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Full-Text Articles in Disability Law

Depression: The Often Overlooked Sequela Of Head Trauma, Samuel D. Hodge Jr., Jack E. Hubbard Dec 2017

Depression: The Often Overlooked Sequela Of Head Trauma, Samuel D. Hodge Jr., Jack E. Hubbard

Cleveland State Law Review

Depression is a common sequela of head trauma. Approximately half of all individuals with a cranial injury will experience depression within the first year, regardless of the severity of the injury. The ailment is characterized clinically as a mood disorder, often associated with intense feelings of sadness. However, depression is more complex than mood disorders, as many mental and bodily complaints—such as insomnia, fatigue, anxiety, appetite changes, aches and pains, and lack of interest in previously enjoyable activities—are associated with depression. These intense feelings, particularly when combined with despair and hopelessness, can lead to suicide, a dreaded potential ...


Expansion Of Employee Wellness Programs Under Ppaca Creates Additional Barriers To Healthcare Insurance For Individuals With Disabilities, Amy B. Cheng Dec 2016

Expansion Of Employee Wellness Programs Under Ppaca Creates Additional Barriers To Healthcare Insurance For Individuals With Disabilities, Amy B. Cheng

Journal of Law and Health

There are many barriers to healthcare for the general population that has been documented throughout the years, with one particularly affected group being individuals with disabilities. One identified healthcare barrier for individuals with disabilities is the inability to gain access to the healthcare system through health insurance. While many attempts have been made to resolve this issue, serious problems have yet to be resolved. The Patient Protection Affordable Care Act (PPACA) attempted to solve the issue by expanding Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996’s (HIPAA) current regulations on employee wellness programs. The relevant regulations govern employee wellness ...


Funding Long-Term Services And Supports (Ltss) For Working Aged Disabled Americans, Helen L. Rapp Dec 2016

Funding Long-Term Services And Supports (Ltss) For Working Aged Disabled Americans, Helen L. Rapp

Journal of Law and Health

There are a multitude of dilemmas faced today by over 3 million significantly disabled Americans, many of whom depend on Medicaid for Long-Term Services and Supports (LTSS) in obtaining the services they need to simply live. While the landmark 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has done a lot to improve the lives of people with disabilities, the reality is that using Medicaid as the vehicle for funding LTSS places unreasonable restrictions on disabled people who want to live independent lives and be as successful as possible.

The Federal Government must change funding for LTSS in order to provide disabled ...


Reproductive Justice, Public Policy, And Abortion On The Basis Of Fetal Impairment: Lessons From International Human Rights Law And The Potential Impact Of The Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities, Carole J. Petersen Jan 2015

Reproductive Justice, Public Policy, And Abortion On The Basis Of Fetal Impairment: Lessons From International Human Rights Law And The Potential Impact Of The Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities, Carole J. Petersen

Journal of Law and Health

This article argues that we should consider not only American constitutional law but also comparative law and emerging international human rights norms, in order to navigate the difficult issue of abortion on the basis of fetal impairment. The United States is a State Party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)13 and the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT). It is also a signatory (but not a full State Party) to several other relevant treaties, including the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW ...


Leave As An Accommodation: When Is Enough, Enough?, Stacy A. Hickox, Joseph M. Guzman Jan 2014

Leave As An Accommodation: When Is Enough, Enough?, Stacy A. Hickox, Joseph M. Guzman

Cleveland State Law Review

The right to reasonable accommodations under the Americans with Disabilities Act includes leave that will enable an employee with a disability to return to work rather than being discharged. This right may seem unreasonable for an employer needing employees to be at work to be productive, raising the question of when leave as an accommodation becomes unreasonable or imposes an undue hardship on an employer. In the absence of specific guidance from the Supreme Court, the circuit courts apply a variety of approaches, ranging from individualized analysis to determinations that any leave exceeding some number of weeks is unreasonable. In ...


