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2016

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Articles 211 - 234 of 234

Full-Text Articles in Entertainment, Arts, and Sports Law

The Emoji That Cost $20,000: Triggering Liability For Defamation On Social Media, Nicole Pelletier Jan 2016

The Emoji That Cost $20,000: Triggering Liability For Defamation On Social Media, Nicole Pelletier

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

This Note addresses the history of social media law in the U.S. legal system within the context of defamation claims and legislative acts to immunize social media websites. Using a British court’s finding of liability based on a tweeted emoji, Pelletier analyzes whether an emoji could trigger liability in the United States and juxtaposes the potential for individual user liability based on an emoji with the immunization granted to social media websites. Pelletier proposes new federal legislation that will place responsibility on social websites to notify users of potential liability arising from social media use.


An “Immeasurable Sign Of Great Hope”: The Detroit Institute Of The Arts, Municipal Bankruptcy And “Cultural Assets”, Rebecca Gosch Jan 2016

An “Immeasurable Sign Of Great Hope”: The Detroit Institute Of The Arts, Municipal Bankruptcy And “Cultural Assets”, Rebecca Gosch

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


Student-Athletes Put Full-Court Pressure On The Ncaa For Their Rights, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 276 (2016), Taylor Riskin Jan 2016

Student-Athletes Put Full-Court Pressure On The Ncaa For Their Rights, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 276 (2016), Taylor Riskin

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

The struggle between the NCAA and student-athletes is one that will not slow down. The issue is whether the mandatory student-athlete agreement is reasonable and, further, if student-athletes should be compensated for the use of their likeness? The answers to these questions are crucial with over a century of tradition on the line. This comment analyzes the recent Ninth Circuit decision through an antitrust and right of publicity lens. Additionally, this comment proposes a solution that allows student-athletes to receive some type of compensation while the NCAA preserves amateurism.


The Invisible Defense Against Music Piracy, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 297 (2016), Paige Clark Jan 2016

The Invisible Defense Against Music Piracy, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 297 (2016), Paige Clark

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Music piracy has continued to affect the music industry. Specifically, music-streaming service providers that thought they were protected, such as Spotify, have suffered from music piracy as a result of innovative illegal downloading websites. Music pirates have created illegal downloading websites that provide detailed and efficient ways to download and sync music from Spotify without paying for the premium services or membership fees. As a result, illegal downloading has had an adverse impact on various music-streaming service providers’ copyrights. To obtain protection and diminish music piracy and liability to music artists and labels, these music-streaming sites should give thought to ...


The Destruction Of Cultural Heritage: A Crime Against Property Or A Crime Against People?, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 336 (2016), Patty Gerstenblith Jan 2016

The Destruction Of Cultural Heritage: A Crime Against Property Or A Crime Against People?, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 336 (2016), Patty Gerstenblith

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

The destruction of cultural heritage has played a prominent role in the ongoing conflicts in Syria and Iraq and in the recent conflict in Mali. This destruction has displayed the failure of international law to effectively deter these actions. This article reviews existing international law in light of this destruction and the challenges posed by the issues of non-international armed conflict, non-state actors and the military necessity exception. By examining recent developments in applicable international law, the article proposes that customary international law has evolved to interpret existing legal instruments and doctrines concerning cultural heritage in light of the principles ...


From Tragedy To Triumph In The Pursuit Of Looted Art: Altmann, Benningson, Portrait Of Wally, Von Saher And Their Progeny, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 394 (2016), Donald Burris Jan 2016

From Tragedy To Triumph In The Pursuit Of Looted Art: Altmann, Benningson, Portrait Of Wally, Von Saher And Their Progeny, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 394 (2016), Donald Burris

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

This article is a broad and approachable overview of American law regarding the potential repatriation of Nazi-looted art—an area which the author and his now-retired partner, Randy Schoenberg, helped develop from the ground up starting with the development of the Altmann case, decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 2004, and continuing on through a number of fascinating looted-art cases of a more recent vintage. Parts of the article read as much like a detective story as a summary of cases and Mr. Burris has been kind enough to share both his approach to these cases and his ...


