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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Legal Needs Of Nonprofits: An Empirical Study Of Tax-Exempt Organizations And Their Access To Legal Services, Raymond H. Brescia, Bahareh Ansari, Hannah Hage Jul 2020

The Legal Needs Of Nonprofits: An Empirical Study Of Tax-Exempt Organizations And Their Access To Legal Services, Raymond H. Brescia, Bahareh Ansari, Hannah Hage

Hastings Race and Poverty Law Journal

This empirical study, using quantitative and qualitative techniques, attempts to assess the state of the legal needs of nonprofit organizations, with an emphasis on the ways in which nonprofit organizations are or are not accessing assistance addressing their legal services needs. While most research into the extent to which Americans may or may not be accessing legal services focuses on the legal needs of individuals and families, this study focuses on the legal needs of nonprofit groups. Our goal with this research project is to contribute to the growing literature on the scope of unmet legal needs in the United ...


Masthead Jul 2020

Masthead

Hastings Race and Poverty Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Editor In Chief: Foreword, Virginia Millacci Jul 2020

Editor In Chief: Foreword, Virginia Millacci

Hastings Race and Poverty Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Case For A Federal Statute Authorizing Compensation For Legally Imposed Segregation, Thomas B. Stoel Jr. Jul 2020

The Case For A Federal Statute Authorizing Compensation For Legally Imposed Segregation, Thomas B. Stoel Jr.

Hastings Race and Poverty Law Journal

This article, “The Case for a Federal Statute Authorizing Compensation for Legally Imposed Segregation,” proposes enactment of a law to provide reparations to the African Americans who suffered economic, physical, and psychological harm because they were victims of legally imposed racial segregation.

In 1973, Yale Law School Professor Boris Bittker published The Case for Black Reparations, a perceptive, legally rigorous analysis of the issue. Bittker concluded that a focus on reparations for slavery was likely to prove unproductive, and concentrated instead on the prospect for achieving broad- scale reparations for legally imposed segregation. Bittker reached no definitive conclusions; he ended ...


Mistreating Central American Refugees: Repeating History In Response To Humanitarian Challenges, Bill Ong Hing Jul 2020

Mistreating Central American Refugees: Repeating History In Response To Humanitarian Challenges, Bill Ong Hing

Hastings Race and Poverty Law Journal

In the 1980s, tens of thousands of Central Americans fled to the United States seeking refuge from civil unrest that ravaged their countries. In a largely geopolitical response, the Reagan administration labeled those fleeing Guatemala and El Salvador as “economic migrants,” detained them, and largely denied their asylum claims. The illegal discrimination against these refugees was exposed in a series of lawsuits and through congressional investigations. This led to the reconsideration of thousands of cases, the enlistment of a corps of asylum officers, and an agreement on the conditions under which migrant children could be detained.

Unfortunately, the lessons of ...


Teaching Professional Responsibility Through Theater, Michael Millemann, Elliott Rauh, Robert Bowie Jr. Jul 2020

Teaching Professional Responsibility Through Theater, Michael Millemann, Elliott Rauh, Robert Bowie Jr.

Hastings Race and Poverty Law Journal

This article is about ethics-focused, law school courses, co-taught with a theater director, in which students wrote, produced and performed in plays. The plays were about four men who, separately, were wrongfully convicted, spent decades in prison, and finally were released and exonerated, formally (two) or informally (two).

The common themes in these miscarriages of justice were that 1) unethical conduct of prosecutors (especially failures to disclose exculpatory evidence) and of defense counsel (especially incompetent representation) undermined the Rule of Law and produced wrongful convictions, and 2) conversely, that the ethical conduct of post-conviction lawyers and law students helped to ...


Muslims And Islam In U.S. Public Schools: Cases, Controversies And Curricula, Engy Abdelkader Jul 2020

Muslims And Islam In U.S. Public Schools: Cases, Controversies And Curricula, Engy Abdelkader

Hastings Race and Poverty Law Journal

In recent years, controversies surrounding curriculum and instruction about Muslims and Islam in U.S. public schools have become more common. In some instances, Muslim American parents and students have challenged representations that spread and reinforce denigrating stereotypes and misconceptions about their faith and co-religionists. In a seemingly growing trend, however, some non-Muslim students and parents are objecting to courses and programs due to perceived favorable or neutral treatment of the Islamic faith. Such cases, controversies and curricula illustrate how popular anxieties surrounding the integration of immigrant populations, particularly Muslims, are increasingly infecting classrooms, school districts and communities. They also ...


