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Full-Text Articles in Entertainment, Arts, and Sports Law

A Twenty-First-Century Olympic And Amateur Sports Act, Dionne L. Koller Jan 2018

A Twenty-First-Century Olympic And Amateur Sports Act, Dionne L. Koller

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Recent scandals involving national governing bodies for sport and allegations of athlete abuse have captured media attention. The most recent, focusing on the actions of USA Gymnastics, prompted Congress to propose legislation to require better protections for Olympic Movement athletes. Signed into law on February 14, 2018, the Protecting Young Victims from Sexual Abuse and Safe Sport Authorization Act of 2017 designates the United States Center for SafeSport (SafeSport) as the independent organization charged with exercising jurisdiction over the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) and sport national governing bodies to safeguard amateur athletes against all forms of abuse. Congress’s ...


Lessons From The Dramatists Guild For The Platform Economy, Matthew T. Bodie Jan 2017

Lessons From The Dramatists Guild For The Platform Economy, Matthew T. Bodie

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Are platform workers part of a firm or are they working as individual businesses? Are they providing their labor as part of a team, or do they hold on to individual capital throughout their transactions? This essay explores the question of employee versus independent contract through the specific examples of dramatists and screenwriters. Dramatists have chosen to conduct their work as separate artists; they maintain copyright over their work, and they retain control over its use. Screenwriters, on the other hand, work as part of a team; they hand over their copyright to the production company and cede control over ...


Putting Public Law Into “Private” Sport, Dionne L. Koller Jan 2016

Putting Public Law Into “Private” Sport, Dionne L. Koller

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Across all levels of sport—professional, Olympic, intercollegiate, interscholastic, and youth recreational—the prevailing view is that the government should not take an active role in regulating athletics. As a result, there are relatively few federal or state statutes directed at regulating sports, and those that are aimed at sports primarily serve to support the professional sports industry. Moreover, courts show great deference to sports leagues and administrators, most often applying law in a way that insulates and empowers them. This creates a climate where leagues and administrators are permitted wide latitude to structure and conduct their respective sports as ...


The Jocks And The Justice: How Sotomayor Restrained College Athletes, Phillip J. Closius Jan 2016

The Jocks And The Justice: How Sotomayor Restrained College Athletes, Phillip J. Closius

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Two judicial opinions have shaped the modem college athletic world. NCAA v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma declared the NCAA's exclusive control over the media rights to college football violated the Sherman Act. That decision allowed universities and conferences to control their own media revenue and laid the foundation for the explosion of coverage and income in college football today. Clarett v. NFL held that the provision then in the National Football League's (NFL) Constitution and By-Laws that prohibited players from being eligible for the NFL draft until three years from the date of their ...


Sports, Doping, And The Regulatory "Tipping Point", Dionne L. Koller Oct 2015

Sports, Doping, And The Regulatory "Tipping Point", Dionne L. Koller

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This Essay seeks to explore whether there is a regulatory tipping point for sports-the point at which the government will take action to address a perceived problem in sports-and if so, what the circumstances are that generate such a moment. Such an issue is particularly important now. Troubling stories about athletes' health and well-being and the consequences of our most beloved games are nothing new. Reports of the effects of sports concussions, exploitation of college athletes, and other examples of the harms wrought by the "win at all costs" mentality dominate sports headlines and prompt calls for meaningful change. Many ...


The Obese And The Elite: Using Law To Reclaim School Sports, Dionne L. Koller Apr 2015

The Obese And The Elite: Using Law To Reclaim School Sports, Dionne L. Koller

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Sports in schools are a uniquely American phenomenon. Athletic programs flourish in high schools, colleges, and universities with traditionally very little interference by legislatures or courts. The most notable, if not limited, exception to this deference is Title IX of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title IX), which prohibits educational institutions receiving federal financial assistance from discriminating on the basis of gender. As applied to athletic programs, Title IX is often cited as a public policy success. The law has led to the creation of meaningful sports participation opportunities for women and girls and shaped new norms for sports ...


The Four Stages Of Youth Sports Tbi Policymaking: Engagement, Enactment, Research, And Reform, Hosea H. Harvey, Dionne L. Koller, Kerri M. Lowrey Jan 2015

The Four Stages Of Youth Sports Tbi Policymaking: Engagement, Enactment, Research, And Reform, Hosea H. Harvey, Dionne L. Koller, Kerri M. Lowrey

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This article advances, for the first time, a framework for situating public health law interventions as occurring in a predictable four-stage process. In this article, written in connection with our panel at the Public Health Law Research Conference (2014), we briefly apply this four-stage framework to youth sports TBI laws, and conclude that public health lawmaking in this area is consistent with prior high-visibility public health law interventions.