Equal Access To Post-Secondary Education: The Sisyphean Impact Of Flagging Test Scores Of Persons With Disabilities , Helia Garrido Hull Jan 2007

Equal Access To Post-Secondary Education: The Sisyphean Impact Of Flagging Test Scores Of Persons With Disabilities , Helia Garrido Hull

Cleveland State Law Review

In view of the social stigma associated with disabilities, and the inherent costs of providing accommodations to disabled students, the opportunity for bias within the admissions selection process is clear. As a result, the practice of flagging standardized tests has come under increasing scrutiny. The practice of distinguishing test takers having a disability from those who do not runs counter to the social policy of inclusion, and prevents disabled individuals from enjoying the benefits of equal citizenship. Part II of this paper provides a brief overview of the prejudice disabled individuals have endured throughout history, and discusses some early movements ...


The Need For Parity In Health Insurance Benefits For The Mentally And Physically Disabled: Questioning Inconsistency Between Two Leading Anti-Discrimination Laws, Sarah Ritz Jan 2004

The Need For Parity In Health Insurance Benefits For The Mentally And Physically Disabled: Questioning Inconsistency Between Two Leading Anti-Discrimination Laws, Sarah Ritz

Journal of Law and Health

Discriminatory practices by the insurance industry, such as benefit limits (caps) on mental health services coverage, or complete lack of mental health care coverage fuel the disparate treatment of those with mental disabilities. These discriminatory practices have been the subject of much debate, and cases challenging those principles have not fared well in the court system. These insurance practices, which single out persons with mental illness and provide them with little or no benefits for mental health care, violate the terms of the Americans with Disabilities Act ("ADA"), and are inconsistent with other laws that seek to remedy discrimination against ...


The Latex Allergy Crisis: Proposing A Healthy Solution To The Dilemma Facing The Medical Community, Lynn Cherne-Breckner Jan 2003

The Latex Allergy Crisis: Proposing A Healthy Solution To The Dilemma Facing The Medical Community, Lynn Cherne-Breckner

Journal of Law and Health

The explosion in the number and severity of latex allergies began with the emergence of the AIDS epidemic as the Centers for Disease Control issued universal precautions advising health care workers to use protective barriers to prevent the spread of the infection. This resulted in constant use of the gloves by medical workers and a great increase in demand for cost effective gloves. Essentially, the quality of the glove making process decreased, increasing the amount of allergy inducing proteins excreted to wearers. Afflicted workers include physicians, nurses, dentists, dental hygienists, operating room personnel, laboratory technicians and ambulance attendants among others ...


Lessons From Martin: The Ada And Athletics Don't Mix, Thomas E. Green Jan 2002

Lessons From Martin: The Ada And Athletics Don't Mix, Thomas E. Green

Journal of Law and Health

Martin is a professional golfer in his twenties who is stricken by Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome. This disability makes it medically impossible for him to play golf without the use of a golf cart. Martin sued the PGA Tour in 1997 after his request to use a golf cart in a tour event was denied. The U.S. Supreme Court affirmed the Ninth Circuit's ruling allowing Martin to use a golf cart for PGA events. In another case, after initially allowing the golfer, Olinger, to compete in the qualifying rounds, the District Court, and subsequently the Court of Appeals for the ...


The Applicability Of The Ada To Private Internet Web Sites, Carrie L. Kiedrowski Jan 2001

The Applicability Of The Ada To Private Internet Web Sites, Carrie L. Kiedrowski

Cleveland State Law Review

This article proposes that private commercial web sites are considered places of public accommodation; consequently, private Internet web sites must be accessible to people with disabilities under the Americans with Disabilities Act. Part I introduces the thesis of this article. Part II sets out the historical inception of the legal rights of accessibility for people with disabilities in public and private entities. Additionally, Part II describes recent federal actions mandating accessibility of government related web sites. Part III addresses the question of whether Internet web sites are considered places of public accommodation under the ADA, including an analysis of supporting ...