Law, Race, And The Epistemology Of Ignorance, George A. MartíNez Jul 2020

Law, Race, And The Epistemology Of Ignorance, George A. MartíNez

Hastings Race and Poverty Law Journal

Philosophers and other theorists have developed the field of epistemology which is the study of human knowledge. Critical race theorists have begun to explore how epistemological theory and insights may illuminate the study of race, including the analysis of race and the law. Such use of epistemology is appropriate because theoretical work on knowledge can be used to advance one of the key goals of critical race theory which is to understand how a regime of white supremacy and its subordination of people of color have been created and maintained in America. In this regard, philosophers and other theorists have ...


Korean Americans, The Protestant Christian Church, And The Future Of Asian American Lgbtq Rights, Josiah Pak Jul 2020

Korean Americans, The Protestant Christian Church, And The Future Of Asian American Lgbtq Rights, Josiah Pak

Hastings Race and Poverty Law Journal

This paper focuses on the Korean American Protestant Christian church and their past, present, and future support for LGBTQ rights. It explores both first-generation Korean American immigrants and their children, native-born second-generation Korean Americans. Specifically, it recounts the process of emigration for many first-generation Korean American immigrants and how it carried over the conservative, traditionalist, and religious frameworks that contribute to stonewalling future LGBTQ equality rights. Additionally, this paper addresses second- generation Korean Americans swinging between ideologies and social underpinnings of the older generation and a new “American” identity. By recounting Korean immigration to the United States, the role of ...


Secure The Smartphone, Secure The Future: Biometrics, Boyd, A Warrant Denial And The Fourth And Fifth Amendments, Aaron Chase Jul 2020

Secure The Smartphone, Secure The Future: Biometrics, Boyd, A Warrant Denial And The Fourth And Fifth Amendments, Aaron Chase

Hastings Race and Poverty Law Journal

The growing use of biometric technology—fingerprints, facial recognition and beyond—for data safekeeping—particularly for smart phones, personal computers, and identification—has raised a number of questions for Constitutional scholars. What Constitutional protections, if any, does biometric information have? Does biometric information require a warrant for law enforcement officers to compel its production? Would compelling production of a biometric password effectively force defendants to testify against themselves? Should the growing use of biometric information, by both private third parties and law enforcement, lead courts to reexamine prior precedents regarding privacy interests in personal technology and personal physical characteristics? This ...


Building Social And Human Capital In The Black Community By Increasing Strategic Relationships, Cooperative Economics, The Black Marriage Rate, And The Level Of Educational Attainment And Targeted Occupational Training, W. Sherman Rogers Jul 2020

Building Social And Human Capital In The Black Community By Increasing Strategic Relationships, Cooperative Economics, The Black Marriage Rate, And The Level Of Educational Attainment And Targeted Occupational Training, W. Sherman Rogers

Hastings Race and Poverty Law Journal

This is a multi-disciplinary article that focuses on the power of strategic relationships and cooperative economics in strengthening the human and social capital of the black1 community. It involves studies emanating primarily from the fields of law, economics, history, political science, and sociology. The recommendations set-forth in this article, however, are relevant to all people in America. The central thesis that underlies the entirety of this article can be found in the simple exhortation of the African Proverb—“If you want to go fast, go alone. If you want to go far, go together .”

African Americans can significantly expand the ...


Foreword, Kya Rose Coletta Jul 2020

Foreword, Kya Rose Coletta

Hastings Business Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Legal Transplants, Law Books, And Anglo-American Corporate Fiduciary Duties, Victoria Barnes Jul 2020

Legal Transplants, Law Books, And Anglo-American Corporate Fiduciary Duties, Victoria Barnes

Hastings Business Law Journal

This Article explores legal transplants and divergences in Anglo- American corporate fiduciary law. The internal management rule in English law acts to restrict judicial interference in corporate governance disputes. It is conceptually similar to the business judgment rule but the two remain distinct. This Article explains why Anglo-American corporate law developed differently, despite its shared roots. It pinpoints the origins of the internal management rule to Lord Lindley’s work, which was written in the late nineteenth century. Lord Lindley was central to the development of corporate law in England and other common law jurisdictions within the British Empire, but ...


