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Full-Text Articles in Law

Cold War Legacy And Continuing Temptation: Tactical Nuclear Weapons In International Humanitarian Law, Stefan Kirchner Apr 2015

Cold War Legacy And Continuing Temptation: Tactical Nuclear Weapons In International Humanitarian Law, Stefan Kirchner

Stefan Kirchner

During the Cold War as well as in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, low yield tactical nuclear weapons have been deployed or, in the latter case, at least envisaged (again). Of particular interest in the early years of the 21st century have been so called bunker busters, nuclear weapons which can penetrate the ground and which can be used to destroy underground facilities, such as Iranian nuclear facilities. In this article, the role of tactical nuclear weapons during the Cold War and today is explained and the legality of the use of tactical nuclear weapons, in ...


The Interwoven Destinies Of The United States, Colombia And Panama: On Friendship, Commerce And Navigation Treaties And International Legal Imperialism, Marco Velásquez-Ruiz Apr 2015

The Interwoven Destinies Of The United States, Colombia And Panama: On Friendship, Commerce And Navigation Treaties And International Legal Imperialism, Marco Velásquez-Ruiz

Marco A. Velásquez-Ruiz

Based on the general contention that International Law can (and has) served imperialist purposes – that is to say, extend a nation’s authority over another by establishing an effective influence on its political and economic affairs –, this paper intends to illustrate how the 1846 Friendship, Commerce and Navigation Treaty concluded between the United States and Colombia – commonly known as the Mallarino-Bidlack Treaty –was eventually used by the former as a neocolonial device on the latter. Essentially, the suggested tale on which this paper is built goes as follows: to a great extent, the United States consolidated its global hegemonic position ...


Equity Crowdfunding: All Regulated But Not Equal, Garry A. Gabison Jan 2015

Equity Crowdfunding: All Regulated But Not Equal, Garry A. Gabison

Garry A. Gabison

This paper describes how different countries have approached equity crowdfunding. This paper focuses on countries or regulatory authorities that either expressed their awareness of the phenomenon but decided to adopt a holding pattern (monitoring and investigating) or that decided to adopt new laws and regulations. Countries like Australia have opted to reaffirm how their current set of regulations applies to crowdfunding whereas others like the United States, Italy, the United Kingdom, and France have elected to create new exemptions in an effort to facilitate equity crowdfunding. This paper compares how each country decided to regulate the different participants in the ...


Nuclear Chain Reaction: Why Economic Sanctions Are Not Worth The Public Costs, Nicholas C.W. Wolfe Sep 2014

Nuclear Chain Reaction: Why Economic Sanctions Are Not Worth The Public Costs, Nicholas C.W. Wolfe

Nicholas A Wolfe

International economic sanctions frequently violate human rights in targeted states and rarely achieve their objectives. However, many hail economic sanctions as an important nonviolent tool for coercing and persuading change. In November 2013, the Islamic Republic of Iran negotiated a temporary agreement with major world powers regarding Iran’s nuclear program. The United States’ media and politicians have repeatedly and incorrectly attributed Iran’s willingness to negotiate to the effectiveness of economic sanctions.

Politicians primarily focus on immediate domestic effects and enact sanctions without a thorough understanding of the long-term effects on the United States economy and the public within ...


High Courts And Election Law Reform In The United States And India, Manoj Mate Jan 2014

High Courts And Election Law Reform In The United States And India, Manoj Mate

Manoj S. Mate

Over the past decade, the push for electoral reform in India and the United States – the world’s two largest democracies – has been promi- nent in the politics and governance of both nations. The supreme courts in each country have played important, but distinct, roles in recent electoral reform efforts, responding to different facets and regimes of political corruption. In the 1990s, the Indian Supreme Court became increasingly assertive in requiring greater levels of dis- closure and transparency for political parties in India. In a series of decisions in 2002 and 2003, the Indian Supreme Court challenged the Central Government ...


Industrial Hemp: Canada Exports, United States Imports, Courtney N. Moran Ll.M. Jan 2014

Industrial Hemp: Canada Exports, United States Imports, Courtney N. Moran Ll.M.

Courtney N. Moran LL.M.

Industrial hemp, a non-psychoactive variety of Cannabis sativa L., (C. sativa) is the greatest renewable resource available to mankind. Industrial hemp is an environmentally friendly crop that does not require herbicides or pesticides and can clean up toxins in soil. Manufacturers can produce hemp into over 25,000 products.

More than 30 industrialized nations, including Canada, cultivate industrial hemp for commercial purposes. Despite the fact that industrial hemp is a viable agricultural commodity, in the United States hemp is classified as marihuana, a Schedule I controlled substance, under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Therefore, it is illegal under U.S ...


