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Full-Text Articles in Disability Law

Structured Settlement Sales And Lead-Poisoned Sellers: Just Say No, Karen Czapanskiy Jan 2018

Structured Settlement Sales And Lead-Poisoned Sellers: Just Say No, Karen Czapanskiy

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Evaluating Intellectual Disability: Clinical Assessments In Atkins Cases, James W. Ellis, Caroline Everington, Ann M. Delpha Jan 2018

Evaluating Intellectual Disability: Clinical Assessments In Atkins Cases, James W. Ellis, Caroline Everington, Ann M. Delpha

Faculty Scholarship

The intersection of intellectual disability and the death penalty is now clearly established. Both under the U.S. Supreme Court’s constitutional decisions and under the terms of many state statutes, individual defendants who have that disability cannot be sentenced to death or executed. It now falls to trial, appellate, and post-conviction courts to determine which individual criminal defendants are entitled to the law’s protection. This Article attempts to assist judges in performing that task. After a brief discussion of the Supreme Court’s decisions in Atkins v. Virginia, Hall v. Florida, and Moore v. Texas, it analyzes the ...


Blatt V. Cabela's Retail, Inc. And A New Path For Transgender Rights, Kevin M. Barry, Jennifer L. Levi Jan 2017

Blatt V. Cabela's Retail, Inc. And A New Path For Transgender Rights, Kevin M. Barry, Jennifer L. Levi

Faculty Scholarship

Since the Supreme Court recognized marriage equality in Obergefell v. Hodges, civil rights advocates have increasingly set their sights on transgender rights as the next legal frontier. Sex discrimination law, though an essential statutory tool, is not the only potential avenue for securing rights for transgender individuals. Another important federal source of protection for transgender people is disability rights law—in particular, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Disability rights law, unlike sex discrimination law, applies to public accommodations and government services, and also mandates reasonable accommodations. A transgender litigant successfully invoked the protections of the ADA for the first ...


No Restoration, No Rehabilitation: Shadow Detention Of Mentally Incompetent Noncitizens, Sarah Sherman-Stokes Jan 2017

No Restoration, No Rehabilitation: Shadow Detention Of Mentally Incompetent Noncitizens, Sarah Sherman-Stokes

Faculty Scholarship

This article examines the burgeoning mental competency regime in immigration removal proceedings, as well as its shortcomings. While some strides have been made in the last six years to identify noncitizen detainees who are incompetent, and to implement safeguards, including appointed counsel, to protect their rights, the current mental competency framework fails to protect some of the most vulnerable. Specifically, this article explains that mentally incompetent, noncitizen detainees for whom no adequate safeguards are available, face a kind of shadow, prolonged and potentially indefinite detention. These detainees’ continued detention is wholly without process – despite their incompetence, they are not provided ...


Police Contact And Mental Health, Amanda Geller, Jeffrey Fagan, Tom R. Tyler Jan 2017

Police Contact And Mental Health, Amanda Geller, Jeffrey Fagan, Tom R. Tyler

Faculty Scholarship

Although an effective police presence is widely regarded as critical to public safety, less is known about the effects of police practices on mental health and community wellbeing. Adolescents and young adults in specific neighborhoods of urban areas are likely to experience assertive contemporary police practices. This study goes beyond research on policing effects on legal socialization to assess the effects of police contact on the mental health of those stopped by the police. We collected and analyzed data in a two wave survey of young men in New York City (N=717) clustered in the neighborhoods with the highest ...


Sufficiently Safeguarded?: Competency Evaluations Of Mentally Ill Respondents In Removal Proceedings, Sarah Sherman-Stokes May 2016

Sufficiently Safeguarded?: Competency Evaluations Of Mentally Ill Respondents In Removal Proceedings, Sarah Sherman-Stokes

Faculty Scholarship

In this Article, I examine the current regime for making mental competency determinations of mentally ill and incompetent noncitizen respondents in immigration court. In its present iteration, mental competency determinations in immigration court are made by immigration judges, most commonly without the benefit of any mental health evaluation or expertise. In reflecting on the protections and processes in place in the criminal justice system, and on interviews with removal defense practitioners at ten different sites across the United States, I conclude that the role of the immigration judge in mental competency determinations must be changed in order to protect the ...


