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Full-Text Articles in Contracts

Empiricism And Privacy Policies In The Restatement Of Consumer Contract Law, Gregory Klass Jul 2018

Empiricism And Privacy Policies In The Restatement Of Consumer Contract Law, Gregory Klass

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The draft Restatement of the Law of Consumer Contracts includes a quantitative study of judicial decisions concerning businesses’ online privacy policies, which it cites in support of a claim that most courts treat privacy policies as contracts. This article reports an attempt to reproduce that study’s results. Using the original study’s data, this study was unable to reproduce its numerical findings. This study found in the data fewer relevant decisions, and a lower proportion of decisions supporting the Restatement position. This study also found little support for the claim that there is a clear trend recognizing enforcing privacy ...


Manifest Disregard In International Commercial Arbitration: Whether Manifest Disregard Holds, However Good, Bad, Or Ugly, Chad R. Yates Jun 2018

Manifest Disregard In International Commercial Arbitration: Whether Manifest Disregard Holds, However Good, Bad, Or Ugly, Chad R. Yates

University of Massachusetts Law Review

Manifest disregard is a common law reason for not enforcing an arbitration award. This principle applies when the arbitrator knew and understood the law, but the arbitrator disregarded the applicable law. Presently, the United States Supreme Court has not made a definite decision on whether manifest disregard is still a valid reason for vacating the award (known as “vacatur”), and the Court is highly deferential to arbitrator decisions. Consequently, the lower courts are split on the issue. For international commercial arbitration awards, manifest disregard can only apply to a foreign award that is decided under United States law or in ...


A Fork In The Road: Issues Surrounding The Legality Of Mandatory Class Action Waivers In Arbitration Agreements, Brielle Oshinsky Jun 2018

A Fork In The Road: Issues Surrounding The Legality Of Mandatory Class Action Waivers In Arbitration Agreements, Brielle Oshinsky

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

Recently, federal circuit courts have presented contrasting outcomes regarding the legality of mandatory class action waivers in arbitration agreements. More specifically, these outcomes vary on whether such waivers violate the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) and the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), and importantly, whether it is possible for these statutes to coexist with the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA). The Second, Fifth, and Eighth Circuits have previously held that the act of an employer requiring employees to sign class action waivers in arbitration agreements posed no violation to either the FLSA or the NLRA. However, in May 2016, the Seventh ...


Freelance Isn’T Free: The High Cost Of New York City’S Freelance Isn’T Free Act On Hiring Parties, Caitlin M. Baranowski Jun 2018

Freelance Isn’T Free: The High Cost Of New York City’S Freelance Isn’T Free Act On Hiring Parties, Caitlin M. Baranowski

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

Recently, the New York City Council enacted the Freelance Isn’t Free Act (FIFA) to protect freelancers from non-payment. Among FIFA’s protections is the requirement that hiring parties provide a written contract to freelancers for any work exceeding $800 over a 120-day period. As the nation’s first legislation ensuring freelancers’ rights, FIFA marks a major turning point in the development of protections for the gig economy’s growing independent workforce. While its purpose is laudable and necessary, this Note argues that FIFA is currently too ambiguous. To resolve FIFA’s ambiguity, this Note recommends, at the very least ...


Things Invisible To See: State Action & Private Property, Joseph William Singer, Isaac Saidel-Goley Jun 2018

Things Invisible To See: State Action & Private Property, Joseph William Singer, Isaac Saidel-Goley

Texas A&M Law Review

This Article revisits the state action doctrine, a judicial invention that shields “private” or “non-governmental” discrimination from constitutional scrutiny. Traditionally, this doctrine has applied to discrimination even in places of public accommodation, like restaurants, hotels, and grocery stores. Born of overt racial discrimination, the doctrine has inflicted substantial injustice throughout its inglorious history, and courts have continuously struggled in vain to coherently apply the doctrine. Yet, the United States Supreme Court has not fully insulated “private” or “horizontal” relations among persons from constitutional scrutiny. The cases in which it has applied constitutional norms to non-governmental actors should be celebrated rather ...


