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Articles 31 - 60 of 248

Full-Text Articles in Entertainment, Arts, and Sports Law

Player Restraints And Competition Law Throughout The World, Stephen Ross Jan 2016

Player Restraints And Competition Law Throughout The World, Stephen Ross

Stephen F Ross

This article reviews agreements among clubs participating in league sports in many countries throughout the world that limit competition for the services of players. Under the English common law (which governs in most of the British commonwealth), the competition law provisions of the European Union's governing treaty, the American Sherman Act, and the Canadian Competition Act, the governing standard is quite similar. Player restraints cab only be justified if they are related to a legitimate purpose, which is usually defined as one that demonstrably improves the consumer appeal for the sporting competition. Moreover, and significantly, player restraints must be ...


Monopoly Sports Leagues, Stephen Ross Jan 2016

Monopoly Sports Leagues, Stephen Ross

Stephen F Ross

This Article argues that the government should break up both Major League Baseball and the NFL to provide for competing economic entities in each sport. Part I details the harm monopoly sports leagues cause in several different markets and explains why a competitive league structure can correct such harms. Part II discusses why regulatory solutions are poor substitutes for competition as a means of redressing these harms. Part III explains why neither baseball nor football is a "natural monopoly" and argues that no persuasive evidence suggests that rival leagues cannot exist in those sports. Part IV examines how the antitrust ...


The Misunderstood Alliance Between Sports Fans, Players, And The Antitrust Laws, Stephen Ross Jan 2016

The Misunderstood Alliance Between Sports Fans, Players, And The Antitrust Laws, Stephen Ross

Stephen F Ross

The baseball strike and the ongoing hostilities between the players' association and owners have evoked criticism and frustration among fans and others. Although the players successfully defeated the owners' most recent attempts to reduce major league competition, the threat of future imposition of competitive restraints by the owners remains. In this article Professor Stephen F. Ross argues that blanket restraints on the market for players affirmatively inhibit on-the-field competition and consequently offend the Sherman Act. The article begins with the proposition that monopsony - price-fixing behavior by buyers', rather than sellers' cartels - implicates the Sherman Act. Restraints on competition for players ...


Sports And The Law: Text, Cases, And Problems, 5th, Stephen Ross, Paul Weiler, Gary Roberts, Roger Abrams Jan 2016

Sports And The Law: Text, Cases, And Problems, 5th, Stephen Ross, Paul Weiler, Gary Roberts, Roger Abrams

Stephen F Ross

This casebook introduces students to the fundamentals of labor, antitrust, and intellectual property law as applied in the professional and amateur sporting industries. It covers the unique office of the league commissioner and special concerns with the “best interests of sports”; the contract, antitrust, and labor law dimensions of the player-labor market; the peculiar institution of the player agent in a unionized industry; the economic and legal implications of agreements among league owners and responses to rival leagues; the system of commercialized college athletics governed by the NCAA and how law impacts individual sports like golf, tennis and boxing; as ...


Reconsidering Flood V. Kuhn, Stephen Ross Jan 2016

Reconsidering Flood V. Kuhn, Stephen Ross

Stephen F Ross

Within the academia, two very different groups of legal scholars have devoted a great deal of attention to Flood v. Kuhn. Those specializing in sports law have either attached Flood as a ridiculous decision that improperly distinguished between baseball and other professional sports, or have praised it for waging guerrilla warfare on the idea that Section 1 of the Sherman Act should apply to intra-league arrangements by owners of the professional sports teams. Those viewing Flood through the lens of statutory interpretation perceive the decision as adhering rigidly to the principle of stare decisis; this rigidity has been both praised ...


An Antitrust Analysis Of Sports League Contracts With Cable Networks, Stephen Ross Jan 2016

An Antitrust Analysis Of Sports League Contracts With Cable Networks, Stephen Ross

Stephen F Ross

This Article discusses the proper antitrust treatment of package sales to cable. Part I considers whether the antitrust laws apply at all to such sales; it concludes that section one of the Sherman Act does apply and that neither the Sports Broadcasting Act of 1961 not baseball's historic exemption from the antitrust laws prevents antitrust scrutiny of these contracts. Part II explains why cable package sales should be analyzed under a rule of reason test focused on the effect of a sale on fan viewership. Finally, Part III responds to several possible objections to the rule of reason standard ...