More Market-Oriented Than U.S. And More Socialist Than China: A Comparative Public Property Story Of Singapore, Jianlin Chen, Jiongzhe Cui Jan 2014

More Market-Oriented Than U.S. And More Socialist Than China: A Comparative Public Property Story Of Singapore, Jianlin Chen, Jiongzhe Cui

Jianlin Chen

Compared to the more illustrious conceptualization of private property, the conceptualiza-tion of public property remains at a surprisingly infantile stage. The very definition of public property is ambiguous. This article utilizes a comparative case study of traffic congestion policies in the United States, China, and Singapore to highlight the conceptual pitfalls posed by the current confusion on public property. This article proposes a refined public property framework that offers greater conceptual clarity on the real issues at stake. In particular, this article argues that “property” in public property should include regulatory permits while “public” in public property should not be ...


An Overview Of The Fannie And Freddie Conservatorship Litigation, David J. Reiss Jan 2014

An Overview Of The Fannie And Freddie Conservatorship Litigation, David J. Reiss

David J Reiss

The fate of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are subject to the vagaries of politics, regulation, public opinion, the economy, and not least of all the numerous cases that have been filed in 2013 against various government entities arising from the placement of the two companies into conservatorship. This short article will provide an overview of the last of these. The litigation surrounding Fannie and Freddie’s conservatorship raises all sorts of issues about the federal government’s involvement in housing finance. These issues are worth setting forth as the proper role of these two companies in the housing finance ...


Why Does Executive Greed Prevail In The United States And Canada But Not In Japan? The Pattern Of Low Ceo Pay And High Worker Welfare In Japanese Corporations, Alberto R. Salazar V. Sep 2013

Why Does Executive Greed Prevail In The United States And Canada But Not In Japan? The Pattern Of Low Ceo Pay And High Worker Welfare In Japanese Corporations, Alberto R. Salazar V.

Alberto R. Salazar V.

According to a list of the 200 most highly-paid chief executives at the largest U.S. public companies in 2013, Oracle’s Lawrence J. Ellison remained the best paid CEO and earned $96.2 million as total annual compensation last year. He has received $1.8 billion over the past 20 years. The lowest paid on the same list is General Motors’ D. F. Akerson who earned $11.1 million. The average national pay for a non-supervisory US worker was $51,200 last year and a CEO made 354 times more than an average worker in 2012. Hunter Harrison, Canadian ...


Why Do Europeans Ban Hate Speech? A Debate Between Karl Loewenstein And Robert Post, Robert Kahn Feb 2013

Why Do Europeans Ban Hate Speech? A Debate Between Karl Loewenstein And Robert Post, Robert Kahn

Robert Kahn

European countries restrict hate speech, the United States does not. This much is clear. What explains this difference? Too often the current discussion falls back on a culturally rich but normatively vacant exceptionalism (American or otherwise) or a normatively driven convergence perspective that fails to address historical, cultural and experiential differences that distinguish countries and legal systems. Inspired by the development discourse of historical sociology, this article seeks to record instances where Americans or Europeans have argued their approach to hate speech laws was more “advanced” or “modern.”

To that end this article focuses on two authors whose writing appears ...


Get Busy Living Or Get Busy Dying: Waiting For The Death Penalty, A Comparison Of The Appeals Process In The United States And The People’S Republic Of China, Derrick Yan Kit Wong Sep 2012

Get Busy Living Or Get Busy Dying: Waiting For The Death Penalty, A Comparison Of The Appeals Process In The United States And The People’S Republic Of China, Derrick Yan Kit Wong

Derrick Wong

This paper looks at the death penalty in the United States and China with a comparison of the judicial system in each country. The paper examines the speed at which China processes their death penalty cases and the delay in the US system. The purpose of the paper is to show that because of the delays in the US system, the financial burden to the taxpayer is increased and is not viewed as deterrence. If the US were to adopt a portion of the Chinese judicial system efficiency without sacrificing due process, then the death penalty can be a deterrent ...


A Comparative Study On Human Embryonic Stem Cell's Patent-Eligibility In The United States, The European Patent Organization And China, Huan Zhu Mar 2012

A Comparative Study On Human Embryonic Stem Cell's Patent-Eligibility In The United States, The European Patent Organization And China, Huan Zhu

Huan Zhu

Since human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have entered the public’s view, a large number of ethical debates and moral concerns have been generated. However, these concerns have not stifled advances in biotechnology regarding hESCs. Thanks to its scientific potential and therapeutic values, scientists from all over the world contribute both funding and time to investigate hESCs and additionally seek protection for their research inventions and methods. The patent system is a known mechanism to provide this protection and promote science by granting the patentee exclusive rights to the inventions while requiring public disclosure. However, due to the intrinsic relation ...