A (Re)Adoption Story: What Is Driving Adoptive Parents To Rehome Their Children And What Can Texas Do About It, Emma Martin Jun 2018

A (Re)Adoption Story: What Is Driving Adoptive Parents To Rehome Their Children And What Can Texas Do About It, Emma Martin

Texas A&M Law Review

Ava was adopted from Africa when she was four years old. She became the baby sister to two older brothers and the daughter to two loving, experienced parents. A year or two after Ava moved to America, she and her “forever family” attended a Colorado summer camp. All was seemingly well until the camp staff and the other families at camp started to notice something strange about the way Ava’s parents treated her compared to her brothers. After an activity, the parents greeted the brothers with an excited “did you have fun?” or “what did you learn?,” while the ...


Forgotten Cases: Worthen V. Thomas, David F. Forte May 2018

Forgotten Cases: Worthen V. Thomas, David F. Forte

Cleveland State Law Review

According to received opinion, the case of the Home Bldg. & Loan Ass’n v. Blaisdell, decided in 1934, laid to rest any force the Contract Clause of the United States Constitution had to limit state legislation that affected existing contracts. But the Supreme Court’s subsequent decisions belies that claim. In fact, a few months later, the Court unanimously decided Worthen v. Thomas, which reaffirmed the vitality of the Contract Clause. Over the next few years, in twenty cases, the Court limited the reach of Blaisdell and confirmed the limiting force of the Contract Clause on state legislation. Only after ...


The Enforceability Of Consent-To-Assign Provisions In Texas Oil And Gas Leases, T. Ray Guy, Jason Wright May 2018

The Enforceability Of Consent-To-Assign Provisions In Texas Oil And Gas Leases, T. Ray Guy, Jason Wright

SMU Law Review

Oil and gas leases are unique instruments that, on their face, appear to be contracts or traditional landlord–tenant leases. Indeed, landowners often desire to have them treated as such by including provisions giving a lessor power to limit or control any assignment of the lease. Typically, this takes the form of a consent-to-assign provision seen in many types of ordinary contracts and leases. In Texas, however, an oil gas lease actually conveys a fee simple property interest; and property law, far more than contract or landlord–tenant law, greatly disfavors any restraint that acts to restrict the free transferability ...


Paying For What You Get—Restitution Recovery For Breach Of Contract, Jean Fleming Powers May 2018

Paying For What You Get—Restitution Recovery For Breach Of Contract, Jean Fleming Powers

Pace Law Review

This article begins with a brief discussion of restitution as a remedy for breach of contract under the Restatement (Second) of Contracts. It then discusses the changes the Restatement of Restitution adopts and the reasons for the changes. Next, it discusses why the changes have not only failed to achieve the goal of clarifying the “prevailing confusion” related to restitution and breach of contract, but have at times created more confusion. It then explains that contract and restitution principles are not only not in tension relative to restitution for breach of contract, but in fact support such a recovery.


Shawe V. Elting: The Imperfect Sale Of Transperfect Global, Inc., Sarah M. Samaha May 2018

Shawe V. Elting: The Imperfect Sale Of Transperfect Global, Inc., Sarah M. Samaha

Maryland Law Review

No abstract provided.


Take This Job And Shove It: The Pragmatic Philosophy Of Johnny Paycheck And A Prayer For Strict Liability In Appalachia, Eugene "Trey" Moore Iii May 2018

Take This Job And Shove It: The Pragmatic Philosophy Of Johnny Paycheck And A Prayer For Strict Liability In Appalachia, Eugene "Trey" Moore Iii

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming


A (Thigh) Gap In The Law: Addressing Egregious Digital Manipulation Of Celebrity Images, Jessica L. Williams-Vickery May 2018

A (Thigh) Gap In The Law: Addressing Egregious Digital Manipulation Of Celebrity Images, Jessica L. Williams-Vickery

Georgia State University Law Review

In 2012, world-renowned supermodel Coco Rocha agreed to be photographed for the cover of one of Elle’s magazine publications, Elle Brazil. Rocha posed for the pictures in a dress with significant cutouts, covered only by a sheer layer of skin-toned fabric. In keeping with her firm policy of no full or partial nudity, Rocha wore a bodysuit underneath the dress to limit her exposure. When Elle published the magazine, the final product shocked Rocha; the magazine had altered the image to remove her bodysuit, giving the impression Rocha had shown more skin than she in fact had. Rocha took ...