Antitrust Options To Redress Anticompetitive Restraints And Monopolistic Practices By Professional Sports Leagues, Stephen Ross Jan 2016

Antitrust Options To Redress Anticompetitive Restraints And Monopolistic Practices By Professional Sports Leagues, Stephen Ross

Stephen F Ross

The hallmark of an antitrust violation is an agreement which has the effect of raising price, lowering output, or rendering output unresponsive to consumer demand. Owners of clubs comprising Major League Baseball, the National Football League, the National Basketball Association, and the National Hockey League engage in a variety of exploitative activities that consumers cannot avoid by substituting rival products. The purpose of this Article is to analyze specific areas where these monopoly sports leagues harm a variety of groups, through the maintenance of a monopolistic structure that precludes competitive entry, or through specific restraints that have demonstrable anticompetitive effects ...


Accommodating Labor And Antitrust, Stephen Ross Jan 2016

Accommodating Labor And Antitrust, Stephen Ross

Stephen F Ross

In this article, the author comments on Professor Michael LeRoy's article "Federal Jurisdiction in Sports Labor Disputes" (2012 Utah L. Rev. 815) and explains why he disagrees with the claim that federal courts improperly invoke the Sherman Act in sports labor disputes.


A Rapid Reaction To O'Bannon: The Need For Analytics In Applying The Sherman Act To Overly Restrictive Joint Venture Schemes, Stephen Ross, Wayne Desarbo Jan 2016

A Rapid Reaction To O'Bannon: The Need For Analytics In Applying The Sherman Act To Overly Restrictive Joint Venture Schemes, Stephen Ross, Wayne Desarbo

Stephen F Ross

This Article reviews the recent and highly publicized district court decision holding that NCAA rules, which bar student-athletes from any compensation for image rights, violated the Sherman Act, and that big-time athletic programs could lawfully agree among themselves to limit compensation to $5,000 annually in trust for each athlete upon leaving school. This Article briefly discusses why the decision correctly found the current rule to be illegal, but also details why, under settled antitrust law, the critical question of how much compensation would significantly harm consumer appeal for college football and basketball is a question better left to marketing ...


Switch Hitters: How League Involvement In Daily Fantasy Sports Could End The Prohibition Of Sports Gambling, Jordan Meddy Jan 2016

Switch Hitters: How League Involvement In Daily Fantasy Sports Could End The Prohibition Of Sports Gambling, Jordan Meddy

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

Whether in the form of lotto tickets or casino table games, gambling is legally permitted in some way in virtually every U.S. state. Yet, in all but a handful of jurisdictions, federal law prohibits wagering on sporting events or professional athletes in any form. Several economically challenged states, particularly New Jersey, have been trying to authorize sports gambling within their borders as a way to raise tax revenues and support their local gambling industries. While these attempts have thus far been unsuccessful, Daily Fantasy Sports have simultaneously experienced a meteoric rise, becoming a multi-billion dollar industry. This Note examines ...


Student-Athletes Vs. Ncaa: Preserving Amateurism In College Sports Amidst The Fight For Player Compensation, Audrey C. Sheetz Jan 2016

Student-Athletes Vs. Ncaa: Preserving Amateurism In College Sports Amidst The Fight For Player Compensation, Audrey C. Sheetz

Brooklyn Law Review

While student-athletes are the backbone of the $11 billion college sports industry, they do not currently receive any of this revenue derived from the use of their names, images, and likenesses. The National College Athletic Association’s mission is to maintain the amateur status of student-athletes. In doing so, it precludes student-athletes from receiving any type of compensation outside of the actual cost of tuition. Amateurism, as a concept, promotes the distinction between professional and student athletes, and is the crux of the NCAA’s argument for prohibiting the compensation of student-athletes. Recently, however, the controversy surrounding the amateur status ...


Throwing The Flag On Pay-For-Play: The O'Bannon Ruling And The Future Of Paid Student-Athletes, Joseph Davison Oct 2015

Throwing The Flag On Pay-For-Play: The O'Bannon Ruling And The Future Of Paid Student-Athletes, Joseph Davison

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

A group of former and current football and men’s basketball players, led by ex-UCLA basketball star Edward O’Bannon, brought an antitrust suit against the NCAA in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California. Their goal was to obtain an injunction ending the NCAA’s rules preventing players from being paid for the use of their names, images, or likenesses. Relying in large part on a 1984 Supreme Court case, NCAA v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma, the NCAA claimed that there are specific procompetitive justifications for the restrictions, namely, amateurism and ...