Masthead Jul 2020

Masthead

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Going “All In” After Murphy V. Ncaa: An Approach For California To Legalize Sports Gambling, Kailey J. Walsh Jul 2020

Going “All In” After Murphy V. Ncaa: An Approach For California To Legalize Sports Gambling, Kailey J. Walsh

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

When people think of sports gambling, they think of Las Vegas. Until recently, Nevada was the only state where one could legally place bets on sporting events. However, since the recent Supreme Court decision, Murphy v. NCAA, states are now in control when it comes to deciding whether or not to legalize sports gambling. As a result of the Murphy v. NCAA decision, some states have started to pass legislation to allow its citizens to legally place bets on certain sporting events. The driving force to legalize sports gambling stems from states’ desires to increase revenue through the taxation of ...


This Is No Laughing Matter: How Should Comedians Be Able To Protect Their Jokes?, Sarah Gamblin Jul 2020

This Is No Laughing Matter: How Should Comedians Be Able To Protect Their Jokes?, Sarah Gamblin

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

This note will discuss the current state of protection for jokes and comedy. As it is now, the only protection comics have is self-help, meaning comedians take punishing thefts into their own hands. This note will dive into the reasons why the current legislature and courts refuse to recognize jokes as copyrightable. Specifically, why many believe that jokes to not meet the qualifications of being an expression, as well as the fear that protecting jokes will lead to chilled speech.

Additionally, this note shall discuss the ways jokes could be protected under the current legal scheme, including trademark and state ...


Leveraging The Ilo For Human Rights And Workers’ Rights In International Sporting Events, Dantam Le Jul 2020

Leveraging The Ilo For Human Rights And Workers’ Rights In International Sporting Events, Dantam Le

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

Sports majorly impact the world, and millions of fans from all over the globe rally together with pride to watch their countries compete on the world’s stage in international sporting events such as the Olympic Games and the World Cup. Studies suggest that mega sporting events help host cities gain an influx of resources from the central government relative to non-host cities in the same country, and that this may be particularly important in periods of economic recession and resource scarcity. Sports play a central role in quality education for all, and sports have been found to advance public ...


The Shield And The Sword: The Press Between The Public Interest And The Illegal Interception Of Private Communications, Andres Calderon Jul 2020

The Shield And The Sword: The Press Between The Public Interest And The Illegal Interception Of Private Communications, Andres Calderon

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

Journalism is not only under the attack of fake news and post-truth politics. Its main enemy comes from within. Malpractices of journalism such as the fabrication of sources and fake stories and illegal intrusion in people’s privacy are part of the equation that leads to people’s distrust in news organization.

This article addresses two very related topics that, nevertheless, have not been sufficiently studied as part of the same phenomenon: the reporter’s privilege to protect his sources’ identity and its connection with a journalist’s involvement in the illegal hacking or interception of private communications.

After reviewing ...


Masthead Jul 2020

Masthead

Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly

No abstract provided.


Neurodiversity In Public Schools: A Critique Of Special Education In America, Pallavi M. Vishwanath Jul 2020

Neurodiversity In Public Schools: A Critique Of Special Education In America, Pallavi M. Vishwanath

Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly

This Note provides a comparative critique to the special education practices in the U.S. and Canada. The Note reasons that a country or democracy is most benefitted when there is a recognized governmental duty to maximize the potential of every student via public education. The Note further exposes how a difference in governmental duty to provide equal education drastically affects students’ dignity and potential. This Note describes the history of the American public education system; explains the development of special education in the United States and the ambiguous governmental duty to educate American students; and discusses Canadian case law ...


Worse Than Punishment: How The Involuntary Commitment Of Persons With Mental Illness Violates The United States Constitution, Samantha M. Caspar, Artem M. Joukov Jul 2020

Worse Than Punishment: How The Involuntary Commitment Of Persons With Mental Illness Violates The United States Constitution, Samantha M. Caspar, Artem M. Joukov

Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly

This Article highlights that individuals who suffer from mental health problems can be particularly defenseless against an attack on their liberty through criminal and civil law. Specifically, it delineates how the current laws allow for a potential indefinite commitment of a person who may not have even committed a single crime. The Article explains that constitutionally mandated standards should be required to protect individuals who face losing their liberty due to the perceived threat of future harm. The authors posit that, while preventing individuals from harming themselves or others is an honorable goal, the state should only be able to ...


