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Terrorism

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Nuclear Terrorism: Statutory Shortcomings And Prosecutorial Opportunities, Rohan Mishra Feb 2021

Nuclear Terrorism: Statutory Shortcomings And Prosecutorial Opportunities, Rohan Mishra

International Law Studies

In 2016, President Barack Obama warned that “[t]he danger of a terrorist group obtaining and using a nuclear weapon is one of the greatest threats to global security.” Thus far, however, U.S. and international efforts to address nuclear terrorism have faced a fundamental dilemma: While the importance of preventing this threat is unquestioned, there has been limited opportunity or need to conduct prosecutions that hinge on nuclear terrorism charges. This dilemma reflects the current piecemeal approach to nuclear terrorism, which prioritizes policies that address the “back-end” risk of nuclear terrorism (i.e., the detonation of nuclear weapons or ...


The Extent Of Insurance Coverage To Terrorism-Related Aviation Incidents, Dr. Abdullah Al Tarawneh Jan 2021

The Extent Of Insurance Coverage To Terrorism-Related Aviation Incidents, Dr. Abdullah Al Tarawneh

Journal Sharia and Law

The insurance for terrorist Air-Attacks is considered as a new technique for protection the social interests of the victims of terrorist air accidents. This technique has not occupied a great attention of the legislators, except some of international legislations and national laws, which expressly provide for the compensations of the victims of air terrorism, without founding the legal framework for such compensation. The compensation takes many forms, such as State’s aids or Insurance companies’ compensations.

The dialectic of insurance cannot be tuned, unless after determining the responsibility of wrongdoer who causes the accident of air terrorism. This means, the ...


Echoes Of 9/11: Rhetorical Analysis Of Presidential Statements In The "War On Terror", Bruce Ching Nov 2020

Echoes Of 9/11: Rhetorical Analysis Of Presidential Statements In The "War On Terror", Bruce Ching

Journal Articles

This article examines persuasive statements by Presidents George W. Bush, Barack Obama, and Donald Trump involving appeals to national identity as a rhetorical foundation for anti-terrorism policy since 9/11. Their specific rhetorical methods have included the use of memorable catchphrases, alliteration, metaphorical framing, and contrast between values of the United States and those of the terrorists. President Bush focused on rallying the nation’s response against the perpetrators of the 9/11 attacks, identifying the U.S. with “freedom itself” and invoking the phrase “War on Terror.” President Obama emphasized the importance of the nation’s values while denouncing ...


The Threat Of Terrorism To Power Grids: Effects Of Electromagnetic Pulses To The United States, Justin Van Dunk Jul 2020

The Threat Of Terrorism To Power Grids: Effects Of Electromagnetic Pulses To The United States, Justin Van Dunk

Liberty University Journal of Statesmanship & Public Policy

Terrorism’s roots can be traced back to the French Revolution.[1] Since 1789 terrorism has adopted many faces and its reach stretches throughout the world. Amidst the difficulty of defining terrorism, the FBI has given us the following definition, “…the unlawful use of…violence against persons…to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.” (Gaines & Miller, 2013, p. 539).[2] Bombing, hijacking, arson, assault, kidnapping, and hostage-taking are just a few of the attack tactics utilized throughout terrorist organization. However, with continuing advancements in technology nations need ...


The Changing Face Of Terrorism And The Designation Of Foreign Terrorist Organizations, Patrick J. Keenan Jul 2020

The Changing Face Of Terrorism And The Designation Of Foreign Terrorist Organizations, Patrick J. Keenan

Indiana Law Journal

In this Article, I take up one slice of what should be a broad re-examination of

U.S. law and policy. I argue that the new attacks have been undertaken by entities

that can and should be designated as foreign terrorist organizations. Doing this would

permit prosecutors to target those who support these entities with tools that are not

currently available. This Article is both a doctrinal argument that directly addresses

the many legal hurdles that make designating groups, such as foreign hackers and

troll farms, terrorist organizations a complicated endeavor, and a policy argument

about how U.S. law ...


