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Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

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Full-Text Articles in Disability Law

A Reasonable Solution For Working Parents: Expanding Reasonable Accommodation Under The Americans With Disabilities Act To Parents Of Children With Disabilities, Katherine Lease Jun 2019

A Reasonable Solution For Working Parents: Expanding Reasonable Accommodation Under The Americans With Disabilities Act To Parents Of Children With Disabilities, Katherine Lease

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

There is a growing intersection between a woman’s child-rearing and work responsibilities, but federal law inadequately addresses this issue. For mothers who have a child with a disability, they face increased parenting demands, which often lead to detrimental changes in their employment status and negative perceptions of their work ability and commitment. Many women face expectations to simultaneously be the perfect mother and the ideal worker, but this is largely unattainable when faced with the demands of raising a child with a disability.

This Note will explore the development and inadequacy of the current protection against association discrimination, that ...


Gendering Disability To Enable Disability Rights Law, Michelle Travis Dec 2016

Gendering Disability To Enable Disability Rights Law, Michelle Travis

Michelle A. Travis

This Article expands the social model of disability by analyzing the interaction between disability and gender. The modern disability rights movement is built upon the social model, which understands disability not as an inherent personal deficiency but as the product of the environment with which an impairment interacts. The social model is reflected in the accommodation mandate of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 ("ADA"), which holds employers responsible for the limiting aspects of their workplace design. This Article shows that the limitations imposed upon impairments result not only from physical aspects of a workplace but also from other ...


The Costs Of Easy Victory, Michael E. Waterstone Nov 2015

The Costs Of Easy Victory, Michael E. Waterstone

William & Mary Law Review

Studies of law and social change often focus on areas of intense conflict, including abortion, gun rights, and various issues around race, gender, and sexual orientation. Each of these has entered the culture wars, inspiring fierce resistance and organized countermovements. A reasonable assumption might be that social change in less controversial areas might be easier. In this Article, I suggest that it is not that simple. Using the disability rights movement, I demonstrate how flying under the radar leads to unappreciated obstacles. The disability rights movement had a relatively easy path to the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act ...


Reasonable Accommodation Of Workplace Disabilities, Stewart J. Schwab, Steven L. Willborn Feb 2015

Reasonable Accommodation Of Workplace Disabilities, Stewart J. Schwab, Steven L. Willborn

Stewart J Schwab

No abstract provided.


Disqualifiying Universality Under The Americans With Disabilities Act Amendments Act, Michelle Travis Dec 2014

Disqualifiying Universality Under The Americans With Disabilities Act Amendments Act, Michelle Travis

Michelle A. Travis

This Article reveals a new resistance strategy to disability rights in the workplace. The initial backlash against the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) targeted protected class status by characterizing the ADA's accommodation mandate as special treatment that benefitted the disabled at the expense of the nondisabled workforce. As a result, federal courts treated the ADA as a welfare statute rather than a civil rights law, which resulted in the Supreme Court dramatically narrowing the definition of disability. Congress responded with sweeping amendments in 2008 to expand the class of individuals with disabilities who are entitled to accommodations ...


Mitigating The Impact Of Title Vii's New Retaliation Standard: The Americans With Disabilities Act After University Of Texas Southwestern Medical Center V. Nassar, August T. Johannsen Oct 2014

Mitigating The Impact Of Title Vii's New Retaliation Standard: The Americans With Disabilities Act After University Of Texas Southwestern Medical Center V. Nassar, August T. Johannsen

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Disabled And Work: Some Problems Raised And Highlighted By The Americans With Disabilities Act Of 1990, Peter M. Panken Apr 2013

The Disabled And Work: Some Problems Raised And Highlighted By The Americans With Disabilities Act Of 1990, Peter M. Panken

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Assessing Post-Ada Employment: Some Econometric Evidence And Policy Considerations, Christopher L. Griffin Jr., John J. Donohue Iii, Michael Ashley Stein, Sascha Becker Jan 2011