Nagpra And Its Limitations: Repatriation Of Indigenous Cultural Heritage, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 472 (2016), Kevin Ray Jan 2016

Nagpra And Its Limitations: Repatriation Of Indigenous Cultural Heritage, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 472 (2016), Kevin Ray

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

The historical conditions under which indigenous (and specifically Native American) cultural heritage objects have been collected present tremendous difficulties, since collecting efforts were frequently influenced, or even directed, by racist or colonialist ideologies. Recent decades have seen efforts to redress past wrongs, as well as to correct misunderstandings and misrepresentations. The restitution and repatriation processes of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990, enacted as human rights legislation, provide powerful, but imperfect tools for the protection of Native American cultural heritage. The challenges are both domestic and international. Recent French auction sales of Hopi, Zuni, and Navajo ...


Illusory Borders: The Myth Of The Modern Nation-State And Its Impact On The Repatriation Of Cultural Artifacts, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 486 (2016), Lubna El-Gendi Jan 2016

Illusory Borders: The Myth Of The Modern Nation-State And Its Impact On The Repatriation Of Cultural Artifacts, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 486 (2016), Lubna El-Gendi

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

While the current world order of independent nation-states may seem like a natural state that has existed for centuries, in reality, it is a relatively new development that was forged after the demise of imperial rule. Yet, the nation-state is the foundational entity of our current international political and legal framework. International treaties and relations are structured around the nation-state, which is recognized as the core entity in which rights are vested and on which obligations are imposed. This prioritization of the nation-state leads to issues when we consider the repatriation of cultural heritage, particularly in light of the history ...


Let It Go? A Comparative Analysis Of Copyright Law And Enforcement In The United States Of America And China, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 584 (2016), Kevin Fleming Jan 2016

Let It Go? A Comparative Analysis Of Copyright Law And Enforcement In The United States Of America And China, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 584 (2016), Kevin Fleming

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Cheap, knockoff designer items have flooded the streets of China for years. These products infringe on the copyrights of the manufacturers but are rarely enforced. China has attempted to revise their copyright laws to offer more protection to copyright owners, but this has not yet occurred. This comment examines two recent occurrences of copyrighted works in the United States of America being infringed upon in China. This comment examines the how a court or tribunal would rule applying American copyright law and Chinese Copyright law, while also examining the possible remedies that could result. This comment also proposes possible solutions ...


The Depiction Of Trademarked Landmarks In Fictional Films: Protecting Filmmakers From Infringement And Dilution Liability, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 676 (2016), Joel Timmer Jan 2016

The Depiction Of Trademarked Landmarks In Fictional Films: Protecting Filmmakers From Infringement And Dilution Liability, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 676 (2016), Joel Timmer

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Many well-known landmarks, like the Empire State Building, are protected as trademarks. This trademark status may be used by trademark holders to attempt to control or limit the depictions of those landmarks in artistic works like feature films. Using the trademarked Hollywood Sign as an example, this article examines the status of landmarks as trademarks as well as the protections trademark holders have over unauthorized depictions of trademarked landmarks through actions for trademark infringement or trademark dilution. Concluding that trademark dilution is more likely the proper cause of action for the unauthorized depiction of trademarks in films, this article then ...


That Old Familiar Sting: Tattoos, Publicity, And Copyright, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 762 (2016), Matthew Parker Jan 2016

That Old Familiar Sting: Tattoos, Publicity, And Copyright, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 762 (2016), Matthew Parker

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Tattoos have experienced a significant rise in popularity over the last several decades, and in particular an explosion in popularity in the 2000s and 2010s. Despite this rising popularity and acceptance, the actual mechanics of tattoo ownership and copyright remain very much an issue of first impression before the courts. A series of high-priced lawsuits involving famous athletes and celebrities have come close to the Supreme Court at times, but were ultimately settled before any precedent could be set. This article describes a history of tattoos and how they might be seen to fit in to existing copyright law, and ...