A Rising Star: Maria Viveiros, Rwu Class Of 2017 (May 2018), Roger Williams University School Of Law May 2018

A Rising Star: Maria Viveiros, Rwu Class Of 2017 (May 2018), Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Ethereum And The Sec: Why Most Distributed Autonomous Organizations Are Subject To The Registration Requirements Of The Securities Act Of 1933 And A Proposal For New Regulation, Tiffany L. Minks May 2018

Ethereum And The Sec: Why Most Distributed Autonomous Organizations Are Subject To The Registration Requirements Of The Securities Act Of 1933 And A Proposal For New Regulation, Tiffany L. Minks

Texas A&M Law Review

In a world full of new technology, the risk of fraud is constantly increasing. In the securities industry, this risk existed long before the use of technology. Congress enacted the Securities Act of 1933 to combat the risk of fraud and misrepresentation in the sale of securities. By requiring full disclosure, investors have the opportunity to make informed decisions prior to investing. However, Distributed Autonomous Organizations (“DAOs”), through the use of blockchains and smart-contracts, engage in the sale of securities without fully disclosing the risks or complying with the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933. Compliance with the ...


Whose Sperm Is It Anyways In The Wild, Wild West Of The Fertility Industry?, Tatiana E. Posada May 2018

Whose Sperm Is It Anyways In The Wild, Wild West Of The Fertility Industry?, Tatiana E. Posada

Georgia State University Law Review

Imagine a couple that is unable to conceive a child naturally. Luckily, they had the money and resources available to them to conceive a child through assisted reproductive technology (ART), so they decided to start their family through the use of intrauterine insemination. They selected a sperm bank and began the arduous process of selecting a sperm donor who fit the desired traits and characteristics for their child. The sperm bank matched them with an anonymous donor, Donor 9623, and assured the couple that the donor was “a healthy male with an IQ of 160, a bachelor’s of science ...


When Courts Run Amuck: A Book Review Of Unequal: How America's Courts Undermine Discrimination Law By Sandra F. Sperino And Suja A. Thomas (Oxford 2017), Theresa M. Beiner May 2018

When Courts Run Amuck: A Book Review Of Unequal: How America's Courts Undermine Discrimination Law By Sandra F. Sperino And Suja A. Thomas (Oxford 2017), Theresa M. Beiner

Texas A&M Law Review

In Unequal: How America’s Courts Undermine Discrimination Law (“Unequal”), law professors Sandra F. Sperino and Suja A. Thomas provide a point-by-point analysis of how the federal courts’ interpretations of federal anti-discrimination laws have undermined their efficacy to provide relief to workers whose employers have allegedly engaged in discrimination. The cases’ results are consistently pro-employer, even while the Supreme Court of the United States—a court not known for being particularly pro-plaintiff—has occasionally ruled in favor of plaintiff employees. The authors suggest some reasons for this apparent anti-plaintiff bias among the federal courts, although they do not settle on ...


Impact Of Owners’ Early Decisions On Project Performance And Dispute Occurrence In Public Highway Projects, Sogand Hasanzadeh, Behzad Esmaeili, Ghada M. Gad, Douglas D. Gransberg May 2018

Impact Of Owners’ Early Decisions On Project Performance And Dispute Occurrence In Public Highway Projects, Sogand Hasanzadeh, Behzad Esmaeili, Ghada M. Gad, Douglas D. Gransberg

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

Disputes are common in the construction industry and lead to unnecessary cost and schedule overruns in projects. It is commonly believed that owners’ early decisions regarding the selection of delivery methods, procurement methods, and contract types affect the frequency and severity of project disputes; however, no previous study has empirically tested this hypothesis, particularly in highway public projects. Therefore, this study empirically investigated the effect of owners’ early decisions regarding project organization (i.e., delivery methods, procurement, and contract types) on performance measures (e.g., cost and schedule growth), specifically dispute performance metrics (e.g., frequency and severity of disputes ...


China's Anti-Corruption Crackdown And The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Daniel C.K. Chow May 2018

China's Anti-Corruption Crackdown And The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Daniel C.K. Chow

Texas A&M Law Review

China’s highly publicized crackdown on corruption may affect the type and number of cases in China that arise under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), but it should not be assumed that the crackdown will necessarily lead to fewer FCPA prosecutions. Although there is some overlap of the goals of China’s corruption crackdown and the goals of the FCPA, China’s crackdown also serves important goals of the ruling Communist Party. The main goal of the current crackdown is to reinforce the Party’s power by targeting enemies and rivals of the current leadership. The crackdown is not ...


