V. Carmichael, Neil Vidmar, Richard Lempert, Shari Diamond, Valerie Hans, Stephan Landsman, Robert Maccoun, Joseph Sanders, Harmon Hosch, Saul Kassin, Marc Galanter, Theodore Eisenberg, Stephen Daniels, Edith Greene, Joanne Martin, Steven Penrod, James Richardson, Larry Heuer, Irwin Horowitz Dec 2015

Amicus Brief: Kumho Tire V. Carmichael, Neil Vidmar, Richard Lempert, Shari Diamond, Valerie Hans, Stephan Landsman, Robert Maccoun, Joseph Sanders, Harmon Hosch, Saul Kassin, Marc Galanter, Theodore Eisenberg, Stephen Daniels, Edith Greene, Joanne Martin, Steven Penrod, James Richardson, Larry Heuer, Irwin Horowitz

Robert MacCoun

This brief addresses the issue of jury performance and jury responses to expert testimony. It reviews and summaries a substantial body of research evidence about jury behavior that has been produced over the past quarter century. The great weight of that evidence challenges the view that jurors abdicate their responsibilities as fact finders when faced with expert evidence or that they are pro-plaintiff, anti-defendant, and anti-business.

The Petitioners and amici on behalf of petitioners make a number of overlapping, but empirically unsupported, assertions about jury behavior in response to expert testimony, namely that juries are frequently incapable of critically evaluation ...


Evidence: A Canadian Casebook, 2nd Edition, Hamish Stewart, Marilyn Pilkington, Renalda Murphy, Steven Penney, James Stribopoulos Oct 2015

Evidence: A Canadian Casebook, 2nd Edition, Hamish Stewart, Marilyn Pilkington, Renalda Murphy, Steven Penney, James Stribopoulos

Marilyn L. Pilkington

In most law school courses, the facts of the cases studied are taken as a given: the facts of they are presented as found by a trial court or tribunal or as understood by an appellate court. The law of evidence is concerned with how facts are established in legal proceedings. In most contested cases, the parties offer different versions of the facts. The law of evidence establishes rules and principles that govern how the parties may try to establish their versions of the facts, and the reasoning by which the trier may determine the facts. These materials are intended ...


Evidence: A Canadian Casebook, 3rd Edition, Hamish Stewart, Renalda Murphy, Steven Penney, Marilyn Pilkington, James Stribopoulos Oct 2015

Evidence: A Canadian Casebook, 3rd Edition, Hamish Stewart, Renalda Murphy, Steven Penney, Marilyn Pilkington, James Stribopoulos

Marilyn L. Pilkington

Designed to meet the needs of second-year and third-year courses in evidence, the third edition of Evidence: A Canadian Casebook investigates the rules and principles that govern how facts are established in legal proceedings. The author team, consisting of well-respected scholars from a number of Canadian law schools, has developed a casebook that sets itself apart from other resources by weaving a single case study — inspired by an actual murder prosecution — throughout the entire text. At the end of each chapter, the authors introduce new developments in the case study, and students are asked to apply what they have just ...


The Hallmark Of A Champion—Or Not, Robert Sanger Jun 2015

The Hallmark Of A Champion—Or Not, Robert Sanger

Robert M. Sanger

Two decisions that just came down, one from the United States Supreme Court and the other from the California Supreme Court. The former is Hall v. Florida and the latter is In re Champion on Habeas Corpus. The Hall and Champion cases, although they do not cite each other, both discuss significant issues with regard to who is eligible for execution under the Atkins decision.

Hall and Champion perpetuate the myth that capital punishment can be imposed accurately and consistently. Additionally, both cases contain serious errors in interpreting science while suggesting that life and death decisions can be based on ...


Presenting Expert Testimony - An American Perspective, James Seckinger Jun 2015

Presenting Expert Testimony - An American Perspective, James Seckinger

James H. Seckinger

No abstract provided.


Using Video Link To Take Forensic Evidence - Lessons From An Australian Case Study, Anne Wallace Apr 2015

Using Video Link To Take Forensic Evidence - Lessons From An Australian Case Study, Anne Wallace

Anne Wallace Professor

This article examines the use of audio-visual communications technology (specifically, video link) to enable courts to receive forensic evidence in criminal cases. It outlines the legislative powers to take evidence via video link in Australia, identifying their broad discretionary nature, and analysing relevant case law on their interpretation. The article then discusses empirical findings from an Australian case study in a jurisdiction where a police forensic service has a policy to promote the use of this technology to take evidence from its staff. The findings suggest that, although the policy has had some success in influencing the approach of courts ...