Equality Qua Equality: A Comparative Critique Of The Tiers Of U.S. Equal Protection Doctrine, Lorenzo Di Silvio Feb 2012

Equality Qua Equality: A Comparative Critique Of The Tiers Of U.S. Equal Protection Doctrine, Lorenzo Di Silvio

Lorenzo Di Silvio

On February 23, 2011, the Obama Administration announced that it would no longer defend the constitutionality of the Defense of Marriage Act. Of great significance in this announcement was the Administration’s position that classifications on the basis of sexual orientation warrant heightened judicial scrutiny. Notwithstanding this announcement, the level of review applied to sexual-orientation classifications—and the manner in which a court determines whether a particular type of classification deserves more searching review—is an open question, the answer to which typically dictates the outcome of challenges to government classifications. Apart from this outcome determinativeness, affording heightened scrutiny to ...


Power, Pragmatism And Prisoner Abuse: Amnesty And Accountability In The United States, Louise Mallinder Jan 2012

Power, Pragmatism And Prisoner Abuse: Amnesty And Accountability In The United States, Louise Mallinder

Louise Mallinder

America’s commitment to human rights and the rule of law has long been an integral part of the nation’s self-image as an idealistic and inspirational society. It has been substantiated in the United States’ promotion of the rule of law around the world. However, as has been extensively scrutinized in recent years, the lackluster pursuit of accountability for the widespread abuses committed by American personnel during the so-called “War on Terror” illustrates a disjuncture within domestic and international discourse between the dual perceptions of the United States as a law-abiding nation, and America as a law-breaking state. This ...


U.S. And Canadian Federalism: Implications For International Trade Regulation, Gregory W. Bowman Jan 2012

U.S. And Canadian Federalism: Implications For International Trade Regulation, Gregory W. Bowman

Gregory W. Bowman

Federalism and international trade regulation are popular topics in the legal literature, but the intersection of these two topics remains under-examined. This Article explores this important intersection by engaging in a comparative analysis of U.S. and Canadian federalism, and by considering the effect of these countries' federal structures on their formulation and implementation of international trade policies--which, in turn, may affect their ability to contribute to the development of International Law in the international trade arena.


A Balancing Act? The Rights Of Donor-Conceived Children To Know Their Origins, Brigitte J. Clark Dr Nov 2011

A Balancing Act? The Rights Of Donor-Conceived Children To Know Their Origins, Brigitte J. Clark Dr

Brigitte J Clark Dr

Abstract Internationally, donor-conceived children’s rights to know their biological origins have been recognised to some extent by the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). With the drafting of the Article 7 (1) of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), as supplemented by Article 8, such children’s rights to know their biological origins whist they are children, and not only later as adults, were acknowledged for the first time, though not explicitly. Anonymous sperm donation is now banned in eleven jurisdictions, including Sweden and England and Wales. By contrast, France still ...


Can The Extent Of Religious Freedom Be Measured?, Marcel Stuessi Oct 2011

Can The Extent Of Religious Freedom Be Measured?, Marcel Stuessi

Marcel Stüssi

The purpose of this paper is to develop a method to assess the extent of religious freedom internalized by a country. It represents an effort to provide a framework of possible patterns of the right to individual or collective religious freedom, as well as resulting configurations between religious institutions and the state. With this aim in mind, the paper claims two things. Firstly, that the extent of the constitutionally protected right to religious freedom can be assessed along three dimensions – one measuring the level of state interference with individual religious freedom, another involving the amount of collective religious autonomy granted ...


Alliance Compliance: The Divergence In Us–Eu Airline Alliance Review Policies, Peter J. White Jd Oct 2011

Alliance Compliance: The Divergence In Us–Eu Airline Alliance Review Policies, Peter J. White Jd

Peter J White

Throughout the late twentieth century and into recent years, the airline industry has been characterized by a vast increase in global airline alliances. However, due to strict ownership restrictions, air carriers cannot take advantage of international mergers or takeovers. As a result, many air carriers enter into alliances with other air carriers in order to create an extensive international network, allowing them to benefit from economies of scope and density. An alliance also may allow an air carrier to operate more efficiently by eliminating duplication of costs, thereby allowing the air carrier to perform a better service for its customers ...