Comparative Cruelty: A Comparative Analysis Of The Eighth Amendment To The United States Constitution And Section Nine Of The New Zealand Bill Of Rights Act, Carrie Leonetti Jul 2020

Comparative Cruelty: A Comparative Analysis Of The Eighth Amendment To The United States Constitution And Section Nine Of The New Zealand Bill Of Rights Act, Carrie Leonetti

Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly

Given that the United States Constitution and the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act both contain prohibitions against governmental acts of cruelty and torture, this Article offers a comparative analysis of the judicial interpretations of the meaning of “cruel” in the prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment in the two country’s founding documents. The Article beings by considering the shared historical underpinnings of the prohibitions, which require a proportionality analysis when assessing whether a punishment is excessive. Next, it examines the meaning of “cruelty” and the scope of the prohibitions in New Zealand and the United States. The Article ...


You Don’T Have To Pay The Troll Toll: Antitrust Violations Of Patent Assertion Entities And The Noerr-Pennington Doctrine “Sham Litigation” Exception, Katheryn M. Wenger Jul 2020

You Don’T Have To Pay The Troll Toll: Antitrust Violations Of Patent Assertion Entities And The Noerr-Pennington Doctrine “Sham Litigation” Exception, Katheryn M. Wenger

Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly

This Note discusses the implications of possible antitrust violations when Patent Assertion Entities (“PAEs”) enforce their vast patent portfolios against alleged infringers by forcing a license of the entire portfolio or threatening continuous and costly litigation. This Note analyzes this PAE conduct under antitrust laws, using Intellectual Ventures I, LLC v. Capital One Financial Corp. as an exemplar case study. Further, the Note explains that PAEs are not immune to antitrust counterclaims under the Noerr-Pennington doctrine because their anticompetitive conduct meets the standard for the “sham litigation” exception to the doctrine. Ultimately, this Note offers preventative solutions to this PAE ...


Foreword, Wendy Melissa Hernandez Jul 2020

Foreword, Wendy Melissa Hernandez

Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly

No abstract provided.


Masthead Jul 2020

Masthead

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Combatting Corruption In The “Era Of Xi Jinping”: A Law And Economics Perspective, Miron Mushkat, Roda Mushkat Jul 2020

Combatting Corruption In The “Era Of Xi Jinping”: A Law And Economics Perspective, Miron Mushkat, Roda Mushkat

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

Pervasive graft, widely observed throughout Chinese history but deprived of proper outlets and suppressed in the years following the Communist Revolution, resurfaced on massive scale when partial marketization of the economy was embraced in 1978 and beyond. The authorities had endeavored to alleviate the problem, but in an uneven and less than determined fashion. The battle against corruption has greatly intensified after Xi Jinping ascended to power in 2012. The multiyear antigraft campaign that has unfolded has been carried out in an iron-fisted and relentless fashion. It has yielded some tangible benefits, yet the negative side of the ledger is ...


Eu-China Fta: Enhanced Enforcement And Umbrella Coverage Of Anticorruption, Ron Brown Jul 2020

Eu-China Fta: Enhanced Enforcement And Umbrella Coverage Of Anticorruption, Ron Brown

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Should The Proud Dragon Repent? A Relative Theory For China’S State Capitalist Banking Sector Based On East Asia’S Experience, Yueh-Ping (Alex) Yang Jul 2020

Should The Proud Dragon Repent? A Relative Theory For China’S State Capitalist Banking Sector Based On East Asia’S Experience, Yueh-Ping (Alex) Yang

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

Amidst the U.S.-China trade war, China’s banking sector, the backbone of China’s economy, plays a key role in this battle. China’s banking sector, however, poses a puzzle to contemporary studies of state-owned banks (“SBs”). According to the property right theory, the mainstream SB theory, SBs are negative for the financial and economic development of an economy because it is susceptible to more serious agency problems, excessive political intervention, and conflict of interest between state regulators and state owners. That said, the economic success of China, whose banks are mostly owned and controlled by the Chinese ...


California And The European Union Take The Lead In Data Protection, Dyann Heward-Mills, Helga Turku Jul 2020

California And The European Union Take The Lead In Data Protection, Dyann Heward-Mills, Helga Turku

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Japanese Financial Regulations And Keiretsu Style Groups On Japanese Corporate Governance, Ken Kobayashi Jul 2020

Effects Of Japanese Financial Regulations And Keiretsu Style Groups On Japanese Corporate Governance, Ken Kobayashi

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.