Science Is Not Waiting For The Courts, Robert Sanger Mar 2015

Science Is Not Waiting For The Courts, Robert Sanger

Robert M. Sanger

The Forensic Science Community and the federal government are moving far beyond the courts in an effort to improve the quality of scientific evidence and expert testimony in the courts. Major events in forensics have caused a top to bottom reconsideration of what should count as expert testimony. Last month, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the federal Department of Justice (DOJ) convened the first set of meetings of the Organization of Scientific Area Committees (OSAC). This is a forward-looking approach to forensic science.

The first OSAC meetings were held on February 16 and 17, 2015, at ...


Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient Test Scores And The Impropriety Of “Ethnic (Or Socio-Economic) Adjustment” In Atkins Cases, Robert Sanger Jan 2015

Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient Test Scores And The Impropriety Of “Ethnic (Or Socio-Economic) Adjustment” In Atkins Cases, Robert Sanger

Robert M. Sanger

After attending this presentation, attendees will gain new information regarding developments in epigenetics which relate to the validity of Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) scores in determining intellectual disability for the purpose of eligibility of a criminal defendant to be executed if otherwise subject to the death penalty. (Complete Abstract at page 727 of the proceedings: http://www.aafs.org/sites/default/files/2015/2015Proceedings.pdf )


Managing Big Data In Complex Litigation, Robert Sanger Dec 2014

Managing Big Data In Complex Litigation, Robert Sanger

Robert M. Sanger

Any lawyer doing complex litigation, civil or criminal, has confronted what seems like an insurmountable sea of data. Many of us have used computer relational database programs and otherwise fought through the mass of information to prepare to try a case. There have been some advancements in managing data made by law enforcement in recent years to make their investigations manageable. During law enforcement investigations, the goal is somewhat different than that of the lawyer preparing for trial; however, the concepts are useful.


Toward A Textualist Paradigm For Interpreting Emoticons, John Ehrett Dec 2014

Toward A Textualist Paradigm For Interpreting Emoticons, John Ehrett

John Ehrett

This Essay evaluates the dimensions of courts’ current interpretive dilemma, and subsequently sketches a possible framework for extending traditional statutory interpretation principles into this new domain. Throughout the analysis, the Essay describes the process of attaching cognizable linguistic referents to emoticons and emojis throughout as symbolical reification, and proposes a normative way forward for those tasked with deriving meaning from emoji-laden communications.


"Whodunit" Versus "What Was Done": When To Admit Character Evidence In Criminal Cases, Sherry Colb Dec 2014

"Whodunit" Versus "What Was Done": When To Admit Character Evidence In Criminal Cases, Sherry Colb

Sherry Colb

In virtually every jurisdiction in the United States, the law of evidence prohibits parties from offering proof of an individual's general character traits to suggest that, on a specific occasion, the individual behaved in a manner consistent with those traits. In a criminal trial in particular, the law prohibits a prosecutor's introduction of evidence about the defendant's character as proof of his guilt. In this Article, Professor Colb proposes that the exclusion of defendant character evidence is appropriate in one category of cases but inappropriate in another. In the first category, which Professor Colb calls "whodunit" cases ...


Death Of Paradox: The Killer Logic Beneath The Standards Of Proof, Kevin Clermont Dec 2014

Death Of Paradox: The Killer Logic Beneath The Standards Of Proof, Kevin Clermont

Kevin M. Clermont

The prevailing but contested view of proof standards is that factfinders should determine facts by probabilistic reasoning. Given imperfect evidence, they should ask themselves what they think the chances are that the burdened party would be right if the truth were to become known; they then compare those chances to the applicable standard of proof. I contend that for understanding the standards of proof, the modern versions of logic — in particular, fuzzy logic and belief functions — work better than classical probability. This modern logic suggests that factfinders view evidence of an imprecisely perceived and described reality to form a fuzzy ...


Rationalizing Hearsay: A Proposal For A Best Evidence Hearsay Rule, Michael Seigel Dec 2014

Rationalizing Hearsay: A Proposal For A Best Evidence Hearsay Rule, Michael Seigel

Michael L Seigel

The enterprise of this article is the theoretical construction of an optimal solution to the hearsay conundrum. Its first task is the elucidation of the premises upon which a rational hearsay rule can be built. Thus, the article starts by exploring the relationship between hearsay doctrine and the foundation of all rational truth-seeking enterprises, inductive logic. The article continues with an examination of the relationship between hearsay evidence and trial dynamics, for a workable rule must take into account the actual functioning of our adversary system.'" This two-pronged analysis leads to the proposal of a "best evidence hearsay rule."


