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Special education

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Full-Text Articles in Disability Law

Impartial Hearings Under The Idea: Legal Issues And Answers, Perry A. Zirkel Jun 2019

Impartial Hearings Under The Idea: Legal Issues And Answers, Perry A. Zirkel

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Every Student Succeeds Act: Are Schools Making Sure Every Student Succeeds?, Laura Adler-Greene Jan 2019

Every Student Succeeds Act: Are Schools Making Sure Every Student Succeeds?, Laura Adler-Greene

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Preschool And Lead Exposed Kids: The Idea Just Isn’T Good Enough, Karen Syma Czapanskiy Jan 2019

Preschool And Lead Exposed Kids: The Idea Just Isn’T Good Enough, Karen Syma Czapanskiy

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Least Restrictive Environment For Providing Education, Treatment, And Community Services For Persons With Disabilities: Rethinking The Concept, Donald H. Stone Jan 2019

The Least Restrictive Environment For Providing Education, Treatment, And Community Services For Persons With Disabilities: Rethinking The Concept, Donald H. Stone

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Endrew F. Clairvoyance, Mark C. Weber Jan 2019

Endrew F. Clairvoyance, Mark C. Weber

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Is That Appropriate?: Clarifying The Idea's Free Appropriate Public Education Standard Post-Endrew F., Josh Cowin Nov 2018

Is That Appropriate?: Clarifying The Idea's Free Appropriate Public Education Standard Post-Endrew F., Josh Cowin

Northwestern University Law Review

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires schools to provide all students who qualify for special education services with a free appropriate public education (FAPE). However, the IDEA does not specify how much substantive educational benefit students must be afforded in order to receive a FAPE, leaving this question for the courts. For over thirty years, courts split over the amount of educational benefit that school districts must provide to their special education students, leading to significant confusion and anxiety among parents and school officials regarding their legal rights. The Supreme Court sought to clarify this standard in Endrew ...


Of Mouseholes And Elephants: The Statute Of Limitations For Impartial Hearings Under The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, Perry A. Zirkel Apr 2016

Of Mouseholes And Elephants: The Statute Of Limitations For Impartial Hearings Under The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, Perry A. Zirkel

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

The purpose of this article, in light of the practical significance and the limited literature addressing the IDEA’s hearing level SOL, is to provide a current and concise overview of the case law addressing this specific issue. Part I provides the basic nature and purpose of SOL generally, and specifically how SOL applies to the IDEA’s impartial hearings. Parts II–IV addresses the elements of the SOL statutory provisions in terms of the triggering date, the exceptions, and the duration and effect of the SOL, including the importance of G.L. v. Ligonier Valley School District Authority. Part ...


Has The Supreme Court’S Schaffer Decision Placed A Burden On Hearing Officer Decision-Making Under The Idea?, Cathy A. Skidmore, Perry A. Zirkel Apr 2016

Has The Supreme Court’S Schaffer Decision Placed A Burden On Hearing Officer Decision-Making Under The Idea?, Cathy A. Skidmore, Perry A. Zirkel

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

This article provides a systematic examination of the BOP in hearing officer decisions both before and after Schaffer. Part II examines the legal basis for the BOP both before and after the U.S. Supreme Court decision, resulting in the questions for this study. Part III explains the method used to collect and analyze the data, and Part IV presents the results that answer the specific research questions. Part V discusses those results and the implications of the findings for special education dispute resolution and provides recommendations for further study.


From Mainstreaming To Marginalization? Idea's De Facto Segregation Consequences And Prospects For Restoring Equity In Special Education, Kerrigan O'Malley Mar 2016

From Mainstreaming To Marginalization? Idea's De Facto Segregation Consequences And Prospects For Restoring Equity In Special Education, Kerrigan O'Malley

Law Student Publications

As a basic construct for recommending measures to correct the prevailing inequities in special education, this comment examines the de facto segregation impact IDEA stemming from the Supreme Court's interpretive rulings and from the Act's own enforcement norms. The analysis further identifies the equality compromising consequences of specific IDEA provisions and considers prospects for restoring equity to special needs service delivery in these areas, with a particular focus on tuition reimbursement for private school. Respecting the historical alignment of the law of race discrimination in education and the law of disability education rights, the analysis identifies inequities that ...