Beyond Human Shielding: Civilian Risk Exploitation And Indirect Civilian Targeting, Geoffrey S. Corn Jun 2020

Beyond Human Shielding: Civilian Risk Exploitation And Indirect Civilian Targeting, Geoffrey S. Corn

International Law Studies

Few violations of the law of armed conflict (LOAC) are as pernicious as using civilians to shield military objectives from attack. This unlawful tactic unfortunately seems to be an all too common practice of organized armed groups, especially in conflicts against tactically superior conventional state armed forces. The very term "human shielding" presupposes, however, the ultimate objective is to prevent an opponent from attacking the shielded military objective or, in the alternative, substantially complicate that attack decision. But is a shielding effect always the ultimate objective of such civilian exploitation? This article argues that the answer is no; that there ...


Law School News: Adjunct Professor Of The Year: David Coombs 05-13-2020, Michael M. Bowden May 2020

Law School News: Adjunct Professor Of The Year: David Coombs 05-13-2020, Michael M. Bowden

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Donald Trump, Twitter, And Islamophobia: The End Of Dignity In Presidential Rhetoric About Terrorism, Gabriel Rubin Mar 2020

Donald Trump, Twitter, And Islamophobia: The End Of Dignity In Presidential Rhetoric About Terrorism, Gabriel Rubin

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Donald Trump’s rhetoric is markedly different than that of just about every other American president. Trump’s speeches on terrorism and his related Islamophobia and anti-immigrant rhetoric are examined in this chapter. Trump’s use of Twitter and view of the presidency as a “permanent campaign” keep his followers in a state of near-permanent mobilization. Trump uses the rhetoric of fear to push his followers against Muslims and immigrants by linking terrorism to both groups. As Jeffrey Tulis opines, Trump is America’s first demagogue. This chapter highlights how Trump’s demagoguery and novel method for communicating with his ...


How Can Presidents Properly Calibrate The Terror Threat?, Gabriel Rubin Mar 2020

How Can Presidents Properly Calibrate The Terror Threat?, Gabriel Rubin

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Presidential rhetoric has minimally changed from the narrative set by George W. Bush after the 9/11 attacks. Bush’s policies and agenda have also largely remained. This chapter provides proposals for change given the empirical and theoretical findings made in the book. The counterterrorist policy agenda needs to be narrowed and made more precise. The public needs to educate itself about the terror threat to understand that it is not a significant risk when weighed against others. Presidents need to be more careful with what words they use when describing America’s terrorist adversaries and with who they call ...


The Definition Of Terrorism, Duncan Gaswaga Feb 2020

The Definition Of Terrorism, Duncan Gaswaga

The International Journal of Ethical Leadership

No abstract provided.


Legal Frameworks For Protecting Cultural Heritage In Conflict Zones, Marcie M. Muscat Jan 2020

Legal Frameworks For Protecting Cultural Heritage In Conflict Zones, Marcie M. Muscat

Dissertations and Theses

Cultural heritage has always been at risk during times of war. UNESCO first endeavored to address the issue shortly after World War II, in 1954, when it passed the first of three signature conventions to protect against the damage, destruction, and pillage of cultural property in times of armed conflict. Lacunae and other deficiencies in their frameworks, however, rendered these conventions difficult to enforce and largely ineffectual. This study offers an assessment of the strengths and limitations of the UNESCO system of cultural-heritage protection, with a particular focus on the 1954 Hague Convention. It is argued that, by superseding certain ...


Inter-American Commission On Human Rights' Observer At The Amia Bombing Trial, Claudio Grossman Jan 2020

Inter-American Commission On Human Rights' Observer At The Amia Bombing Trial, Claudio Grossman

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

No abstract provided.


Thoughts, Crimes, And Thought Crimes, Gabriel S. Mendlow Jan 2020

Thoughts, Crimes, And Thought Crimes, Gabriel S. Mendlow

Michigan Law Review

Thought crimes are the stuff of dystopian fiction, not contemporary law. Or so we’re told. Yet our criminal legal system may in a sense punish thought regularly, even as our existing criminal theory lacks the resources to recognize this state of affairs for what it is—or to explain what might be wrong with it. The beginning of wisdom lies in the seeming rhetorical excesses of those who complain that certain terrorism and hate crime laws punish offenders for their malevolent intentions while purporting to punish them for their conduct. Behind this too-easily-written-off complaint is a half-buried precept of ...