Empiricism In Daubert And The California Supreme Court In Sargon, Robert Sanger Aug 2014

Empiricism In Daubert And The California Supreme Court In Sargon, Robert Sanger

Robert M. Sanger

California has become a Daubert state. In Sargon v. The University of Southern California, the California Supreme Court held that judges are the “gatekeepers” with regard to expert or scientific evidence in this state, just as has been the case in the federal system (and many other states) since the decision in Daubert. Now that California is avowedly a Daubert state, it is important to understand why courtroom evidence – scientific, expert or, for that matter, otherwise – is properly grounded in empiricism. Empiricism is the theory that knowledge is derived from experience. Understanding this empirical basis for both Daubert and Sargon ...


Government Denial Under Oath – Hidta, Hemisphere And Parallel Construction, Robert Sanger Jul 2014

Government Denial Under Oath – Hidta, Hemisphere And Parallel Construction, Robert Sanger

Robert M. Sanger

In September of last year, the New York Times reported on a remarkable program of the United States Government that involved spying on domestic phone records without a warrant.1 The news had a limited independent impact as it seemed to be lost in the disclosures of Michael Snowden regarding the National Security Administration (NSA), which purportedly was aimed at foreign terrorists but also included domestic targets. Yet, this program, called “Hemisphere,” was authorized by the Office of the President of the United States, Office of Drug Control Policy, under the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area Program (HIDTA) and it ...


Shredded Fish,, Robert Sanger May 2014

Shredded Fish,, Robert Sanger

Robert M. Sanger

There are just too many criminal laws and their proliferation has expanded exponentially over the last few decades. This is overcriminalization. In addition, the jurisdiction of federal authorities under general or vague laws has vastly expanded federal criminal prosecution of people and organizations for what otherwise would not be a crime. This is overfederalization and overcriminalization. In this article we will look at the current litigation before the United States Supreme Court that had directly taken on this controversy. The case of Yates v. United States involves briefing by the parties and by amici curae directly invoking and defending the ...


Brady Reconstructed: An Overdue Expansion Of Rights And Remedies, Leonard Sosnov Dec 2013

Brady Reconstructed: An Overdue Expansion Of Rights And Remedies, Leonard Sosnov

Leonard N Sosnov

Over fifty years ago, the Supreme Court held in Brady v Maryland, 373 U.S. 83 (1963), that the Due Process Clause requires prosecutors to disclose materially favorable evidence to the defense. The Brady Court emphasized the need to treat all defendants fairly and to provide each accused with a meaningful opportunity to present a defense. While Brady held great promise for defendants to receive fundamentally fair access to evidence, the subsequent decisions of the Court have fallen short of meeting this promise.

Since Brady, the Court has limited the disclosure obligation by failing to separately determine rights and remedies ...


Canudo On Evidence: Laws Of New York, Gary Shaw Dec 2013

Canudo On Evidence: Laws Of New York, Gary Shaw

Gary M. Shaw

No abstract provided.


Bullets, Bad Florins, And Old Boots: A Report Of The Indiana Trial Judges Seminar On The Judge's Control Over Demonstrative Evidence, Thomas Shaffer Dec 2013

Bullets, Bad Florins, And Old Boots: A Report Of The Indiana Trial Judges Seminar On The Judge's Control Over Demonstrative Evidence, Thomas Shaffer

Thomas L. Shaffer

No abstract provided.


The New Rules For Admissibility Of Expert Testimony: Part Ii, Robert Sanger Oct 2013

The New Rules For Admissibility Of Expert Testimony: Part Ii, Robert Sanger

Robert M. Sanger

As described in the last Criminal Justice column for the Santa Barbara Lawyer magazine, the California Supreme Court’s opinion in Sargon Enterprises v. University of Southern California, 55 Cal. 4th 747, 149 Cal. Rptr. 3d 614 (2012) made it clear that California is now, (and perhaps unsuspectingly has been for some time), a Daubert jurisdiction. This requires the trial court be the “gatekeeper” and make a determination as to the admissibility of scientific or expert testimony and to determine the limits of any testimony, if it is introduced. The Court held that there are essentially three criteria: The first ...