The Dimming Light Of The Idea: The Need To Reevaluate The Definition Of A Free Appropriate Public Education, Sarah Lusk Nov 2015

The Dimming Light Of The Idea: The Need To Reevaluate The Definition Of A Free Appropriate Public Education, Sarah Lusk

Pace Law Review

This paper has five parts. Part I examines Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (“IDEA”), explains the definition of a free appropriate public education (“FAPE”), and explores IDEA’s protections for special-education students facing school discipline. Part II discusses the Supreme Court’s interpretation of IDEA and FAPE, as well as how lower courts have interpreted IDEA. Part III focuses on how schools implement IDEA and treat special-education students. Part IV explores the disproportionate effects of school suspension on disabled students and explains the negative impacts, such as the Pipeline. Part V argues that Congress and the Supreme Court must reevaluate ...


An Idea For Special Education: Why The Idea Should Have Primacy Over The Ada In Adjudicating Education Claims For Students With Disabilities, Angela Estrella-Lemus May 2015

An Idea For Special Education: Why The Idea Should Have Primacy Over The Ada In Adjudicating Education Claims For Students With Disabilities, Angela Estrella-Lemus

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Every Day Counts: Proposals To Reform The Idea's Due Process Structure, Elizabeth Shaver Jan 2015

Every Day Counts: Proposals To Reform The Idea's Due Process Structure, Elizabeth Shaver

Akron Law Publications

It is a core principle of special education legislation that the parents of children with disabilities can challenge the child’s educational programming through an administrative due process hearing. Yet, for years the special education due process structure has been criticized as inefficient, anti-collaborative, and prohibitively expensive. Those criticisms have given rise to widely varying proposals to reform special education due process, proposals that range from adding certain alternative dispute resolution mechanisms to a wholesale replacement of the due process structure.

This article provides a comprehensive analysis of special education dispute resolution. The article first examines the lively debate among ...


Accidentally On Purpose: Intent In Disability Discrimination Law, Mark C. Weber Jan 2015

Accidentally On Purpose: Intent In Disability Discrimination Law, Mark C. Weber

Mark C. Weber

American disability discrimination laws contain few intent requirements. Yet courts frequently demand showings of intent in disability discrimination lawsuits. Intent requirements arose almost by accident: through a false statutory analogy; by repetition of obsolete judicial language; and by doctrine developed to avoid a nonexistent conflict with another law. Demanding that section 504 and Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”) claimants show intent imposes a burden not found in those statutes or their interpretive regulations. This Article provides reasons not to impose intent requirements for liability or monetary relief in section 504 and ADA cases concerning reasonable accommodations. It demonstrates that no ...


Accidentally On Purpose: Intent In Disability Discrimination Law, Mark Weber Jan 2015

Accidentally On Purpose: Intent In Disability Discrimination Law, Mark Weber

College of Law Faculty

American disability discrimination laws contain few intent requirements. Yet courts frequently demand showings of intent in disability discrimination lawsuits. Intent requirements arose almost by accident: through a false statutory analogy; by repetition of obsolete judicial language; and by doctrine developed to avoid a nonexistent conflict with another law. Demanding that section 504 and Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”) claimants show intent imposes a burden not found in those statutes or their interpretive regulations. This Article provides reasons not to impose intent requirements for liability or monetary relief in section 504 and ADA cases concerning reasonable accommodations. It demonstrates that no ...


Every Day Counts: Proposals To Reform The Idea's Due Process Structure, Elizabeth Shaver Dec 2014

Every Day Counts: Proposals To Reform The Idea's Due Process Structure, Elizabeth Shaver

Elizabeth Shaver

It is a core principle of special education legislation that the parents of children with disabilities can challenge the child’s educational programming through an administrative due process hearing. Yet, for years the special education due process structure has been criticized as inefficient, anti-collaborative, and prohibitively expensive. Those criticisms have given rise to widely varying proposals to reform special education due process, proposals that range from adding certain alternative dispute resolution mechanisms to a wholesale replacement of the due process structure.

This article provides a comprehensive analysis of special education dispute resolution. The article first examines the lively debate among ...