Three Strikes And You're Out: An Investigation Of Professional Baseball's Antitrust Exemption, H. Ward Classen Jul 2015

Three Strikes And You're Out: An Investigation Of Professional Baseball's Antitrust Exemption, H. Ward Classen

Akron Law Review

This Article will examine the economic structure of the professional sports industry, explore professional baseball's judicially created exemption from antitrust laws and discuss the impact of the Federal Baseball Club v. National League and subsequent decisions on the professional sports industry. Finally, this Article will demonstrate that while baseball's antitrust exemption may have been justified sixty-five years ago, it now promotes economic inefficiency and infringes upon the constitutional rights of professional baseball players to freely market their talents.


Punt, Impasse Or Kick: The 1987 Nflpa Antitrust Action, Elyzabeth Joy Holford Jul 2015

Punt, Impasse Or Kick: The 1987 Nflpa Antitrust Action, Elyzabeth Joy Holford

Akron Law Review

The business aspects of professional sport dominated the media when a twenty-seven day strike disrupted the 1987 NFL football season, which included the hiring of replacement players, the filing of numerous labor charges by both the NFL Management Council (NFLMC) and the NFL Players' Association (NFLPA) and the dismal end of the strike after many players crossed the picket lines to return to play.' On the day that the NFLPA announced that the strike was over, they also shifted into their final goal line defense: the filing of an antitrust action against the National Football League (NFL) and each individual ...


Self-Replicating Technologies And The Challenge For The Patent And Antitrust Laws, 32 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 131 (2013), Daryl Lim May 2015

Self-Replicating Technologies And The Challenge For The Patent And Antitrust Laws, 32 Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 131 (2013), Daryl Lim

Daryl Lim

Few patented inventions challenge the traditional boundaries of the patent and antitrust laws like those that are capable of multiplying as they are used. These self-replicating technologies are embedded in our food, fortify our vaccines, and form the computer code upon which the information age is based. These inventions create an inherent conflict between patentees and their customers. The conflict arises because every customer could become competitors as the product replicates, potentially making every first sale the patentee's last. They also challenge how we think about fundamental issues of ownership as well as innovation and market competition, and make ...


Real Accountability: The Ncaa Can No Longer Evade Antitrust Liability Through Amateurism After O’Bannon V. Ncaa, Michael T. Jones May 2015

Real Accountability: The Ncaa Can No Longer Evade Antitrust Liability Through Amateurism After O’Bannon V. Ncaa, Michael T. Jones

Boston College Law Review

On August 8, 2014, in O’Bannon v. National Collegiate Athletic Association, the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California held that the NCAA’s restriction on compensating student-athletes for the use of their names, images, and likenesses violated the Sherman Act. The court ruled against the NCAA despite a long history of judicial deference grounded in preserving the amateur and educational nature of the NCAA. The NCAA has appealed the decision. Despite annual revenues approaching $1 billion, the NCAA claims its amateur and educational fundamentals distinguish its product from commercialized professional sports. This Comment argues that ...


Brief Of Antitrust Scholars As Amici Curiae In Support Of Appellees, Supporting Affirmance, Chris Sagers, K. Craig Wildfang, Ryan W. Marth, David Martinez Feb 2015

Brief Of Antitrust Scholars As Amici Curiae In Support Of Appellees, Supporting Affirmance, Chris Sagers, K. Craig Wildfang, Ryan W. Marth, David Martinez

Chris Sagers

Amici urge affirmance for three principal reasons. First, we elaborate a point to dispel Appellant's suggestion that antitrust somehow does not belong here. Second, we show that ordinary rule of reason treatment was appropriate. Relying rather daringly on a case that it overwhelmingly lost, Appellant asks this Court to find within NCAA v. Board of Regents of Univ. of Okla., 468 U. S. 85 (1984), a rule that its "amateurism" or "eligibility" restraints are "valid...as a matter of law." NCAA Br. at 14, 22. Board of Regents did not say that, and even Appellant's own amici admit ...