Use Of Facial Recognition Technology For Medical Purposes: Balancing Privacy With Innovation, Seema Mohapatra Jan 2016

Use Of Facial Recognition Technology For Medical Purposes: Balancing Privacy With Innovation, Seema Mohapatra

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Vexatious Litigants And The Ada: Strategies To Fairly Address The Need To Improve Access For Individuals With Disabilities, Helia Garrido Hull Jan 2016

Vexatious Litigants And The Ada: Strategies To Fairly Address The Need To Improve Access For Individuals With Disabilities, Helia Garrido Hull

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Politically Correct Eugenics, Seema Mohapatra Jan 2016

Politically Correct Eugenics, Seema Mohapatra

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


A Bare Desire To Harm: Transgender People And The Equal Protection Clause, Kevin M. Barry, Brian Farrell, Jennifer Levi, Neelima Vanguri Jan 2016

A Bare Desire To Harm: Transgender People And The Equal Protection Clause, Kevin M. Barry, Brian Farrell, Jennifer Levi, Neelima Vanguri

Faculty Scholarship

The U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Obergefell v. Hodges establishing marriage equality for same-sex couples marks a major shift in recognizing gay, lesbian, and bisexual people as a central part of the fabric of American society. Obergefell also marks the passing of the torch from “LGB” to “T”; the next civil rights frontier belongs to transgender people, for whom key barriers still remain. In January 2015, a transgender woman filed an equal protection challenge to a provision of the Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”), which explicitly excludes several medical conditions closely associated with transgender people. In support of ...


Imaging Brains, Changing Minds: How Pain Neuroimaging Can Inform The Law, Amanda C. Pustilnik Jan 2015

Imaging Brains, Changing Minds: How Pain Neuroimaging Can Inform The Law, Amanda C. Pustilnik

Faculty Scholarship

What would the law do differently if it could see into the black box of the mind? One of the most valuable things it might do is reform the ways it deals with pain. Pain is ubiquitous in law, from tort to torture, from ERISA to expert evidence. Yet legal doctrines grapple with pain poorly, embodying concepts that are generations out of date and that cast suspicion on pain sufferers as having a problem that is “all in their heads.”

Now, brain-imaging technologies are allowing scientists to see the brain in pain—and to reconceive of many types of pain ...


Painful Disparities, Painful Realities, Amanda C. Pustilnik Mar 2014

Painful Disparities, Painful Realities, Amanda C. Pustilnik

Faculty Scholarship

Legal doctrines and decisional norms treat chronic claims pain differently than other kinds of disability or damages claims because of bias and confusion about whether chronic pain is real. This is law’s painful disparity. Now, breakthrough neuroimaging can make pain visible, shedding light on these mysterious ills. Neuroimaging shows these conditions are, as sufferers have known all along, painfully real. This Article is about where law ought to change because of innovations in structural and functional imaging of the brain in pain. It describes cutting-edge scientific developments and the impact they should make on evidence law and disability law ...


Perspectives On Outpatient Commitment, Richard C. Boldt Jan 2014

Perspectives On Outpatient Commitment, Richard C. Boldt

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Beyond Title Vii: Rethinking Race, Ex-Offender Status, And Employment Discrimination In The Information Age, Kimani Paul-Emile Jan 2014

Beyond Title Vii: Rethinking Race, Ex-Offender Status, And Employment Discrimination In The Information Age, Kimani Paul-Emile

Faculty Scholarship

More than sixty-five million people in the United States—more than one in four adults—have had some involvement with the criminal justice system that will appear on a criminal history report. A rapidly expanding, for-profit industry has developed to collect these records and compile them into electronic databases, offering employers an inexpensive and readily accessible means of screening prospective employees. Nine out of ten employers now inquire into the criminal history of job candidates, systematically denying individuals with a criminal record any opportunity to gain work experience or build their job qualifications. This is so despite the fact that ...