Inevitable Discovery: An Exception Beyond The Fruits, Robert Bloom Oct 2013

Inevitable Discovery: An Exception Beyond The Fruits, Robert Bloom

Robert Bloom

No abstract provided.


The New Rules For Admissibility Of Expert Testimony: Part I, Robert Sanger Sep 2013

The New Rules For Admissibility Of Expert Testimony: Part I, Robert Sanger

Robert M. Sanger

In a previous series of articles for this magazine, I took the position that California really was a Daubert jurisdiction in the sense that Kelly and Frye and thenexisting case law required that the court be the “gatekeeper” and make a determination as to: 1) whether a science (or area of expertise) was a science (or area of expertise); 2) whether the witness was a scientist (or expert); 3) whether the data was reliable; and then, and only then, 4) what a true scientist (or expert) could say based on the science and based on the reliable data. In the ...


The Admissibility Of Bayesian Likelihood Ratios, Robert Sanger Jul 2013

The Admissibility Of Bayesian Likelihood Ratios, Robert Sanger

Robert M. Sanger

As someone once said, “there are lies, damned lies and statistics.” Anyone who has tried a case where statistics are presented to the jury knows how powerful statistics can be. Jurors are generally not versed in statistics and are vulnerable to being misled. Ironically, judges may not be much better at identifying valid statistical analyses as opposed to bogus ones.

In this Criminal Justice column we will look at statistical analysis and its place in the courtroom. We will look at a recent decision of the British Courts and the implications for that type of thinking on American jurisprudence. To ...


Book Review: Carl Cranor, Toxic Torts: Science, Law, And The Possibility Of Justice, David Caudill Jul 2013

Book Review: Carl Cranor, Toxic Torts: Science, Law, And The Possibility Of Justice, David Caudill

David S Caudill

Carl F. Cranor’s Toxic Torts: Science, Law, and the Possibility of Justice is a sustained, comprehensive argument that the Daubert gatekeeping regime has tilted the playing field against injured plaintiffs in toxic tort litigation. More generally, Cranor joins those who argue that the Daubert regime has not fared well in practice. Complex scientific evidence is not handled well in trials because scientific methods, data, and inferential reasoning are not well understood by gatekeeping judges. Cranor’s goal is to help solve this problem by offering a detailed description of the patterns of reasoning, evidence collection, and inference in nonlegal ...


Legal Ethics And Scientific Testimony: In Defense Of Manufacturing Uncertainty, Deconstructing Expertise And Other Trial Strategies, David Caudill Jul 2013

Legal Ethics And Scientific Testimony: In Defense Of Manufacturing Uncertainty, Deconstructing Expertise And Other Trial Strategies, David Caudill

David S Caudill

No abstract provided.


Panelist, Can Law Schools Prepare Students To Be Practice Ready?, R. Michael Cassidy Jan 2013

Panelist, Can Law Schools Prepare Students To Be Practice Ready?, R. Michael Cassidy

R. Michael Cassidy

No abstract provided.


Speaking Science To Law, Deborah Hussey Freeland Dec 2012

Speaking Science To Law, Deborah Hussey Freeland

Deborah M. Hussey Freeland

involving a strong scientific consensus, the powerful qualities of scientific knowledge are easily lost in translation. Moreover, even prominent scientists who are committed to providing accurate information to legal fact-finders may suffer reputational harm simply for participating in an adversarial process.

This article analyzes the connection between law and science through the expert witness from the perspectives of epistemology and cross-cultural communication, focusing on the distinct ways in which scientists and lawyers know, value and express their knowledge. When a lawyer meets with a scientific expert witness, more confusion attends their interaction than either likely realizes. Linguistic translation is necessary--but ...


Strategic Austerity: How Some Law School Affordability Initiatives Could Actually Improve Learning Outcomes, R. Michael Cassidy Dec 2012

Strategic Austerity: How Some Law School Affordability Initiatives Could Actually Improve Learning Outcomes, R. Michael Cassidy

R. Michael Cassidy

The legal profession is facing profound and perhaps irreversible changes. Whether you view these striking demographics as a “crisis” likely depends on the location of your perch. If you are a tenured professor at a T14 law school or a senior partner at an NLJ 250 firm, you may view the trends we have been discussing today as cyclical corrections. If you are an unemployed graduate looking for work or an untenured professor at a lower-tier school that is struggling to stay afloat, you may be more likely to view these trends as permanent and paradigm shifting.

While applications to ...