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Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Animal Law

The Primary Right, Carter Dillard Jan 2012

The Primary Right, Carter Dillard

Carter Dillard

As climate change materializes, legal theorists face the urgent need to develop a normative baseline for environmental regulation. Meanwhile, in the seemingly unrelated field of political exit theory, theorists have presumed that while one ought to be able to exit any polity one cannot exit all polities. This essay challenges that presumption, and simultaneously addresses the baseline problem in environmental law, by combining the analyses to develop a new human right derived from exit right theory called the primary right: a general claim-right of reasonable access to wilderness. The derivation is simple: If consent is necessary to justify political association ...


Empathy With Animals: A Litmus Test For Legal Personhood?, Carter Dillard Jan 2012

Empathy With Animals: A Litmus Test For Legal Personhood?, Carter Dillard

Carter Dillard

Is there any relationship between the disposition of some humans to empathize with and respond to the interests of nonhuman animals, and the criteria we ought to use for determining who becomes a legal person? This brief essay argues that there is, by employing a thick conception of legal personhood, and suggests that criteria be used to determine who constitutes our legality in the future.


Valuing Having Children, Carter Dillard Jan 2010

Valuing Having Children, Carter Dillard

Carter Dillard

Are there objective values on which to base the claim of a right to procreate? Can we articulate reasons for having children so powerful that they justify our doing so, as a matter of right, even where it would conflict with the interests and values of others? This Article systematically and critically examines many of the values that, before now, courts and commentators have simply presumed and relied upon when making the claim that there is and ought to be a fundamental right to have children. This Article first develops a methodology for examining the values and interests on which ...


Future Children As Property, Carter Dillard Jan 2010

Future Children As Property, Carter Dillard

Carter Dillard

Between Skinner v. Oklahoma and the advent of modern substantive due process, procreation, at least in the eyes of many courts and commentators, became entrenched as a fundamental, if not absolute, right. And yet ironically, the establishment of this right, often taken as symbolic of personal liberty, has diminished autonomy for those persons inevitably caught on the other end of it – our future children. Expanding procreative autonomy has diminished public norms that might otherwise ensure that future children are born into circumstances that also expand their autonomy. Instead, the broad, modern, privacy-based version of the right to procreate leaves the ...


Antecedent Law: The Law Of People Making, Carter Dillard Jan 2010

Antecedent Law: The Law Of People Making, Carter Dillard

Carter Dillard

In our conception of law we have largely presumed the process by which the people whose behavior the law is meant to regulate come to be present and susceptible to the law's influence. As a result, that process is largely outside of our account of the law, and any role the law might have over the matter is relatively ignored. This article introduces a simple and concrete conceptual device, a form of law called antecedent law, which seeks to undo this presumption and refocus our attention on that which can determine the presence of persons in the polity and ...


Procreation, Harm, And The Constitution, Carter Dillard Dec 2009

Procreation, Harm, And The Constitution, Carter Dillard

Carter Dillard

This Essay provides relatively novel answers to two related questions: First, are there moral reasons to limit the sorts of existences it is permissible to bring people into, such that one would be morally prohibited from procreating in certain circumstances? Second, can the state justify a legal prohibition on procreation in those circumstances using that moral reasoning, so that the law would likely be constitutional?

These questions are not new, but my answers to them are and add to the existing literature in several ways. First, I offer a possible resolution to a recent debate among legal scholars regarding what ...


Child Welfare And Future Persons, Carter Dillard Jan 2009

Child Welfare And Future Persons, Carter Dillard

Carter Dillard

While ethicists have delved deep into the rights and wrongs of procreating, lawyers have had little to say about the matter, stymied by practical concerns, the tendency of the law to ignore prospective children and their interests, and the misperception that a fundamental rights boundary absolutely forbids state intervention. But recently a small door has opened in this wall between law and ethics: as courts faced with having to repeatedly remove abused and neglected children from parents adjudged unfit have issued temporary no-procreation orders. As precedent builds and the possibility of ex ante regulation of procreation and parenthood grows, a ...


Rethinking The Procreative Right, Carter Dillard Jan 2007

Rethinking The Procreative Right, Carter Dillard

Carter Dillard

Few principles are as universally accepted in legal scholarship today, but based on such scant support, as the fundamental nature and broad scope of the right to procreate. What is perceived as a vague but nonetheless justified legal and moral interest to procreate freely without regard to others is, upon closer examination, based on little more than misconstrued or inapposite case precedent and blurry statements in non-binding sources of international law. By relying on this authority, conflating procreation with conceptually distinguishable behaviors, presuming its intrinsic value, and ignoring competing rights and duties, lawyers have largely overlooked procreation and its legal ...


False Advertising, Animals, And Ethical Consumption, Carter Dillard Jan 2004

False Advertising, Animals, And Ethical Consumption, Carter Dillard

Carter Dillard

In light of the fact that today's consumers often want their products to be created in the most environmentally, globally, and animal friendly ways possible, unethical sellers sometimes succumb to the incentive to persuade consumers that goods were created more ethically than they actually were. False advertising law represents a rare, albeit roundabout, legal opening for animal advocates to deal with issues of animal mistreatment, regardless of legislative and executive branch disregard of the importance of animal protection. Whether there is a beneficial change in the law or not, current opportunities in the market for these cases should be ...