Vietnam, China, And The United States: The Regulatory Framework Of Mining Pollution And Water Quality, Heather Whitney Aug 2011

Vietnam, China, And The United States: The Regulatory Framework Of Mining Pollution And Water Quality, Heather Whitney

Heather Whitney

This paper compares the environmental, mining, and water quality policy and regulatory framework of three countries: Vietnam, China, and the United States. There are many similarities between China and Vietnam’s legal framework and environmental protection mechanisms, by virtue of the fact that they are both socialist countries, both authoritarian governments, and both in the midst of an industrial revolution. The United States intersects in some areas of water quality standards and technological controls of effluents with both countries, as well as certain enforcement measures. This is true especially in China, where the EPA has actively consulted the Chinese government ...


How Securities Regulation Really Works: A Comparative Study Of The Regulatory, Principled, And Normative Reputational Approaches To Securities Regulation, Amy Aiq Mar 2011

How Securities Regulation Really Works: A Comparative Study Of The Regulatory, Principled, And Normative Reputational Approaches To Securities Regulation, Amy Aiq

Amy Wall

This paper compares international securities regulation through the lens of a structural and historical analysis. The regulatory, principled and normative reputational models of securities regulation as exemplified by the U.S., U.K. and China are discussed. A discussion of the foundations of securities markets lays the groundwork for understanding different underlying purposes of securities regulation. The paper follows the development of securities markets from the roots of the 17th century European trading companies, through the statist polices that created the bond markets, to the transatlantic crossing and the development of the investment banking system and creation of governmental agencies ...


Bureaucracy And The U.S. Response To Mass Atrocity, Gregory Brazeal Jan 2011

Bureaucracy And The U.S. Response To Mass Atrocity, Gregory Brazeal

Gregory Brazeal

The U.S. response to mass atrocity has followed a predictable pattern of disbelief, rationalization, evasion, and retrospective expressions of regret. The pattern is consistent enough that we should be skeptical of chalking up the United States’ failures solely to a shifting array of isolated historical contingencies, from post-Vietnam fatigue in the case of the Khmer Rouge to the Clinton administration’s recoil against humanitarian interventions after Somalia. It is implausible to suggest that the United States would have acted to mitigate or end mass atrocities but for the specific historical contingencies that happen to accompany each outbreak of violence ...


Are Muslims The New Catholics? Europe's Headscarf Laws In Comparative Historical Perspective, Robert Kahn Jul 2010

Are Muslims The New Catholics? Europe's Headscarf Laws In Comparative Historical Perspective, Robert Kahn

Robert Kahn

ABSTRACT: Many European opponents of the headscarf view themselves as engaged in a “struggle against totalitarianism.” This article explores an alternative framing: What if Muslims—rather than Nazis or Communists in training—are the more like nineteenth century Catholics, who were seen as a religious threat to European (and U.S.) liberalism? To explore this idea, this article looks at the headscarf debate through the lens of the German Kulturkampf (1871-1887) and nineteenth century U.S. laws that banned public school teachers from wearing clerical garb. It reaches two tentative conclusions. First, many of the claims made against European Muslims ...


A United States Marine General Should Replace General Mcchrystal, Christopher C. Cooper Dr. Jun 2010

A United States Marine General Should Replace General Mcchrystal, Christopher C. Cooper Dr.

Christopher C. Cooper Dr.

General McChrystal’s insubordinate statements about the President and Vice President of the United States represent a violation of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ). What the Obama administration should take from this unfortunate event is that the top commander in Afghanistan (and in any war for that matter) should be a United States Marine general. Marines stay fit. Marines follow orders. Marine officers set the example. We must be critical of General McChrystal for setting the most abhorrent of examples for the men and women of the U.S. Army.


Not Only Innovation But Also Collaboration, Funding, Goodwill And Commitment: Which Role For Patent Laws In Postcopenhagen Climate Change Action, Estelle Derclaye Mar 2010

Not Only Innovation But Also Collaboration, Funding, Goodwill And Commitment: Which Role For Patent Laws In Postcopenhagen Climate Change Action, Estelle Derclaye

Estelle Derclaye

Patent laws can do their bit to help reduce our greenhouse gas emissions. In 2009, accelerated grant procedures and reduction of fees have been put in place by among others the UK and US patent offices. Private initiatives such as the eco-patent commons to licence technology free of charge have been taken. But greening patent law is only a small part of the solution. However well-intentioned all these initiatives are, for several reasons, they may not be sufficient or even at all used. More than intellectual property-related solutions, what will be needed is non-intellectual property-related solutions such as using technology ...