Assessing Post-Ada Employment: Some Econometric Evidence And Policy Considerations, Christopher L. Griffin Jr., John J. Donohue Iii, Michael Ashley Stein, Sascha Becker

Faculty Scholarship

This article explores the relationship between the Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”) and the relative labor market outcomes for people with disabilities. Using individual-level longitudinal data from 1981 to 1996 derived from the previously unexploited Panel Study of Income Dynamics (“PSID”), we examine the possible effect of the ADA on (1) annual weeks worked; (2) annual earnings; and (3) hourly wages for a sample of 7120 unique male household heads between the ages of 21 and 65 as well as a subset of 1437 individuals appearing every year from 1981 to 1996. Our analysis of the larger sample suggests the ...


Enfeebling The Ada: The Ada Amendments Act Of 2008, Jeffrey D. Jones Jan 2010

Enfeebling The Ada: The Ada Amendments Act Of 2008, Jeffrey D. Jones

Oklahoma Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Mythic 43 Million Americans With Disabilities, Ruth Colker Oct 2007

The Mythic 43 Million Americans With Disabilities, Ruth Colker

William & Mary Law Review

Although Congress stated in its first statutory finding that it intended the Americans with DisabilitiesA ct (ADA) to protect at least 43 million Americans from disability discrimination, the Supreme Court has interpreted this statute so that it covers no more than 13.5 million Americans. More importantly, this Article demonstrates through the use of Census Bureau data that the ADA's employment discrimination provisions have been eviscerated to the point that the ADA protects virtually no Americans who are both disabled and able to work. This Article places that problem in the larger context of the Court undermining Congress's ...


Before Its Time: Public Perception Of Disability Rights, The Americans With Disabilities Act, And The Future Of Access And Accommodation, Mary Johnson Jan 2007

Before Its Time: Public Perception Of Disability Rights, The Americans With Disabilities Act, And The Future Of Access And Accommodation, Mary Johnson

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

The ADA is not only a law in which economic considerations were allowed to determine civil rights, it was also a major rights law passed with virtually no public scrutiny. After its passage, anti-disability rights groups quickly moved to weaken its protections by publicly ridiculing its provisions. Unlike other civil rights laws, the ADA defined those who were to be granted its protections, and opponents focused on this, taking aim at those they felt did not deserve its protections. The concepts underlying disability rights were not widely understood by the public, and as ADA cases came before judges it was ...


A New Start On The Road Not Taken: Driving With Lane To Head Off Disability-Based Denials Of Rights, Anita Silvers, Leslie Pickering Francis Jan 2007

A New Start On The Road Not Taken: Driving With Lane To Head Off Disability-Based Denials Of Rights, Anita Silvers, Leslie Pickering Francis

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

In this Essay, our ultimate goal is to demonstrate how advocates for the civil rights of people with disabilities can use Lane to construct a successful rights-based strategy. In doing so, we will show that Lane embarks upon a palpable and promising (but yet to be explicitly announced) rights-based standard to which important kinds of differential treatment of people with disabilities should be held. This strategy maps the way for legal thinking about disability discrimination to return from the wrong road down which Cleburne drove the national effort to achieve integration for people with disabilities. Our approach deflects disability discrimination ...


The Legal Genealogy Of The Duty To Accommodate American And Canadian Workers With Disabilities: A Comparative Perspective, Ravi Malhotra Jan 2007

The Legal Genealogy Of The Duty To Accommodate American And Canadian Workers With Disabilities: A Comparative Perspective, Ravi Malhotra

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

In this Essay, I seek to analyze the origins of the duty to accommodate people with disabilities in Canadian law in order to present a counter-factual argument on why the duty to accommodate has not flourished in American law. Comparative legal approaches have the merit of shedding fresh light on old legal problems that might not otherwise be considered. In Part I, I trace the history of the concept of reasonable accommodation in leading Supreme Court of Canada decisions, and demonstrate how accommodation of workers with religious beliefs remained central to the development of the jurisprudence and helped make decision-makers ...