Definitions, Religion, And Free Exercise Guarantees, Mark Strasser Jan 2015

Definitions, Religion, And Free Exercise Guarantees, Mark Strasser

Mark Strasser

The First Amendment to the United States Constitution protects the free exercise of religion. Non-religious practices do not receive those same protections, which makes the ability to distinguish between religious and non-religious practices important. Regrettably, members of the Court have been unable to agree about how to distinguish the religious from the non-religious—sometimes, the implicit criteria focus on the sincerity of the beliefs, sometimes the strength of the beliefs or the role that they play in an individual’s life, and sometimes the kind of beliefs. In short, the Court has virtually guaranteed an incoherent jurisprudence by sending contradictory ...


Brief Of Antitrust Scholars As Amici Curiae In Support Of Appellees, Supporting Affirmance, Chris Sagers, K. Craig Wildfang, Ryan W. Marth, David Martinez Jan 2015

Brief Of Antitrust Scholars As Amici Curiae In Support Of Appellees, Supporting Affirmance, Chris Sagers, K. Craig Wildfang, Ryan W. Marth, David Martinez

Law Faculty Briefs

Amici urge affirmance for three principal reasons. First, we elaborate a point to dispel Appellant's suggestion that antitrust somehow does not belong here. Second, we show that ordinary rule of reason treatment was appropriate. Relying rather daringly on a case that it overwhelmingly lost, Appellant asks this Court to find within NCAA v. Board of Regents of Univ. of Okla., 468 U. S. 85 (1984), a rule that its "amateurism" or "eligibility" restraints are "valid...as a matter of law." NCAA Br. at 14, 22. Board of Regents did not say that, and even Appellant's own amici admit ...


How Not To Apply The Rule Of Reason: The O’Bannon Case, Michael A. Carrier Jan 2015

How Not To Apply The Rule Of Reason: The O’Bannon Case, Michael A. Carrier

Michigan Law Review First Impressions

The case of O’Bannon v. NCAA has received significant attention. On behalf of a class of student-athletes, former college basketball star Ed O’Bannon sued the NCAA, challenging rules that prohibited payment for the use of names, images, and likenesses (NILs) in videogames, live game telecasts, and other footage. A Ninth Circuit panel, in a 2-1 decision, found that this restraint had anticompetitive effects and procompetitive justifications. And it considered “less restrictive alternatives,” upholding payment for incidental educational expenses beyond tuition and fees, room and board, and required books, but rejecting a deferred $5,000 payment for NILs. Straddling ...


A Rapid Reaction To O'Bannon: The Need For Analytics In Applying The Sherman Act To Overly Restrictive Joint Venture Schemes, Stephen F. Ross, Wayne Desarbo Jan 2015

A Rapid Reaction To O'Bannon: The Need For Analytics In Applying The Sherman Act To Overly Restrictive Joint Venture Schemes, Stephen F. Ross, Wayne Desarbo

Journal Articles

This Article reviews the recent and highly publicized district court decision holding that NCAA rules, which bar student-athletes from any compensation for image rights, violated the Sherman Act, and that big-time athletic programs could lawfully agree among themselves to limit compensation to $5,000 annually in trust for each athlete upon leaving school. This Article briefly discusses why the decision correctly found the current rule to be illegal, but also details why, under settled antitrust law, the critical question of how much compensation would significantly harm consumer appeal for college football and basketball is a question better left to marketing ...


Power Play: Why Nhl's Prohibition On Player Participation In Future Olympics Would Violate Sherman Antitrust Act, Ross O'Neill Jan 2015

Power Play: Why Nhl's Prohibition On Player Participation In Future Olympics Would Violate Sherman Antitrust Act, Ross O'Neill

Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Judges Are Not ‘Super-Referees’: Why A Qualified Statutory Exemption To The Sherman Act Is Needed To Reform The Ncaa And Its Exploitive Amateur Model, 49 J. Marshall L. Rev. 125 (2015), Christopher Sweeney Jan 2015

Judges Are Not ‘Super-Referees’: Why A Qualified Statutory Exemption To The Sherman Act Is Needed To Reform The Ncaa And Its Exploitive Amateur Model, 49 J. Marshall L. Rev. 125 (2015), Christopher Sweeney

The John Marshall Law Review

This Comment will analyze the historical application of antitrust laws to the rules and regulations of the NCAA and argue that, in light of a recent shift in judicial treatment, the next round of antitrust litigation threatens to destroy the entire NCAA model.