The Us-Korea Free Trade Agreement: The Evolution Of Responsible Trade And A Reflection On What Lies Ahead, Nicole D. Skibola Jan 2010

The Us-Korea Free Trade Agreement: The Evolution Of Responsible Trade And A Reflection On What Lies Ahead, Nicole D. Skibola

Nicole D Skibola

This paper addresses residual problems in the US-Korea Free Trade Agreement, with regard to the Agreement’s labor provisions in Article 19. Alternatives are proposed in response to remaining issues including the status of Outward Processing Zones and a problematic lack of private firm accountability. First, it is suggested that Annex 22-A, pertaining to Outward Processing Zones, is renegotiated. To address the lack of private firm accountability, three alternate models are offered. The first approach is to follow the Cambodia Textile Agreement model, whereby positive economic incentives are attached to specific strides made in improving labor conditions. The second approach ...


Decentralizing Family: An Inclusive Proposal For Individual Tax Filing In The United States, Anthony C. Infanti Jan 2010

Decentralizing Family: An Inclusive Proposal For Individual Tax Filing In The United States, Anthony C. Infanti

Anthony C. Infanti

The debate in the United States over individual versus joint federal income tax filing is at something of a crossroads. For decades, progressive — and, particularly, feminist — scholars have urged us to abolish the joint return in favor of individual filing. On the rare occasion when scholars have described what such an individual filing system might look like, the focus has been on the ways in which the traditional family must be accommodated in an individual filing system. These descriptions generally do not take into account — let alone remedy — the tax system’s ongoing failure to address the tax treatment of ...


The Anglo-American Perspective On Freezing Injunctions, Masayuki Tamaruya Jan 2010

The Anglo-American Perspective On Freezing Injunctions, Masayuki Tamaruya

Masayuki Tamaruya

Freezing injunctions are pre-trial orders to restrain a defendant from dealing with his assets so as to forestall his attempt to frustrate the potential money judgment against him. Freezing injunctions have been adopted in most common law jurisdictions as an effective civil remedy to combat attempts by recalcitrant debtors or fraudsters to frustrate potential money judgments by use of ever faster methods of fund transfer. However, in Grupo Mexicano de Desarrollo SA v Alliance Bond Fund Inc, the US Supreme Court by a 5:4 judgment declared that the US District Court does not have the equitable jurisdiction to grant ...


Why Will China Establish A Government-Sponsored Response Mechanism In Countervailing Games?, Julien Chaisse, Luan Xinjie Apr 2009

Why Will China Establish A Government-Sponsored Response Mechanism In Countervailing Games?, Julien Chaisse, Luan Xinjie

Julien Chaisse

In recent years China has faced numerous countervailing duty investigations among others by the United States and Canada . Reactions to countervailing measures are usually much more policy-oriented than market-oriented. Whereas the dominant strategies adopted by the individual exporting enterprises are usually not the payoff dominant ones, China is tending towards establishing a government-sponsored countervailing response mechanism (Gscrm). With the Gscrm, the bounded rationality of the export enterprises in the countervailing counter-action can be eliminated and therefore payoff dominant equilibrium in a countervailing-responding cooperation game can be achieved.


Litigating Secrets: Comparative Perspectives On The State Secrets Privilege, Sudha Setty Feb 2009

Litigating Secrets: Comparative Perspectives On The State Secrets Privilege, Sudha Setty

Sudha Setty

The Article considers the history and use of the state secrets privilege in the United States and the ongoing congressional efforts to reform the use of the privilege. Although numerous articles have addressed the application of the state secrets privilege in the United States, this Article breaks new ground by examining the history and use of the privilege in other nations which confront serious national security threats. This Article considers the modern application the privilege in Scotland, England, Israel and India—an analysis which contextualizes both the current use of the U.S. privilege and the efforts at legislative reform ...


Constructing Governance, But Constructive Governance? The Emergence And Limitations Of A Dominant Discourse On The Regulation Of Private Military And Security Companies, Surabhi Ranganathan Feb 2009

Constructing Governance, But Constructive Governance? The Emergence And Limitations Of A Dominant Discourse On The Regulation Of Private Military And Security Companies, Surabhi Ranganathan

Surabhi Ranganathan

The private security industry’s rise to prominence has led to much debate, primarily relating to concern for human rights and the role of the state. The industry’s potential to level the playing-field between developed and developing countries in obtainment and deployment of security is often remarked upon, but the divide created by their differing capacities and motivations to control security service providers goes unnoticed. The result is a dominant discourse which embraces assumptions that limit effective policy formulation.

This discourse has two central tenets. The first is the normalization of private military companies as partners and agents of ...