Beyond Disability Civil Rights, Michael Ashley Stein, Penelope J.S. Stein Jan 2007

Beyond Disability Civil Rights, Michael Ashley Stein, Penelope J.S. Stein

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Disability And Employment Discrimination At The Rehnquist Court, Anita Silvers, Michael E. Waterstone, Michael Ashley Stein Apr 2006

Disability And Employment Discrimination At The Rehnquist Court, Anita Silvers, Michael E. Waterstone, Michael Ashley Stein

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Emergency Preparedness And Disability, Michael E. Waterstone, Michael Ashley Stein Jan 2006

Emergency Preparedness And Disability, Michael E. Waterstone, Michael Ashley Stein

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Disability, Disparate Impact, And Class Actions, Michael Ashley Stein, Michael E. Waterstone Jan 2006

Disability, Disparate Impact, And Class Actions, Michael Ashley Stein, Michael E. Waterstone

Faculty Publications

Following Title VII's enactment, group-based employment discrimination actions flourished due to disparate impact theory and the class action device. Courts recognized that subordination that defined a group's social identity was also sufficient legally to bind members together, even when relief had to be issued individually. Woven through these cases was a notion of panethnicity that united inherently unrelated groups into a common identity, for example, Asian Americans. Stringent judicial interpretation subsequently eroded both legal frameworks and it has become increasingly difficult to assert collective employment actions, even against discriminatory practices affecting an entire group. This deconstruction has immensely ...


The Definition Of Disability In The Americans With Disabilities Act: Its Successes And Shortcomings: Proceedings Of The 2005 Annual Meeting, Association Of American Law Schools Sections On Employment Discrimination Law; Labor Relations And Employment Law; And Law, Medicine And Health Care, Sharona Hoffman, Paul Steven Miller, Chai R. Feldblum, Michael Ashley Stein Jan 2005

The Definition Of Disability In The Americans With Disabilities Act: Its Successes And Shortcomings: Proceedings Of The 2005 Annual Meeting, Association Of American Law Schools Sections On Employment Discrimination Law; Labor Relations And Employment Law; And Law, Medicine And Health Care, Sharona Hoffman, Paul Steven Miller, Chai R. Feldblum, Michael Ashley Stein

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Beyond Breimhorst: Appropriate Accommodation Of Students With Learning Disabilities On The Sat, Nancy Leong Jan 2005

Beyond Breimhorst: Appropriate Accommodation Of Students With Learning Disabilities On The Sat, Nancy Leong

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Fourth “R”: Sustaining The Ada's Private “Right” Of Action Against States For Disability Discrimination In Public Education, Matthew P. Hampton Jan 2005

The Fourth “R”: Sustaining The Ada's Private “Right” Of Action Against States For Disability Discrimination In Public Education, Matthew P. Hampton

Washington University Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Intersection Of Sports And Disability: Analyzing Reasonable Accommodations For Athletes With Disabilities, Maureen A. Weston Prof. Dec 2004

The Intersection Of Sports And Disability: Analyzing Reasonable Accommodations For Athletes With Disabilities, Maureen A. Weston Prof.

Maureen A Weston

When thinking about athletes participating in competitive or organized sports, typically the public rarely contemplates the inclusion of players with medical impairments or other physical, mental, and learning disabilities. Yet many athletes with disabilities, whether visible or hidden, have achieved success in both amateur and professional sports. The rights of athletes with medical impairments or disabilities to participate in competitive sports are also increasingly controversial. Because of a medical impairment or disability, some athletes cannot satisfy certain eligibility requirements set by the governing sporting organizations or they need accommodation in order to participate. Athletes who have been effectively excluded from ...


Institute Brief: Making Experiential Education Accessible For Students With Disabilities, Cynthia Zafft, Sara Sezun, Melanie Jordan Nov 2004

Institute Brief: Making Experiential Education Accessible For Students With Disabilities, Cynthia Zafft, Sara Sezun, Melanie Jordan

The Institute Brief Series, Institute for Community Inclusion

College students with disabilities enter with less work experience and have a harder time finding jobs than their nondisabled peers. Experiential education-- mentoring, internships, job shadowing, and so on-- can create a bridge to graduation and employment. However, that requires college professionals to consider access issues for all students. A new Institute Brief provides basic disability awareness information, suggests ways to create welcoming career offices, and offers ideas to increase access to experiential education.