Racial Profiling: Past, Present, And Future, David A. Harris Jan 2020

Racial Profiling: Past, Present, And Future, David A. Harris

Articles

It has been more than two decades since the introduction of the first bill in Congress that addressed racial profiling in 1997. Between then and now, Congress never passed legislation on the topic, but more than half the states passed laws and many police departments put anti-profiling policies in place to combat it. The research and data on racial profiling has grown markedly over the last twenty-plus years. We know that the practice is real (contrary to many denials), and the data reveal racial profiling’s shortcomings and great social costs. Nevertheless, racial profiling persists. While it took root most ...


Gender-Based Perceptions Of The 2001 Anthrax Attacks: Implications For Outreach And Preparedness, Christopher Salvatore, Brian J. Gorman Oct 2019

Gender-Based Perceptions Of The 2001 Anthrax Attacks: Implications For Outreach And Preparedness, Christopher Salvatore, Brian J. Gorman

Christopher Salvatore

Extensive research dealing with gender-based perceptions of fear of crime has generally found that women express greater levels of fear compared to men. Further, studies have found that women engage in more self-protective behaviors in response to fear of crime, as well as have different levels of confidence in government efficacy relative to men. The majority of these studies have focused on violent and property crime; little research has focused on gender-based perceptions of the threat of bioterrorism. Using data from a national survey conducted by ABC News / Washington Post, this study contrasted perceptions of safety and fear in response ...


A Socio-Demographic Analysis Of Responses To Terrorism, Gabriel Rubin, Christopher Salvatore Oct 2019

A Socio-Demographic Analysis Of Responses To Terrorism, Gabriel Rubin, Christopher Salvatore

Christopher Salvatore

Extensive research has found that there are differences in reported levels of fear of crime and associated protective actions influenced by socio-demographic characteristics such as race and gender. Further studies, the majority of which focused on violent and property crime, have found that specific demographic characteristics influence fear of crime and protective behaviors. However, little research has focused on the influence of socio-demographic characteristics on perceptions, and protective actions in response to the threat of terrorism. Using data from the General Social Survey, this study compared individual-level protective actions and perceptions of the effectiveness of protective responses to the 9 ...


The 2018 National Strategy For Counterterrorism: A Synoptic Overview, Dan E. Stigall, Chris Miller, Lauren Donnatucci Oct 2019

The 2018 National Strategy For Counterterrorism: A Synoptic Overview, Dan E. Stigall, Chris Miller, Lauren Donnatucci

Dan E. Stigall

This article briefly reviews a few aspects of the 2018 National Strategy for Counterterrorism (NSCT) that are worthy of examination. These include its wider scope, which encompasses domestic terrorism and state-sponsored terrorism; its focus on prevention efforts with a consideration of future threats; and the efficacy of its approach to pursuing and dismantling terrorist groups, most notably the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS).


Assumptions About Terrorism And The Brandenburg Incitement Test, Christina E. Wells Oct 2019

Assumptions About Terrorism And The Brandenburg Incitement Test, Christina E. Wells

Faculty Publications

The incitement standard announced in Brandenburg v. Ohio is one of the most familiar tests in the Supreme Court's jurisprudence. It prohibits government officials from punishing advocacy of illegal activity unless it is directed and likely to imminently incite such activity. Brandenburg's standard has become a pillar of free speech law, allowing government officials to protect public safety by punishing only speech intended and likely to create an imminent danger of harm, while protecting even the most abhorrent of speakers from suppression of their speech simply because government officials fear or dislike it. Terrorist advocacy, however, is putting ...


Article Iii Courts V. Military Commissions: A Comparison Of Protection Of Classified Information And Admissibility Of Evidence In Terrorism Prosecutions, Mohamed Al-Hendy Oct 2019

Article Iii Courts V. Military Commissions: A Comparison Of Protection Of Classified Information And Admissibility Of Evidence In Terrorism Prosecutions, Mohamed Al-Hendy

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract forthcoming


The First Amendment Protects Military Funeral Protests, Timothy Zick Sep 2019

The First Amendment Protects Military Funeral Protests, Timothy Zick

Timothy Zick

Military funeral protests are offensive, but protected free speech.


The Potential Use Of Courtroom Technology In Major Terrorism Cases, Fredric I. Lederer Sep 2019

The Potential Use Of Courtroom Technology In Major Terrorism Cases, Fredric I. Lederer

Fredric I. Lederer

No abstract provided.