Blurring The Line: An Examination Of Technological Fact-Finding In Music Copyright Law, 16 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 115 (2016), Jeremy Aregood Jan 2016

Blurring The Line: An Examination Of Technological Fact-Finding In Music Copyright Law, 16 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 115 (2016), Jeremy Aregood

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

The result of Williams v. Bridgeport Music, Inc. highlights a major issue in musical plagiarism factfinding. Different circuits employ different tests for fact-finding, however all the tests involve some form of objective criteria that is guided by expert witnesses who perform musical analyses. Because expert witnesses influence their analysis with their own subjective interpretations of the music, and because juries are not fully aware of the distinction between objective and subjective analysis, juries have a distinct possibility of returning a verdict that contradicts the evidence and public policy. New advancements in technology and computation may assist courts in evaluating the ...


Where Are We And Where Are We Going: Legal Developments In Cultural Property And Nazi Art Looting, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 435 (2016), Thomas Kline Jan 2016

Where Are We And Where Are We Going: Legal Developments In Cultural Property And Nazi Art Looting, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 435 (2016), Thomas Kline

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Cultural Plunder And Restitution And Human Identity, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 460 (2016), Ori Soltes Jan 2016

Cultural Plunder And Restitution And Human Identity, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 460 (2016), Ori Soltes

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


The Pre-1972 Sound Recordings Landscape: A Need For A Uniform Federal Copyright Scheme, P. Dylan Jensen Jan 2016

The Pre-1972 Sound Recordings Landscape: A Need For A Uniform Federal Copyright Scheme, P. Dylan Jensen

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

Since the rapid expansion of the Internet in the 1990s and through the 2000s, Internet entrepreneurs and technology companies continue to discover new ways to offer music online for free. A large portion of the music offered by these services was created prior to 1972, the year the Sound Recordings Act of 1971 established as the cut-off for federal copyright protection. These pre-1972 sound recordings are covered by a patchwork of state and common law, which varies greatly from state to state. Though some music services have shielded themselves with the safe harbor provision offered to Online Service Providers ("OSPs ...


There’S No R In Smoking: A Modified Rating System To Curb Adolescent Smoking, Amanda E. Beckwith Jan 2016

There’S No R In Smoking: A Modified Rating System To Curb Adolescent Smoking, Amanda E. Beckwith

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

Smoking is the most common preventable causes of death in the United States and costs society billions of dollars each year. Most smokers become addicted at a young age, but often have no legal remedy from smoke-related injuries. Smoking in movies is a significant factor in the initiation of youth smoking, yet the Motion Picture Association of America ("MPAA") does not factor "smoking" into movie ratings. This note argues that in order to reduce the harmful effects of youth smoking, movies with depictions of cigarettes should be rated R. In order to pressure the MPAA into making this change, potential ...


Web Accessibility For Impaired Users: Applying Physical Solutions To Digital Problems, Deeva V. Shah Jan 2016

Web Accessibility For Impaired Users: Applying Physical Solutions To Digital Problems, Deeva V. Shah

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act ("ADA") aims to prevent discrimination against the disabled in places of public accommodation. Unlike many other anti­ discrimination statutes, the ADA requires places of public accommodation to take affirmative steps to ensure access for the impaired. Courts currently differ on whether a place of public accommodation requires a physical location or whether nonphysical places, such as a retailer's website, also fall under the statute. Some courts apply the nexus test to determine the whether the ADA applies to online content. Under the nexus test, there must be a connection between a ...


Will The Federal Communications Commission’S 2015 Open Internet Order Receive Chevron Deference?, John Meisel Jan 2016

Will The Federal Communications Commission’S 2015 Open Internet Order Receive Chevron Deference?, John Meisel

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

In 2015, the Federal Communications Commission ("FCC") decided to reclassify broadband Internet service as a telecommunications service subject to Title II regulations contained in the Communications Act. This decision is currently under review by a three­ person panel of judges for the D.C. Circuit. A key question in the review will be whether the FCC's reclassification decision is eligible for Chevron deference. The answer to this question will likely be based on lessons learned from similar cases dealing with Chevron deference that the Supreme Court has addressed. For instance, the fact that the reclassification decision is likely to ...