Same Struggle, Different Difference: Ada Accommodations As Antidiscrimination, Michael Ashley Stein Jan 2004

Same Struggle, Different Difference: Ada Accommodations As Antidiscrimination, Michael Ashley Stein

Faculty Publications

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was heralded as an "emancipation proclamation" for people with disabilities, one that would achieve their equality primarily through its reasonable accommodation requirements. Nevertheless, both legal commentators and Supreme Court Justices assert that the ADA's employment mandates distinguish the ADA from earlier antidiscrimination measures, most notably Title VII, because providing accommodations results in something more than equality for the disabled. The Article challenges this prevalent belief by arguing that ADA-mandated accommodations are consistent with other antidiscrimination measures in that each remedies exclusion from employment opportunity by questioning the inherency of established workplace norms, and ...


Reasonable Accommodation Of Workplace Disabilities, Stewart J. Schwab, Steven L. Willborn Feb 2003

Reasonable Accommodation Of Workplace Disabilities, Stewart J. Schwab, Steven L. Willborn

Cornell Law Faculty Publications


Disabiling The Ada: Essences, Better Angels, And Unprincipled Neutrality Claims, Aviam Soifer Feb 2003

Disabiling The Ada: Essences, Better Angels, And Unprincipled Neutrality Claims, Aviam Soifer

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Americans With Disabilities Act As Welfare Reform, Samuel R. Bagenstos Feb 2003

The Americans With Disabilities Act As Welfare Reform, Samuel R. Bagenstos

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


Reasonable Accommodation Of Workplace Disabilities, Stewart J. Schwab, Steven L. Willborn Feb 2003

Reasonable Accommodation Of Workplace Disabilities, Stewart J. Schwab, Steven L. Willborn

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Law And Economics Of Disability Accommodations, Michael Ashley Stein Jan 2003

The Law And Economics Of Disability Accommodations, Michael Ashley Stein

Faculty Publications

The Americans with Disabilities Act provides a clear mandate that disabled workers be provided with "reasonable" accommodations, but does not meaningfully articulate the standards by which reasonableness ought to be measured. Until now, neither courts nor commentators have provided a systematic model for analyzing accommodation claims. This Article articulates an initial law and economics framework for analyzing disability-related accommodations. In doing so, it demonstrates how accommodations span a cost continuum that can be divided into areas of Wholly Efficient and Semi-Efficient Accommodations to be funded by private employers, Social Benefit Gain Efficient Accommodations where the costs should be borne by ...


Causation In Retaliation Claims: Conflict Between The Prima Facie Case And The Plaintiff's Ultimate Burden Of Pretext, Rhea Gertken Jan 2003

Causation In Retaliation Claims: Conflict Between The Prima Facie Case And The Plaintiff's Ultimate Burden Of Pretext, Rhea Gertken

Washington University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Federal Power, States' Rights, Individual Rights: Mentally Disabled Prisoners And The Supreme Court's New Activism, Tom Kollas Apr 2002

Federal Power, States' Rights, Individual Rights: Mentally Disabled Prisoners And The Supreme Court's New Activism, Tom Kollas

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

This Note examines the situation of mentally disabled prisoners who seek to assert their rights in federal court. Neither laws affecting the disabled nor laws affecting prisoners receive heightened scrutiny by the judiciary, which, thus far, also refuses to recognize the unique burdens of those who fit both categories. Because mentally disabled prisoners do not qualify for heightened scrutiny under the Equal Protection Clause, recent developments in the federalism doctrine lead the courts to conclude that they are without jurisdiction to hear suits brought by prisoners against state penitentiaries. This Note explores the underpinnings of federalism, separation of powers, and ...