Compulsory Sexuality, Elizabeth F. Emens Jan 2013

Compulsory Sexuality, Elizabeth F. Emens

Faculty Scholarship

Asexuality is an emerging identity category that challenges the common assumption that everyone is defined by some type of sexual attraction. Asexuals — those who report feeling no sexual attraction to others — constitute one percent of the population, according to one prominent study. In recent years, some individuals have begun to identify as asexual and to connect around their experiences interacting with a sexual society. Asexuality has also become a protected classification under the antidiscrimination law of one state and several localities, but legal scholarship has thus far neglected the subject. This Article introduces asexuality to the legal literature as a ...


Framing Disability, Elizabeth F. Emens Jan 2013

Framing Disability, Elizabeth F. Emens

Faculty Scholarship

Mainstream attitudes toward disability lag behind U.S. law. This tension between attitudes and law reflects a wider gap between the ideas about disability pervasive in mainstream society — what this Article calls the "outside" view — and the ideas about disability common within the disability community — what this Article calls the "inside" view. The outside perspective tends to misunderstand and mischaracterize aspects of the experience, theory, and law of disability.

The law can help to close this gap in attitudes by changing the conditions in which attitudes are formed or reinforced. Thus, this Article proposes using framing rules to target the ...


Disabling Attitudes: U.S. Disability Law And The Ada Amendments Act, Elizabeth F. Emens Jan 2012

Disabling Attitudes: U.S. Disability Law And The Ada Amendments Act, Elizabeth F. Emens

Faculty Scholarship

This is a crucial juncture for U.S. disability law. In 2008, Congress passed the ADA Amendments Act (ADAAA), which aims to reverse the courts’ narrowing interpretations of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. This legislative intervention provides an important lens through which to consider attitudes toward disability, both because the success of the ADAAA will depend on judicial attitudes, and because the changes rendered by the ADAAA shed light on pervasive societal attitudes. This Essay makes three main points. First, the ADAAA intervenes in the developing doctrine on disability discrimination in important ways; in so doing, however, the ...


Assessing Post-Ada Employment: Some Econometric Evidence And Policy Considerations, Christopher L. Griffin Jr., John J. Donohue Iii, Michael Ashley Stein, Sascha Becker Jan 2011

Assessing Post-Ada Employment: Some Econometric Evidence And Policy Considerations, Christopher L. Griffin Jr., John J. Donohue Iii, Michael Ashley Stein, Sascha Becker

Faculty Scholarship

This article explores the relationship between the Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”) and the relative labor market outcomes for people with disabilities. Using individual-level longitudinal data from 1981 to 1996 derived from the previously unexploited Panel Study of Income Dynamics (“PSID”), we examine the possible effect of the ADA on (1) annual weeks worked; (2) annual earnings; and (3) hourly wages for a sample of 7120 unique male household heads between the ages of 21 and 65 as well as a subset of 1437 individuals appearing every year from 1981 to 1996. Our analysis of the larger sample suggests the ...


Lawyers With Disabilities: L'Handicape C'Est Nous, Anita Bernstein Apr 2008

Lawyers With Disabilities: L'Handicape C'Est Nous, Anita Bernstein

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Integrating Accommodation, Elizabeth F. Emens Jan 2008

Integrating Accommodation, Elizabeth F. Emens

Faculty Scholarship

Courts and agencies interpreting the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) generally assume that workplace accommodations benefit individual employees with disabilities and impose costs on employers and, at times, coworkers. This belief reflects a failure to recognize a key feature of ADA accommodations: their benefits to third parties. Numerous accommodations – from ramps to ergonomic furniture to telecommuting initiatives – can create benefits for coworkers, both disabled and nondisabled, as well as for the growing group of employees with impairments that are not limiting enough to constitute disabilities under the ADA. Much attention has been paid to how the integration of diverse groups ...