California Year In Review: 2013 Special Education Alj Decisions, Ruth Colker Jun 2014

California Year In Review: 2013 Special Education Alj Decisions, Ruth Colker

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

This article reviews 74 special education cases decided by California ALJs between January 1, 2013 and December 11, 2013. The author concludes that the ALJs provided stingy relief even when students prevailed, there was often unsuccessful litigation on behalf of a student following the termination of a consent decree or court order, many of the cases reflected negative attitudes towards the mothers of the student, and school districts often preferred more restrictive placements than the parent/student. Not surprisingly, students faced very unfavorable outcomes when they were not represented by a lawyer.


In Defense Of Idea Due Process, Mark Weber Jan 2014

In Defense Of Idea Due Process, Mark Weber

College of Law Faculty

Due Process hearing rights under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act are under attack. A major professional group and several academic commentators charge that the hearings system advantages middle class parents, that it is expensive, that it is futile, and that it is unmanageable. Some critics would abandon individual rights to a hearing and review in favor of bureaucratic enforcement or administrative mechanisms that do not include the right to an individual hearing before a neutral decision maker. This Article defends the right to a due process hearing. It contends that some criticisms of hearing rights are simply erroneous, and ...


Idea Class Actions After Wal-Mart V. Dukes, Mark C. Weber Jan 2014

Idea Class Actions After Wal-Mart V. Dukes, Mark C. Weber

Mark C. Weber

Wal-Mart v. Dukes overturned the certification of a class of a million and a half female employees alleging sex discrimination in Wal-Mart’s salary and promotion decisions. The Supreme Court ruled that the case did not satisfy the requirement that a class have a common question of law or fact, and said that the remedy sought was not the type of relief available under the portion of the class action rule permitting mandatory class actions. Over the last two years, courts have struggled with how to apply the ruling, especially how to apply it beyond its immediate context of employment ...


In Defense Of Idea Due Process, Mark C. Weber Jan 2014

In Defense Of Idea Due Process, Mark C. Weber

Mark C. Weber

Due Process hearing rights under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act are under attack. A major professional group and several academic commentators charge that the hearings system advantages middle class parents, that it is expensive, that it is futile, and that it is unmanageable. Some critics would abandon individual rights to a hearing and review in favor of bureaucratic enforcement or administrative mechanisms that do not include the right to an individual hearing before a neutral decision maker. This Article defends the right to a due process hearing. It contends that some criticisms of hearing rights are simply erroneous, and ...


Advocates, Federal Agencies, And The Education Of Children With Disabilities, Eloise Pasachoff Jan 2014

Advocates, Federal Agencies, And The Education Of Children With Disabilities, Eloise Pasachoff

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The aim of this essay, prepared for a symposium on dispute resolution in special education held at The Ohio State University Moritz College of Law in February 2014, is to highlight ways that advocates for children with disabilities can use federal agencies to improve the implementation and enforcement of federal laws protecting children with disabilities in schools—that is, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Americans with Disabilities Act as it relates to schools.

One can spend a lot of time engaging with the contemporary public conversation about the law ...


Procedures And Remedies Under Section 504 And The Ada For Public School Children With Disabilities, Mark C. Weber Apr 2013

Procedures And Remedies Under Section 504 And The Ada For Public School Children With Disabilities, Mark C. Weber

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

Much has been written about procedures and remedies under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, but few scholars have explored procedural rights and corresponding mechanisms of administrative and judicial relief for victims of public schools' violations of children's rights under section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act. This paper will discuss the administrative procedures that must be followed in hearings regarding complaints of violations of those laws by public school districts and the relief that hearing officers and courts may provide. It will begin with an update on developments ...


The Helter Skelter World Of Idea Eligibility For Specific Learning Disability: The Clash Of Response-To-Intervention And Child Find Requirements, Torin D. Togut, Jennifer E. Nix Apr 2013

The Helter Skelter World Of Idea Eligibility For Specific Learning Disability: The Clash Of Response-To-Intervention And Child Find Requirements, Torin D. Togut, Jennifer E. Nix

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


It's Time For An Alternative Dispute Resolution Procedure, S. James Rosenfeld Apr 2013

It's Time For An Alternative Dispute Resolution Procedure, S. James Rosenfeld

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Disabled Students' Rights Of Access To Charter Schools Under The Idea, Section 504 And The Ada, Robert A. Garda Jr. Apr 2013

Disabled Students' Rights Of Access To Charter Schools Under The Idea, Section 504 And The Ada, Robert A. Garda Jr.