On The Antitrust Exemption For Professional Sports In The United States And Europe, Leah Farzin Jan 2015

On The Antitrust Exemption For Professional Sports In The United States And Europe, Leah Farzin

Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal

No abstract provided.


O'Bannon V. National Collegiate Athletic Association: A Cinderella Story, Meghan Rose Price Jan 2015

O'Bannon V. National Collegiate Athletic Association: A Cinderella Story, Meghan Rose Price

Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Is Music The Next Ebooks? An Antitrust Analysis Of Apple's Conduct In The Music Industry, Alexa Klebanow, Tim Wu Jan 2015

Is Music The Next Ebooks? An Antitrust Analysis Of Apple's Conduct In The Music Industry, Alexa Klebanow, Tim Wu

Faculty Scholarship

Over the last twenty years, two waves of technological change have transformed the way people purchase and listen to music. First, digital downloads displaced physical sales of albums. More recently, digital downloads, once the primary way to gain access to digital music, have come to be challenged by streaming services. Apple, a leader in the digital download market with iTunes, has engaged in various strategies to meet the challenge. This paper specifically focuses on two types of conduct – Apple’s pressure on labels to enter into exclusive license agreements, also known as windowing, and Apple’s pressure on the market ...


O’Bannon V. National Collegiate Athletic Association: Why The Ninth Circuit Should Not Block The Floodgates Of Change In College Athletics, Christopher Sagers, Michael A. Carrier Jan 2015

O’Bannon V. National Collegiate Athletic Association: Why The Ninth Circuit Should Not Block The Floodgates Of Change In College Athletics, Christopher Sagers, Michael A. Carrier

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

In O’Bannon v. National Collegiate Athletic Ass’n, then-Chief Judge Claudia Wilken of the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California issued a groundbreaking decision, potentially opening the floodgates for challenges to National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) amateurism rules. The NCAA was finally put to a full evidentiary demonstration of its amateurism defense, and its proof was found emphatically wanting. We agree with Professor Edelman that O’Bannon could bring about significant changes, but only if the Ninth Circuit affirms. We write mainly to address the NCAA’s vigorous pending appeal and the views of certain ...


Recent Journalism Awards Won By "Old," "New," And "Hybrid" Media, Robert H. Lande, Thomas J. Horton, Virginia Callahan Dec 2014

Recent Journalism Awards Won By "Old," "New," And "Hybrid" Media, Robert H. Lande, Thomas J. Horton, Virginia Callahan

All Faculty Scholarship

This compares the quality of the "old" media to that of the "new" media by determining how often each type of media source wins major journalism awards. It divides media sources into three categories: old, new and hybrid. New media is limited to publications that were started purely as online news publications. Old media is classified in the traditional sense to include such newspapers as the New York Times. Hybrid media combines elements of both new and old media. Our research compares the number of Pulitzer Prizes and other major journalism awards won by these three types of media sources ...


E-Books, Collusion, And Antitrust Policy: Protecting A Dominant Firm At The Cost Of Innovation, Nicholas Timchalk Oct 2014

E-Books, Collusion, And Antitrust Policy: Protecting A Dominant Firm At The Cost Of Innovation, Nicholas Timchalk

Seattle University Law Review

Amazon’s main rival, Apple, went to great lengths and took major risks to enter the e-book market. Why did Apple simply choose not to compete on the merits of its product and brand equity (the iPad and iBookstore) as it does with its other products? Why did Apple decide not to continue to rely on its earlier success of situating its products differently in the market than other electronics and working hard to be different and cutting-edge with its e-book delivery? This Note argues that the combination of Amazon’s 90% market share, network externalities, and an innovative technology ...


Moving All-In With The World Trade Organization: Ignoring Adverse Rulings And Gambling With The Future Of The Wto, Paul Rothstein Sep 2014

Moving All-In With The World Trade Organization: Ignoring Adverse Rulings And Gambling With The Future Of The Wto, Paul Rothstein

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.