The Negative Effects Of Confusion Over Collateral Agreements Under The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act: Which Agreements Need Review?, Matthew D. Craig May 2018

The Negative Effects Of Confusion Over Collateral Agreements Under The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act: Which Agreements Need Review?, Matthew D. Craig

UNLV Gaming Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Blurring Of The Public/Private Distinction Or The Collapse Of A Category? The Story Of Investment Arbitration, Guillermo Garcia Sanchez Apr 2018

The Blurring Of The Public/Private Distinction Or The Collapse Of A Category? The Story Of Investment Arbitration, Guillermo Garcia Sanchez

Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez

The paper is a response piece to Deborah Hensler and Damira Khatam’s new article, Re-inventing Arbitration: How Expanding the Scope of Arbitration Is Re-Shaping Its Form and Blurring the Line Between Private and Public Adjudication. Their main argument regarding the public-private distinction is that the arbitral procedure has changed as a consequence of the substantive issues resolved in this particular ADR system. According to them the arbitral system, which was originally conceived for commercial purposes, has become another way of litigating public law, but without the accountability mechanisms attached to public courts. In this paper, I agree in large ...


Spiller V. State: Determining The Nature Of Public Employees' Rights To Their Pensions, Andrew C. Mackenzie Apr 2018

Spiller V. State: Determining The Nature Of Public Employees' Rights To Their Pensions, Andrew C. Mackenzie

Maine Law Review

In Spiller v. State, a divided Maine Supreme Judicial Court, sitting as the Law Court, held that certain legislative changes to public employee pension benefits did not impair the employees' constitutional rights because there was no clear indication that the employees had a contractual right to their pensions. These changes were enacted as a reduction of state expenditures in reaction to Maine's fiscal deficit. The majority found that the changes were not unconstitutional and thus were permissible. The dissenting opinion, however, found that a contract existed between the State and the employees and that it had been breached. Although ...


Employees Or Independent Contractors: A Call For Revision Of Maine's Unemployment Compensation "Abc Test", Christopher J. Cotnoir Apr 2018

Employees Or Independent Contractors: A Call For Revision Of Maine's Unemployment Compensation "Abc Test", Christopher J. Cotnoir

Maine Law Review

The Maine Employment Security Law governs whether one person performing services for another is an independent contractor or an employee for unemployment tax purposes. It requires many employers to pay unemployment taxes on individuals who, under the usual common law rules governing the employer-employee relationship, are independent contractors. This result, caused partly by the structure of the statute and partly by judicial interpretation, has the effect of discouraging business expansion, limiting entrepreneurial opportunities, and ultimately, hampering statewide economic development. This Comment first provides the historical background of unemployment compensation legislation at the federal and state levels. Employer liability and employee ...


Insurer Prejudice Analysis Of An Expanding Doctrine In Insurance Coverage Law, Richard L. Suter Apr 2018

Insurer Prejudice Analysis Of An Expanding Doctrine In Insurance Coverage Law, Richard L. Suter

Maine Law Review

All contracts of insurance place certain requirements on the insured both before and after a covered loss has occurred. For example, all insurance policies require that an insured notify the insurer of a covered loss and cooperate with the insurer in the investigation of the loss and in the pursuit or defense of any claims arising out of the loss. Traditionally, if an insured failed to comply with such notification or cooperation requirements, the insurer could flatly deny coverage of the claim. Recently, however, an increasing number of courts are requiring that the insurer show that it has been prejudiced ...


Cain V. Price C/W 69889/70864, 134 Nev. Adv. Op. 26 (April 12, 2018), Jeff Chronister Apr 2018

Cain V. Price C/W 69889/70864, 134 Nev. Adv. Op. 26 (April 12, 2018), Jeff Chronister

Nevada Supreme Court Summaries

The Nevada Supreme Court held that one party’s material breach of contract releases the non-breaching party’s contractual obligation to a third-party beneficiary.