Is Hiv Disability Under The Americans With Disabilities Act: Unanswered Questions After Bragdon V. Abbott, Connie Mayer Jan 2000

Is Hiv Disability Under The Americans With Disabilities Act: Unanswered Questions After Bragdon V. Abbott, Connie Mayer

Journal of Law and Health

Prior to the passage of the ADA in 1990, the term "individual with a handicap" had been clearly established under federal disability laws to include all people with HIV. Every reported decision under the Rehabilitation Act and the Fair Housing Amendment Act had determined that asymptomatic HIV was protected as a per se disability. Prior to 1997, only a few Courts had faced the issue of whether a plaintiff with asymptomatic HIV was disabled under the ADA. In 1997, the Fourth and First Circuit Courts of Appeal decided cases in direct conflict with one another, opening the door for the ...


Mr. Peanut Goes To Court: Accomodating An Individuals Peanut Allergy In Schools And Day Care Centers Under The Americans Wtih Disabilities Act, Marie Plicka Jan 1999

Mr. Peanut Goes To Court: Accomodating An Individuals Peanut Allergy In Schools And Day Care Centers Under The Americans Wtih Disabilities Act, Marie Plicka

Journal of Law and Health

This article explores the ADA and the interpretive case law, as it pertains to schools and day care centers, in hopes of better understanding the purpose of the statute as well as to predict its future. Part II of this article provides a brie explanation of peanut allergies. Part III contains an overview of Title II and Title III of the ADA and their interpretive regulations. Part IV analyzes whether an individual asserting a Title II claim under the ADA, where the relief sought is also available under the Individual with Disabilities Education Act before asserting his or her ADA ...


Threshold Barriers To Title 1 And Title Iii Of The Americans With Disabilities Act: Discrimination Against Mental Illness In Long-Term Disability Benefits, Nancy Lee Firak Jan 1998

Threshold Barriers To Title 1 And Title Iii Of The Americans With Disabilities Act: Discrimination Against Mental Illness In Long-Term Disability Benefits, Nancy Lee Firak

Journal of Law and Health

Any discussion of the ADA presents an organizational challenge not only because of the complex structure of the Act itself, but also because the ADA implicates other complex federal remedial schemes such as the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) and the Rehabilitation Act. The social policy implications of the issues under discussion in this article are complex and at times even contradictory, as is perhaps unavoidable. Part II outlines a typical case in which the employer provided inferior long-term disability benefits to those with mental disabilities. The purpose of Part II is to provide the reader with a map ...


Accomodating Vulnerabilities To Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Prism For Understanding The Ada, Wendy E. Parmet, Mark A. Gottlieb, Richard A. Daynard Jan 1997

Accomodating Vulnerabilities To Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Prism For Understanding The Ada, Wendy E. Parmet, Mark A. Gottlieb, Richard A. Daynard

Journal of Law and Health

This Article explores the use of the ADA to challenge smoking policies and the fears and questions that such a use raises. We argue that a careful appreciation of the ADA's application to ETS-related claims should temper the worries of both those who see such claims as trivializing the ADA and those who worry that such claims may impose enormous burdens on American businesses. Rather, we suggest that the ADA in this instance, as in others, provides a limited but critical vehicle for ensuring that individuals with disabilities may fully participate in public life. We suggest further that the ...


Responsibilities Of Employers Toward Mentally Disabled Persons Under The Americans With Disabilities Act, Karin Mika, Denise Wimbiscus Jan 1996

Responsibilities Of Employers Toward Mentally Disabled Persons Under The Americans With Disabilities Act, Karin Mika, Denise Wimbiscus

Journal of Law and Health

This article will discuss the standards of the ADA with respect to accommodating mental illness in the workplace. It will argue the ADA definitions are not precise enough to apprising employers of what are their obligations regarding mentally ill persons in the workplace. It will additionally make suggestions for revising the statute and regulations to achieve this goal. In reaching its conclusion, this article will discuss popular conceptions about mental illness, and the current statutory framework of the ADA. Representative case law will be considered within the context of these topics. The article will ultimately suggest that fairness to both ...