Recent Journalism Awards Won By "Old," "New," And "Hybrid" Media, Robert H. Lande, Thomas J. Horton, Virginia Callahan Dec 2014

Recent Journalism Awards Won By "Old," "New," And "Hybrid" Media, Robert H. Lande, Thomas J. Horton, Virginia Callahan

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This compares the quality of the "old" media to that of the "new" media by determining how often each type of media source wins major journalism awards. It divides media sources into three categories: old, new and hybrid. New media is limited to publications that were started purely as online news publications. Old media is classified in the traditional sense to include such newspapers as the New York Times. Hybrid media combines elements of both new and old media. Our research compares the number of Pulitzer Prizes and other major journalism awards won by these three types of media sources ...


Should The Internet Exempt The Media Sector From The Antitrust Laws?, Thomas J. Horton, Robert H. Lande Sep 2013

Should The Internet Exempt The Media Sector From The Antitrust Laws?, Thomas J. Horton, Robert H. Lande

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This article examines whether the "old media" and the "new media", including the Internet, should be considered to be within the same relevant market for antitrust purposes. To do this the article first demonstrates that proper antitrust consideration of the role of non-price competition necessitates that “news” and “journalism” be analyzed in two distinct ways. First, every part of the operations of a newspaper (or other type of media source), including its investigative reporting and local coverage, should be assessed separately. We present empirical evidence collected for this study which demonstrates that the old media continues to win the vast ...


Valuing Fractional Interests In Art For Estate Tax Purposes, Wendy G. Gerzog May 2013

Valuing Fractional Interests In Art For Estate Tax Purposes, Wendy G. Gerzog

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It is difficult to value fractional interests in art because there is virtually no market in those interests. Nevertheless, the Tax Court in Estate of Elkins valued the decedent’s fractional interests in multiple artworks, which the decedent and his children highly cherished. First, the court addressed the restricted agreements under section 2703 and then the court determined the value of decedent’s interests in the art.


Crowdsourcing Indie Movies, Henry H. Perritt Jr. Sep 2012

Crowdsourcing Indie Movies, Henry H. Perritt Jr.

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Crowdsourcing Indie Movies Henry H. Perritt, Jr. Abstract Internet-centered technology developments are revolutionizing the ways in which movies can be made. The use of crowdsourcing to make indie movies is a possibility that has not yet been explored fully, although the use of crowdsourcing to raise money for artistic works is growing. Crowdsourcing can be used for every step of making a movie, increasing the range of collaboration available to creators and reducing capital requirements. The article uses a fictional account of a team of young moviemakers to explain how they can use crowdsourcing for each step of making their ...


Competitive Entertainment: Implications Of The Nfl Lockout Litigation For Sports, Theatre, Music, And Video Entertainment, Henry H. Perritt Jr. Jan 2012

Competitive Entertainment: Implications Of The Nfl Lockout Litigation For Sports, Theatre, Music, And Video Entertainment, Henry H. Perritt Jr.

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The 2011 NFL lockout reveals profound changes in the labor and product markets for the entire entertainment industry, driven by a revolution in technology. This article explores the revolution in the professional sports, theatre, and movie-making industries and concludes that it is fragmenting production, blurring the boundaries between labor markets and product markets, and introducing new forms of competition. As a result, the labor exemptions to the antitrust laws, which featured prominently in the NFL controversy are becoming less relevant, shifting the law's policing of competition to antitrust rule-of-reason analysis, where counterpoises such as labor unions are inactive, and ...


How The Expressive Power Of Title Ix Dilutes Its Promise, Dionne L. Koller Jan 2012

How The Expressive Power Of Title Ix Dilutes Its Promise, Dionne L. Koller

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Title IX is widely credited with shaping new norms for the world of sports by requiring educational institutions to provide equal athletic opportunities to women. The statute and regulations send a message that women are entitled to participate in sports on terms equal to men. For several decades, this message of equality produced dramatic results in participation rates, as the number of women interested in athletics grew substantially. Despite these gains, however, many women and girls, especially those of color and lower socio-economic status, still do not participate in sports, or remain interested in participating, in numbers comparable to their ...


Hammerin’ Hank & The Golden Arm: Remembering Baseball’S Jewish Hall Of Famers, Kenneth Lasson Apr 2011

Hammerin’ Hank & The Golden Arm: Remembering Baseball’S Jewish Hall Of Famers, Kenneth Lasson

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This cover story focuses on two of baseball’s greatest players, Sandy Koufax, and Hank Greenberg. Besides describing their great talent for the game, it also chronicles the religious discrimination, taunts and abuse they had to endure for their religious beliefs, not just from the public, but occasionally from members of opposing teams as well.