Protecting Journalists From Politically Motivated Claims Of Espionage Under International Law, Allison Brinkerhoff Jan 2016

Protecting Journalists From Politically Motivated Claims Of Espionage Under International Law, Allison Brinkerhoff

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

Currently, there is not a uniform international standard for the protection of journalists against politically motivated claims of espionage, and this void allows governments to cloak politically motivated claims of espionage as a "national security threats." The purpose of this article is to propose amending the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ("ICCPR"), to remove the void, by making Article 19 a nonderogated right for journalists who are reporting and participating in political expression.


No More Mind Games: Content Analysis Of In-Game Commentary Of The National Football League’S Concussion Problem, Jeffrey Parker Jan 2016

No More Mind Games: Content Analysis Of In-Game Commentary Of The National Football League’S Concussion Problem, Jeffrey Parker

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

American (gridiron) football played at the professional level in the National Football League (NFL) is an inherently physical spectator sport, in which players frequently engage in significant contact to the head and upper body. Until recently, the long-term health consequences associated with on the field head trauma were not fully disclosed to players or the public, potentially misrepresenting the dangers involved in gameplay. Crucial to the dissemination of this information to the public are in-game televised commentators of NFL games, regarded as the primary conduits for mediating in-game narratives to the viewing audience. Using a social constructionist theoretical lens, this ...


Diamond Justice—Teaching Baseball And The Law, Edmund P. Edmonds Jan 2016

Diamond Justice—Teaching Baseball And The Law, Edmund P. Edmonds

Journal Articles

Authors Louis H. Schiff and Robert M. Jarvis set out to fill a void in the vast array of legal teaching materials by creating Baseball and the Law: Cases and Materials, the first casebook to concentrate on “The National Pastime.” Their goal was to create a casebook that would propel the expansion of teaching law and baseball courses in law schools. By pulling together appropriate cases and primary reading material with detailed and carefully crafted notes, the authors have admirably completed this task with over 1000 pages of text to allow faculty and students in the legal academy a resource ...


College Athletic Departments As Media Organizations And The Regulation Of Content: Issues For The Digital Age, Steve Dittmore Dec 2015

College Athletic Departments As Media Organizations And The Regulation Of Content: Issues For The Digital Age, Steve Dittmore

Steve Dittmore

No abstract provided.


Why K-Pop Will Continue To Dominate Social Media: Jenkins' Convergence Culture In Action, Keidra Chaney, Raizel Liebler Dec 2015

Why K-Pop Will Continue To Dominate Social Media: Jenkins' Convergence Culture In Action, Keidra Chaney, Raizel Liebler

Raizel Liebler

YouTube’s first music awards surprised many mainstream music fans in 2013, when the Korean pop (“K-pop”) group Girls’ Generation beat out many U.S. pop music stars for Video of the Year (Yang, 2013). In 2015, the fans of K-pop group T-ara won Billboard’s Fan Army Face-Off, beating out the fans of well-established Western artists like One Direction and Beyoncé (“Fan Army,” 2015). The matchup against One Direction led to the globally trending hashtag on Twitter, #WeLove1DandKpop (“Fan Army,” 2015). While some U.S. critics and Western music fans may see these events as flukes, there is a ...


A Battlefield Map For Nfl V. Insurance Industry Re: Concussion Liabilities, Christopher French Dec 2015

A Battlefield Map For Nfl V. Insurance Industry Re: Concussion Liabilities, Christopher French

Christopher C. French

When the superstar athlete -“Iron Mike” Webster - a 9-time National Football League (NFL) Pro Bowler, 4-time Super Bowl Champion, Hall of Fame center for the Pittsburgh Steelers died at age 50 with severe brain dysfunction after becoming homeless and living in a truck, it was discovered he had a previously nameless disease, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE). The discovery of CTE opened the floodgates on interest in delayed manifestation brain diseases caused by repeated blows to the head. As part of that flood, numerous class actions were brought by retired NFL football players against the NFL for their alleged brain diseases ...