Learning And Mental Disability Protection Under The Americans With Disabilities Act In The Quest For Certification For The Practice Of Law, Aaron J. Reber Jan 1995

Learning And Mental Disability Protection Under The Americans With Disabilities Act In The Quest For Certification For The Practice Of Law, Aaron J. Reber

Journal of Law and Health

The Americans with Disabilities Act was enacted in 1990 as a comprehensive scheme in which previously discriminated against classes would be guaranteed fair treatment in employment as well as other settings. The Act protects those with both physical and mental disabilities. With respect to certification for the practice of law, the Act has almost unique significance as the accommodations the Act calls for arguably clash with state bar standards of competence both in legal education and mental fitness for certification. These clashes tend to stem from two major situations-accommodation of the learning disabled student who may not be able to ...


Symposium: The Americans With Disabilities Act - Introductory Comments, Dawn V. Martin Jan 1993

Symposium: The Americans With Disabilities Act - Introductory Comments, Dawn V. Martin

Journal of Law and Health

Each of the articles included in this symposium summarizes the ADA and details the particular provisions of the Act which pertain to its thesis. Therefore, I will only briefly outline the Act's major provisions and implications for the purposes of this introductory discussion.


The Ada As A Tool For Advocacy: A Strategy For Fighting Employment Discrimination Against People With Disabilities, Ellen M. Saideman Jan 1993

The Ada As A Tool For Advocacy: A Strategy For Fighting Employment Discrimination Against People With Disabilities, Ellen M. Saideman

Journal of Law and Health

There are essentially three different theories that are used to prove discrimination against people with disabilities: disparate treatment- that a person has been treated differently because of membership in a protected class - may be proved by direct evidence of discrimination or by inference. Today, employers are often open about discriminating against people with disabilities. They frequently know little about disabilities and make their decisions based on stereotypes rather than on individualized assessments. Further, medical examinations and inquiries are required by the ADA to be conducted after a job has been offered thereby enabling job applicants to determine that their disability ...


The Use Of Interpreters For The Deaf And The Legal Community's Obligation To Comply With The A.D.A., Jo Anne Simon Jan 1993

The Use Of Interpreters For The Deaf And The Legal Community's Obligation To Comply With The A.D.A., Jo Anne Simon

Journal of Law and Health

Title II of the ADA, which most closely resembles section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, requires that state and local government facilities, including courts, be accessible to individuals with disabilities. Title III of the Act requires that public accommodations be accessible to persons with disabilities. The Act specifically includes attorney's offices in its definition of public accommodation. Title II and III of the Act require that reasonable accommodations be provided to qualified persons with disabilities, unless such provision would fundamentally alter the goods, services or programs provided. Reasonable accommodations can take the form of auxiliary aids and ...


Designing Reasonable Accomodations Through Co-Worker Participation: Therapeutic Jurisprudence And The Confidentiality Provision Of The Americans With Disabilities Act, Rose A. Daly-Rooney Jan 1993

Designing Reasonable Accomodations Through Co-Worker Participation: Therapeutic Jurisprudence And The Confidentiality Provision Of The Americans With Disabilities Act, Rose A. Daly-Rooney

Journal of Law and Health

The Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in employment, public accommodations, transportation, communication, and services provided by state and local government. Title I of the ADA addresses employment discrimination against people with disabilities. Among other things, the ADA prohibits an employer from rejecting an applicant solely because of the need to provide that applicant with a reasonable accommodation. At the same time, the ADA requires that an employer maintain confidentiality about the applicant or employee's medical condition or medical history obtained during acceptable inquiries, including those inquiries needed to design appropriate accommodations.


And Equal Participation For All...The Americans With Disabilities Act In The Courtroom, Keri K. Gould Jan 1993

And Equal Participation For All...The Americans With Disabilities Act In The Courtroom, Keri K. Gould

Journal of Law and Health

This article hopes to encourage the use of the ADA as a mechanism to increase courtroom accessibility to people with disabilities. The article proceeds in the following manner. Initially, I outline the procedural history and design of the Act. Then, in Part III, I discuss how the ADA seeks to ensure the increased participation of persons with disabilities in courtroom practices and procedures. In Part IV, I discuss the Act's Title II, Public Services, which controls access to and accommodations by the state courts. Next, I trace the discrimination frequently faced by persons with disabilities, which is illustrated by ...