Equal Access To Post-Secondary Education: The Sisyphean Impact Of Flagging Test Scores Of Persons With Disabilities, Helia Garrido Hull Jan 2007

Equal Access To Post-Secondary Education: The Sisyphean Impact Of Flagging Test Scores Of Persons With Disabilities, Helia Garrido Hull

Faculty Scholarship

In view of the social stigma associated with disabilities, and the inherent costs of providing accommodations to disabled students, the opportunity for bias within the admissions selection process is clear. As a result, the practice of flagging standardized tests has come under increasing scrutiny. The practice of distinguishing test takers having a disability from those who do not runs counter to the social policy of inclusion, and prevents disabled individuals from enjoying the benefits of equal citizenship. Part II of this paper provides a brief overview of the prejudice disabled individuals have endured throughout history, and discusses some early movements ...


Shape Stops Story, Elizabeth F. Emens Jan 2007

Shape Stops Story, Elizabeth F. Emens

Faculty Scholarship

Storytelling and resistance are powerful tools of both lawyering and individual identity, as I argue in this brief essay published in Narrative as part of a dialogue on disability, narrative, and law with Rosemarie Garland-Thompson and Ellen Barton. Garland-Thompson's work shows us the life-affirming potential of storytelling, its role in shaping disability identity, and its role in communicating that identity to the outside world. By contrast, Barton powerfully shows how those same life-affirming narratives can force a certain kind of storytelling, can create a mandate to tell one story and not another. In short, Barton reminds us of the ...


Constitutional Tipping Points: Civil Rights, Social Change, And Fact-Based Adjudication, Suzanne B. Goldberg Jan 2007

Constitutional Tipping Points: Civil Rights, Social Change, And Fact-Based Adjudication, Suzanne B. Goldberg

Faculty Scholarship

This Article offers an account of how courts respond to social change, with a specific focus on the process by which courts "tip" from one understanding of a social group and its constitutional claims to another. Adjudication of equal protection and due process claims, in particular, requires courts to make normative judgments regarding the effect of traits such as race, sex, sexual orientation, or mental retardation on group members' status and capacity. Yet, Professor Goldberg argues, courts commonly approach decisionmaking by focusing only on the 'facts" about a social group, an approach that she terms 'fact-based adjudication." Professor Goldberg critiques ...


The Sympathetic Discriminator: Mental Illness, Hedonic Costs, And The Ada, Elizabeth F. Emens Jan 2006

The Sympathetic Discriminator: Mental Illness, Hedonic Costs, And The Ada, Elizabeth F. Emens

Faculty Scholarship

Discrimination against people with mental illness occurs in part because of how those with mental illness can make other people feel. A psychotic person may make others feel agitated or afraid, for example, or a depressed person may make others feel sad or frustrated. Thus, a central basis for discrimination in this context is what I call hedonic costs. Hedonic costs are affective or emotional costs: an influx of negative emotion or loss of positive emotion. In addition, the phenomenon of emotional contagion, which is one source of hedonic costs, makes discrimination against people with mental illness peculiarly intractable. Emotional ...


The Sympathetic Discriminator: Mental Illness, Hedonic Costs, And The Ada, Elizabeth F. Emens Jan 2006

The Sympathetic Discriminator: Mental Illness, Hedonic Costs, And The Ada, Elizabeth F. Emens

Faculty Scholarship

Social discrimination against people with mental illness is widespread. Treating people differently on the basis of mental illness does not provoke the same moral outrage as that inspired by differential treatment on the basis of race, sex, or even physical disability. Indeed, many people would freely admit preferring someone who does not have a mental illness as a neighbor, dinner party guest, parent, partner, or person in the next seat on the subway. Moreover, more than ten years after the Americans with Disabilities Act (the "ADA" or "Act") expressly prohibited private employers from discriminating on the basis of mental, as ...