Maritime Autonomous Vehicles Within The International Law Framework To Enhance Maritime Security, Natalie Klein Aug 2019

Maritime Autonomous Vehicles Within The International Law Framework To Enhance Maritime Security, Natalie Klein

International Law Studies

Technological developments necessitate a review of long-standing and diverse international legal principles. The law of the sea is no exception in this regard where the introduction of different Maritime Autonomous Vehicles (MAVs) has prompted consideration of how the laws of naval warfare and rules governing the safety of international shipping accommodate these craft. This paper shifts the focus to the international laws relating to maritime security. It assesses how well the existing international legal framework for maritime security can account for the use of MAVs by law enforcement agencies and by non-state actors who are turning to MAVs for criminal ...


Terrorism And Human Rights: Power, Culture, And Subordination, Makau Mutua Jul 2019

Terrorism And Human Rights: Power, Culture, And Subordination, Makau Mutua

Makau Mutua

This piece analyzes the effects of the global war on terror in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks. The author argues that under the pretext of a global war on terrorism, the United States has set out to dominate the globe in a campaign that will undoubtedly influence human rights, and diminish their respect and enforcement. Human rights will now be defined by the United States to exclude and narrow them while putting pressure on large international institutions such as the United Nations to subordinate itself to other American interests. Thinkers and advocates should work together to craft a ...


Human Rights In A Time Of Terror: Comparison Between Treatment In The European Courts Of Human Rights And The United States, Allen E. Shoenberger Jul 2019

Human Rights In A Time Of Terror: Comparison Between Treatment In The European Courts Of Human Rights And The United States, Allen E. Shoenberger

Allen E Shoenberger

No abstract provided.


Terrorism In The 2020s: Examining The Global Threat Landscape, Landon W. Swearngin May 2019

Terrorism In The 2020s: Examining The Global Threat Landscape, Landon W. Swearngin

MSU Graduate Theses

This thesis uses quantitative and qualitative research methods to (1) explore the global trends and trajectories of terrorism, (2) identify emerging strategic challenges, and (3) outline an opportunity analysis for U.S. counterterrorism strategy. Collectively, this project provides a strategic forecast for terrorism in the 2020s, demonstrating that terrorism is becoming increasingly dangerous, dynamic, and difficult to defeat.


The Role Of Women In Terrorism, Zeynep Bayar May 2019

The Role Of Women In Terrorism, Zeynep Bayar

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The main purpose of this paper is to understand what motivate women to join terrorist groups and why these organizations prefer to work with female terrorists. Although each woman has different reasons to involve in terrorist groups, this research demonstrates 'religious, political and personal' reasons as the major motivating factors. This study also focuses on the question of why women are the targets of terror recruiters. In order to answer these, the research analysis examines 'psychological, gender, and media' factors as major recruitment reasons of terrorist organizations. This study also analyzes the similarities and differences between female terrorists' profiles of ...


Separate And Unequal: The Law Of "Domestic" And "International" Terrorism, Shirin Sinnar May 2019

Separate And Unequal: The Law Of "Domestic" And "International" Terrorism, Shirin Sinnar

Michigan Law Review

U.S. law differentiates between two categories of terrorism. “International terrorism” covers threats with a putative international nexus, even when they stem from U.S. citizens or residents acting only within the United States. “Domestic terrorism” applies to political violence thought to be purely domestic in its origin and intended impact. The law permits broader surveillance, wider criminal charges, and more punitive treatment for crimes labeled international terrorism. Law enforcement agencies frequently consider U.S. Muslims “international” threats even when they have scant foreign ties. As a result, they police and punish them more intensely than white nationalists and other ...


Political Extremism And Domestic Terrorism In America, Mark Potok Apr 2019

Political Extremism And Domestic Terrorism In America, Mark Potok

University of Miami National Security & Armed Conflict Law Review

No abstract provided.


Charging Crimes As "Terrorism", Jenna Mclaughlin Apr 2019

Charging Crimes As "Terrorism", Jenna Mclaughlin

University of Miami National Security & Armed Conflict Law Review

No abstract provided.


Federal Rule Of Criminal Procedure 15 And Terrorism Cases, Daniel Rashbaum, Melissa Rashbaum Apr 2019

Federal Rule Of Criminal Procedure 15 And Terrorism Cases, Daniel Rashbaum, Melissa Rashbaum

University of Miami National Security & Armed Conflict Law Review

No abstract provided.