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

Charter schools are under increasing attack for denying admission to disabled students. But traditional schools also turn away disabled students, often preventing them from attending schools in their neighborhood or within their district. This Article discusses when a school is permitted under federal disability law to deny admission to a disabled student. After nearly four decades of special education jurisprudence and regulatory guidance, the circumstances under which a student with a disability may be denied admission to a particular school are still remarkably unclear. This Article first discusses the ‘zero-reject‘ principle underlying the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and concludes ...


California Hearing Officer Decisions, Ruth Colker Apr 2013

California Hearing Officer Decisions, Ruth Colker

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


School Districts And Families Under The Idea: Collaborative In Theory, Adversarial In Fact, Debra Chopp Apr 2013

School Districts And Families Under The Idea: Collaborative In Theory, Adversarial In Fact, Debra Chopp

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

This article highlights the myriad forces that impede the realization of the IDEA's goals. Part II gives an overview of the history of special education and the special education process under the IDEA, particularly as it relates to the cooperative development of an individualized education program (IEP) for a disabled child. Part III examines features of the special education process that operate to the systematic detriment of parents, particularly low-income parents, and prevent them from securing an “appropriate education” for their children. What Part III does is assemble these critiques and add one that has not received attention: the ...


Placing The Ball In Congress' Court: A Critical Analysis Of The Supreme Court's Decision In Arlington Central School District Board Of Education V. Murphy, 126 S. Ct. 2455 (2006), Ashlie D'Errico Surur Apr 2013

Placing The Ball In Congress' Court: A Critical Analysis Of The Supreme Court's Decision In Arlington Central School District Board Of Education V. Murphy, 126 S. Ct. 2455 (2006), Ashlie D'Errico Surur

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


No Child Left Behind And Special Education: The Need For Change In Legislation That Is Still Leving Some Students Behind, Stephanie S. Fitzgerald Apr 2013

No Child Left Behind And Special Education: The Need For Change In Legislation That Is Still Leving Some Students Behind, Stephanie S. Fitzgerald

Law Student Publications

In four parts, this article focuses on NCLB’s negative impact on special education. Part II outlines the provisions of NCLB and examines the differences between NCLB and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (“IDEA”). Part III provides a detailed explanation of the existing scholarly opinions in support of, and in disagreement with, NCLB. Part IV discusses the current political landscape and NCLB’s pending reauthorization. Finally, Part V, based on an analysis of the issues plaguing the current system, suggests a solution to improve the existing relationship between special education and NCLB. Furthermore, Part V addresses the positive aspects ...


The Sanctioning Authority Of Hearing Officers In Special Education Cases, Salma A. Khaleq Mar 2013

The Sanctioning Authority Of Hearing Officers In Special Education Cases, Salma A. Khaleq

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA or the Act), children with disabilities are entitled to a free, appropriate public education (FAPE). The Act provides a procedural safeguard for children and their parents seeking to challenge a state or local educational agency's educational plan for the child in the form of a due process hearing presided over by a hearing officer or an administrative law judge (ALJ). This article describes the current case law concerning the authority of ALJs to sanction parties and attorneys for misconduct during these special education proceedings. Due to the limited number of cases ...


Individualized Education Programs And Special Education Programming For Students With Disabilities In Urban Schools, Mitchell Yell, Terrye Conroy, Antonis Katsiyannis, Tim Conroy Jan 2013

Individualized Education Programs And Special Education Programming For Students With Disabilities In Urban Schools, Mitchell Yell, Terrye Conroy, Antonis Katsiyannis, Tim Conroy

Faculty Publications

This Article examines the individualized education program (IEP) requirement of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and presents a method for improving the education of students with disabilities in urban settings by appropriately developing IEPs. Part I considers the unique problems facing special education in urban school districts. Part II presents an overview of the IDEA and its requirement that school districts provide students with a free appropriate public education (FAPE). Part III examines the components of an IEP and the process for developing students’ IEPs------the key vehicle for providing a FAPE. Part IV outlines a process for developing ...