New Business Models For Music, Henry H. Perritt Jr. Jan 2011

New Business Models For Music, Henry H. Perritt Jr.

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The popular music industry is in the middle of a technology-driven revolution. It is clear that the old order has been swept away, but it is not yet clear what form the “new order” will take. The major labels are on life support and will not survive in anything like their previous form. Compact Discs are dead as a distribution medium. Copyright is unenforceable and hence essentially irrelevant except at the margins of the “new order.” Barriers to entry have been reduced dramatically as the costs of producing top-quality recordings have declined by a couple of orders of magnitude. Portable ...


Cut In Tiny Pieces: Ensuring That Fragmented Ownership Does Not Chill Creativity, Henry H. Perritt Jr. Jan 2011

Cut In Tiny Pieces: Ensuring That Fragmented Ownership Does Not Chill Creativity, Henry H. Perritt Jr.

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The market for video entertainment is growing and becoming more diverse as technology reduces barriers to entry for small, independent moviemakers and distributors and increases consumers’ ability to access the media of their choice. The growing complexity of the market, however, increases transaction costs for new entrants who must obtain licenses to copyrighted music, characters, storylines, or scenes that they incorporate into their movies. The entertainment bonanza offered by new technologies may not be realized in practice because of market failure. The purposes of the Copyright and Patents Clause are frustrated because creators of new works wishing to use new ...


Not Just One Of The Boys: A Post-Feminist Critique Of Title Ix's Vision For Gender Equity In Sports, Dionne L. Koller Dec 2010

Not Just One Of The Boys: A Post-Feminist Critique Of Title Ix's Vision For Gender Equity In Sports, Dionne L. Koller

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Title IX as applied to athletics is a high-profile, controversial public policy effort that has opened up the world of athletics to millions of girls and women. Yet as it is both celebrated for the opportunities it has created for women, and decried as going too far at the expense of men, a reality persists that women do not pursue or remain committed to sport in numbers comparable to men. This Article seeks to explore this phenomenon by moving the discourse beyond the debate over whether women are inherently as "interested" in sport as men to examine the conception of ...


From Medals To Morality: Sportive Nationalism And The Problem Of Doping In Sports, Dionne L. Koller Oct 2008

From Medals To Morality: Sportive Nationalism And The Problem Of Doping In Sports, Dionne L. Koller

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The conventional wisdom is that in the fight against doping, the government is in the best position to clean up sport and protect the integrity of competition. The premise underlying this assumption is that in the United States, sport is private, so that the government typically has no role in its regulation. It is now, advocates suggest, with the integrity of sport on the line, the government should move off the sidelines and take action. This essay challenges that premise by arguing that with respect to doping in sports the government has not merely been a sidelines observer, but was ...


Bringing Baseball To Israel, Kenneth Lasson Aug 2008

Bringing Baseball To Israel, Kenneth Lasson

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This brief article discusses little leagues in Israel, as well as individuals interested in baseball in that nation, especially those from the Maryland and Baltimore area. Mentioned is assistance sent to the little leagues by the Baltimore Orioles baseball team, and some of the memories of those involved of baseball in the United States, but who now reside in Israel.


Frozen In Time: The State Action Doctrine's Application To Amateur Sports, Dionne L. Koller Jan 2008

Frozen In Time: The State Action Doctrine's Application To Amateur Sports, Dionne L. Koller

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The state action doctrine has as its central goal the preservation of liberty by limiting the intrusion of the government into the "private" sphere. It achieves this by applying the Constitution only to government, and not private, action. Traditionally, amateur sports regulators such as the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) have been viewed by courts as private. As a result, this article explains that courts generally give great deference to amateur sports organizations such as the NCAA and USOC to regulate sports with little judicial interference, including in the area of constitutional litigation ...


How The United States Government Sacrifices Athletes' Constitutional Rights In The Pursuit Of National Prestige, Dionne L. Koller Jan 2008

How The United States Government Sacrifices Athletes' Constitutional Rights In The Pursuit Of National Prestige, Dionne L. Koller

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This Article is about the United States Government trading off athletes' constitutional rights in the pursuit of national prestige through sport. The Olympic Movement has for decades provided an incentive for governments of all ideologies to use elite athletes to enhance national prestige or demonstrate national supremacy. This phenomenon is commonly known as "sportive nationalism." Unlike countries such as the former East Germany and Soviet Union, the United States Government has not readily acknowledged its own practice of sportive nationalism, preferring instead to assert that Olympic Movement sport in the United States is a private endeavor. This Article, however, demonstrates ...