The Ada And Persons With Mental Disabilities: Can Sanist Attitudes Be Undone, Michael L. Perlin Jan 1993

The Ada And Persons With Mental Disabilities: Can Sanist Attitudes Be Undone, Michael L. Perlin

Journal of Law and Health

This leads to my thesis. What I call "sanist" attitudes and "pretextual" judicial and legislative reactions dominate social and legal discourse about mentally ill persons (and those so perceived). These attitudes affect and infect interpersonal relationships, social, cultural and political actions, judicial decisions, legislative enactments, scholarly writings, administrative rulings, and litigation strategies. They largely operate on an unconscious (and often invisible) level, and are frequently found in the writings and public pronouncements of otherwise "liberal" or "progressive" individuals. They are also rationalized through the non-reflective use of a false kind of "ordinary common sense" (OCS) and through the use of ...


Effectively Implementing Title 1 Of The Americans With Disabilities Act For Mentally Disabled Persons: A Therapeutic Jurisprudence Analysis, Deborah A. Dorfman Jan 1993

Effectively Implementing Title 1 Of The Americans With Disabilities Act For Mentally Disabled Persons: A Therapeutic Jurisprudence Analysis, Deborah A. Dorfman

Journal of Law and Health

This article discusses the potential impact that Title I has on the lives of individuals with mental disabilities and methods by which it can be most effectively implemented and enforced. The following section discusses the potential impact that Title I can have on the lives of the mentally disabled, specifically in the areas of independent living and quality of life. Part III will examine problems enforcing Title I which interfere with the ability of the mentally disabled to fully benefit from the statute. The second half of this article discusses how to best implement and enforce Title I from a ...


New Protections For Persons With Mental Illness In The Workplace Under The Americans With Disabilities Act Of 1990, Janet Lowder Hamilton Jan 1992

New Protections For Persons With Mental Illness In The Workplace Under The Americans With Disabilities Act Of 1990, Janet Lowder Hamilton

Cleveland State Law Review

The growth of civil rights for the disabled in recent years has focused on the problems of physical disabilities and removal of architectural barriers. Notable gains have been made in society's recognition of the rights and needs of such individuals through the American’s with Disabilities Act, but acknowledgement of the less obvious condition of psychiatric disability has lagged far behind. This is particularly true of individuals with mental illness, which constitutes probably the largest single group of disabled individuals, and one of the least vocal. Because of negative social attitudes, individuals with mild disorders hesitate to call attention ...


Does Ohio Provide Autistic Children A Free Appropriate Public Education, Sheila M. Mccarthy Jan 1988

Does Ohio Provide Autistic Children A Free Appropriate Public Education, Sheila M. Mccarthy

Journal of Law and Health

Autistic children are handicapped children within the meaning of the EAHCS, therefore, they are entitled to receive "free appropriate public education." This Note will discuss whether Ohio currently provides autistic children a "free appropriate public education" in accordance with the EAHCA. Ohio's parallel statute, the State Education of Handicapped Act (State Act), is compared to similar legislation currently existing in various other states throughout the United States. Areas in the State Act needing clarification are scrutinized and stutory revisions are recommended. This Note concludes that Ohio should adopt additional safeguards to ensure that autistic children receive a "free appropriate ...


The Medical Improvement Standard: An Ounce Of Presumption Is Worth A Pound Of Cure, Diane Jankowski Jan 1985

The Medical Improvement Standard: An Ounce Of Presumption Is Worth A Pound Of Cure, Diane Jankowski

Cleveland State Law Review

Massive termination of Social Security disability benefits has stirred considerable controversy over the procedure employed to separate wrongfully-terminated, deserving recipients from malingerers. After meeting the statutory definition of "disability," most recipients are not automatically granted continuous benefits. Rather, the Social Security Administration undertakes periodic investigations to determine whether recipients continue to remain eligible for disability compensation. Procedural questions concerning terminations were settled by a 1982 Amendment to the Social Security Act that mandated face-to-face reconsideration hearings. Problems remained, however, regarding which party bore the burden of proof in presenting evidence of continued disability. Although this Note will briefly outline the ...