Bridging The Barriers: Public Health Strategies For Expanding Drug Treatment In Communities, Ellen M. Weber Oct 2004

Bridging The Barriers: Public Health Strategies For Expanding Drug Treatment In Communities, Ellen M. Weber

Faculty Scholarship

States around the country have begun to adopt programs to divert drug offenders from jails and prisons to community-based drug treatment services. For this strategy to succeed, local officials will need to expand the availability of outpatient and residential treatment programs and address the barriers to siting treatment services, the most significant of which are community opposition and government zoning policies that facilitate community resistance. Civil rights laws, including the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Fair Housing Act (FHA), prohibit zoning discrimination against persons with histories of alcoholism and drug dependence and provide a solid legal foundation for ...


Beyond Lane: Who Is Protected By The Americans With Disabilities Act, Who Should Be?, Russell Powell Jan 2004

Beyond Lane: Who Is Protected By The Americans With Disabilities Act, Who Should Be?, Russell Powell

Faculty Scholarship

This article reviews the state of disability law under the Americans with Disabilities Act ("ADA"), with particular attention paid to Lane and other recent Supreme Court cases. In Lane, the Court affirmed that Congress validly exercised its power when it made states subject to suits under the ADA, at least with regard to limitations on access to courts. While the decision addresses Title II of the ADA (restrictions on state discrimination), it does have broader implications for the Act as a whole. Lane reflects a significant shift in the ethical paradigm used by the court to decide ADA cases and ...


Testing Applicants With Disabilities, Gregory M. Duhl, Stuart Duhl Jan 2004

Testing Applicants With Disabilities, Gregory M. Duhl, Stuart Duhl

Faculty Scholarship

All jurisdictions provide reasonableaccommodations for applicants with disabilities who are otherwise qualified to sit for the bar examination. The provision of accommodations is primarily a result of the comprehensive federal law known as the Americans with Disabilities Act (“the ADA”), passed by Congress in 1990 to prohibit discrimination against persons with disabilities. The ADA protects both applicants with physical disabilities and those with mental disabilities, and accommodations include not only additional testing time, longer and more frequent breaks between testing sessions, and private testing rooms, but also other auxiliary aids and services designed to enable effective communication to and from ...


Kimel And Garrett: Another Example Of The Court Undervaluing Individual Sovereignty And Settled Expectations, 76 Temp. L. Rev. 787 (2003), Julie M. Spanbauer Jan 2003

Kimel And Garrett: Another Example Of The Court Undervaluing Individual Sovereignty And Settled Expectations, 76 Temp. L. Rev. 787 (2003), Julie M. Spanbauer

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Brief Of Amici Curiae American Association On Mental Retardation, The Arc, The Judge David L. Bazelon Center For Mental Health Law, American Academy Of Psychiatry And The Law, And Tash, Tennard V. Dretke, No. 02-10038, Cert. Granted, Oct. 14, 2003 (Consolidated For Oral Arguments With Smith V. Dretke, No. 02-11309)., James W. Ellis, Norman C. Bay, Michael Browde, Christian G. Fritz, April Land, Robert Schwartz Jan 2003

Brief Of Amici Curiae American Association On Mental Retardation, The Arc, The Judge David L. Bazelon Center For Mental Health Law, American Academy Of Psychiatry And The Law, And Tash, Tennard V. Dretke, No. 02-10038, Cert. Granted, Oct. 14, 2003 (Consolidated For Oral Arguments With Smith V. Dretke, No. 02-11309)., James W. Ellis, Norman C. Bay, Michael Browde, Christian G. Fritz, April Land, Robert Schwartz

Faculty Scholarship

The obstacles placed by the Fifth Circuit in the path of jurors' fair consideration of a defendant's condition are inconsistent with this Court's teachings about the fundamental importance of the jury's role in determining the appropriate penalty in capital cases.