Some Learning Opportunities From The Imus Affair, Kenneth Lasson Apr 2007

Some Learning Opportunities From The Imus Affair, Kenneth Lasson

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The author discusses the broader issues of free speech under the surface of the Don Imus affair, where that commentator made a gratuitous slur about the Rutgers women's basketball team. He balances this gaff against the good deeds of the same personality, comparing this with similar provocative remarks made by other well-known public figures. The media is cited for an overreaction to the Imus incident, and all these components are discussed in light of what free speech means.


New Architectures For Music: Law Should Get Out Of The Way, Henry H. Perritt Jr. Mar 2007

New Architectures For Music: Law Should Get Out Of The Way, Henry H. Perritt Jr.

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No abstract provided.


Football Most Foul, William A. Birdthistle Feb 2007

Football Most Foul, William A. Birdthistle

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The 2006 FIFA World Cup was a disappointing display of soccer, comprising forgettable athletic contests that turned most critically on the administration of justice. Referees, more than athletes, emerged as the central protagonists in each game by providing the most dramatic plot twist - either by handing out red cards, which they did at a record pace, or awarding penalty kicks, which provided the winning goal in almost ten percent of the tournament's games. For much of the viewing public, the footballers' performances were even more deplorable, as players constantly flopped to the ground at minor or nonexistent contact and ...


Does The Constitution Apply To The Actions Of The United States Anti-Doping Agency?, Dionne L. Koller Oct 2005

Does The Constitution Apply To The Actions Of The United States Anti-Doping Agency?, Dionne L. Koller

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Since its formation in 2000, the United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) has aggressively pursued athletes who are believed to have used performance-enhancing substances and has aggressively prosecuted those who ultimately test positive. To many, this is a long overdue response to the growing problem of doping in sports. But to others, USADA's actions, and the federal government's support of these efforts, has sparked enormous controversy. This article examines USADA and its relationship to the federal government to determine whether USADA's actions could be constrained by the Constitution. While it is clear that USADA has very close ties ...


The Game Of Pleasant Diversion: Can We Level The Playing Field For The Disabled Athlete And Maintain The National Pastime, In The Aftermath Of Pga Tour, Inc. V. Martin: An Empirical Study Of The Disabled Athlete, Donald H. Stone Apr 2005

The Game Of Pleasant Diversion: Can We Level The Playing Field For The Disabled Athlete And Maintain The National Pastime, In The Aftermath Of Pga Tour, Inc. V. Martin: An Empirical Study Of The Disabled Athlete, Donald H. Stone

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Kenny Walker, a deaf football player; Jim Abbott, a one-handed professional baseball player; Tom Dempsey, a physically disabled professional football kicker; Brad Doty, a paralyzed auto racer; and Nick Ackerman, a wrestler with amputated legs, have all competed at the highest level of sports. Persons with mental illness, individuals who are blind, and students with hearing impairments are seeking an opportunity to compete in fair competition with their non-disabled competitors. Can this occur in a fair, open, and just manner between competing athletes?

Does the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 ("ADA"), the landmark civil rights act protecting an individual ...


I Say It's Spinach: Charitable Trusts To Remedy Market Failures In The Performing Arts, Jeffrey G. Sherman Mar 2003

I Say It's Spinach: Charitable Trusts To Remedy Market Failures In The Performing Arts, Jeffrey G. Sherman

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No abstract provided.


A Contested Ascendancy: Problems With Personal Managers Acting As Producers, William A. Birdthistle Feb 2000

A Contested Ascendancy: Problems With Personal Managers Acting As Producers, William A. Birdthistle

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No abstract provided.


Hell Hath No Fury Like A Fan Scorned: State Regulation Of Sports Agents, Phillip J. Closius Jul 1999

Hell Hath No Fury Like A Fan Scorned: State Regulation Of Sports Agents, Phillip J. Closius

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This article first describes the existing system of state statutes regulating sports agents, including the proposed Model Uniform Athlete Agents Act. The article then examines the validity of these statutes in the context of jurisdictional limitations and dormant Commerce Clause principles. Lastly, federal regulation and the rules of professional sports unions are considered as alternatives to state legislative activity.


The First Amendment And Fcc Rule Making Under The 1992 Cable Act, Michael I. Meyerson Jan 1994

The First Amendment And Fcc Rule Making Under The 1992 Cable Act, Michael I. Meyerson

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This Article explores the First Amendment implications of the Federal Communication Commission's (FCC) regulations issued under the Cable Television Consumer Protection and Competition Act of 19921 (1992 Cable Act). The 1992 Cable Act imposes numerous requirements that are beyond the scope of this Article. This Article analyzes only the FCC's exercise of rule making discretion under the 1992 Cable Act.

Additionally, it must be remembered that an under-staffed FCC was given an enormous amount of work to do within fixed time limits. Therefore, it must be expected that the rulemaking would be vulnerable to second-guessing. Nonetheless, whenever a ...