U.S. Home Corp. V. The Michael Ballesteros Trust, 134 Nev. Adv. Op. 25 (April 1, 2018), Natice Locke Apr 2018

U.S. Home Corp. V. The Michael Ballesteros Trust, 134 Nev. Adv. Op. 25 (April 1, 2018), Natice Locke

Nevada Supreme Court Summaries

The Court held that where an underlying transaction involves interstate commerce, the FAA (Federal Arbitration Act) preempts state unconscionability doctrine from disfavoring arbitration.


Reputational Economies Of Scale, Daniel M. Klerman Apr 2018

Reputational Economies Of Scale, Daniel M. Klerman

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

For many years, most scholars have assumed that the strength of reputational incentives is positively correlated with the frequency of repeat play. Firms that sell more products or services were thought more likely to be trustworthy than those that sell less because they have more to lose if consumers decide they have behaved badly. That assumption has been called into question by recent work that shows that, under the standard infinitely repeated game model of reputation, reputational economies of scale will occur only under special conditions, such as monopoly, because larger firms not only have more to lose from behaving ...


The Surety's Liability For "Bad Faith": Claims For Extra-Contractual Damages By An Obligee Under The Payment Bond, John J. Aromando Apr 2018

The Surety's Liability For "Bad Faith": Claims For Extra-Contractual Damages By An Obligee Under The Payment Bond, John J. Aromando

Maine Law Review

The theory of “bad faith” is by now well established in the areas of liability and casualty insurance. Although the relief available takes different forms in different jurisdictions, a common thread is the exposure of the insurance carrier to extra-contractual damages as a result of its conduct in handling a claim. Depending on the jurisdiction, these extra-contractual damages can include one or more of the following: penal interest and attorneys' fees; consequential damages for breach of contract; and recovery in tort. Even in the most restrictive jurisdiction the exposure is substantial, and in the most expansive it can be catastrophic ...


Amending Maine's Plain Language Law To Ensure Complete Disclosure To Consumers Signing Arbitration Contracts, Andrew R. Sarapas Mar 2018

Amending Maine's Plain Language Law To Ensure Complete Disclosure To Consumers Signing Arbitration Contracts, Andrew R. Sarapas

Maine Law Review

Arbitration has been defined as an informal procedure used by disputants to resolve their differences in a forum other than a court of law. By agreeing to arbitration, the parties submit their disputes to selected arbitrators, whose reasoning and final decisions or awards supplant the judgment of the established judicial tribunals. Further, the decisions of arbitrators are usually binding and enforceable in courts. Although arbitration has been lauded for being less expensive and time-consuming than litigation, consumers arbitrating disputes with large companies may not be playing on a level field. It is important, however, to distinguish arbitration from mediation. Arbitrators ...


Taking Note Of Notary Employees: Employer Liability For Notary Employee Misconduct, Nancy Perkins Spyke Mar 2018

Taking Note Of Notary Employees: Employer Liability For Notary Employee Misconduct, Nancy Perkins Spyke

Maine Law Review

The law of agency governs the relations between principals, agents, and third persons. A portion of that body of law deals with the liabilities that arise when an agent causes harm to a third party. Situations in which negligent employees cause harm to their employers' customers are ripe for the application of standard agency principles. Those principles dictate that the employer will be liable for the tort of an employee if the tort is committed in the scope of employment. The Restatement (Second) of Agency and case law provide many illustrations. If an employer directs an employee to perform a ...


Aproximación A Los Mecanismos Para Completar El Contrato Desde La Teoría Económica. El Caso De La Cadena Alimentaria, Teresa Rodríguez-Cachón Mar 2018

Aproximación A Los Mecanismos Para Completar El Contrato Desde La Teoría Económica. El Caso De La Cadena Alimentaria, Teresa Rodríguez-Cachón

The Latin American and Iberian Journal of Law and Economics

The economic theory of the contract has put into the firing line of legal debate the relevance of taking into account the incomplete nature of this legal instrument, coming from the bounded rationality of human beings and from the existence of transaction costs. From this point of view, it is necessary to study legal system mechanisms to correct this problem. These mechanisms, apart from being particularly relevant in long-term contractual relations, differ according to the nature of each relation. Among all, special attention is focused on default rules as a mechanism to fill in contracts and their application to the ...