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Full-Text Articles in Law

Regulatory Sandboxes Enable Pragmatic Blockchain Regulation, Joshua Durham Jan 2023

Regulatory Sandboxes Enable Pragmatic Blockchain Regulation, Joshua Durham

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

Since blockchain technology supports digitally-native money, the centralized chokepoints that governments have traditionally targeted to regulate commerce no longer apply to our (digital) property. However, competent regulation furthers basic public policy goals and should enable responsible innovation of this promising technology. This Article discusses pragmatic policies that enable responsible innovation by cultivating regulatory expertise required to write enforceable rules. Responsible innovation is necessary because unlike the early internet, where programmers could manipulate simple colors and text on webpages, these same individuals can now create financial services applications that manipulate actual money—we are faced with an inescapable reality that more is …


Comrades Or Foes: Did The Chinese Break The Law Or New Ground Ground For The First Amendment, Artem M. Joukov Jan 2023

Comrades Or Foes: Did The Chinese Break The Law Or New Ground Ground For The First Amendment, Artem M. Joukov

West Virginia Law Review

Prior to exiting the White House, President Trump placed a variety of restrictions on Chinese-owned social media applications, TikTok and WeChat, threatening to greatly curtail their influence in the United States. While couching his actions in the context of national security, the former president engaged in viewpoint discrimination in plain violation of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. The court rulings in favor of TikTok and WeChat were encouraging and should stem the tide of future government regulations of social media platforms. This article discusses how the decisions fit into the greater context of First Amendment jurisprudence and …


A Settlement In Crisis: How In Re Opioid Litigation Fails To Put People Before Corporations, Gabrielle Hunter Jan 2023

A Settlement In Crisis: How In Re Opioid Litigation Fails To Put People Before Corporations, Gabrielle Hunter

Emory Corporate Governance and Accountability Review Perspectives

Since 1999, 932,000 people in the United States have died from a drug overdose. In 2021 alone over 100,000 people died from a drug overdose. Seventy-eight percent of those overdoses involved opioids. As the opioid epidemic has torn families apart and decimated American communities, the natural response is to find someone to blame. State and local governments, Native-American tribes, labor unions, insurance companies, hospitals, and individuals have all pointed the finger at the same culprits: opioid manufacturers and distributors.

The result—over 3,000 state and local governments alongside Native American tribes joined In Re Opiate Litigation, a multidistrict litigation, alleging …


The Legal Innovation Sandbox, Cristie Ford, Quinn Ashkenazy Jan 2023

The Legal Innovation Sandbox, Cristie Ford, Quinn Ashkenazy

All Faculty Publications

"The Legal Innovation Sandbox" examines a novel regulatory approach, called the innovation sandbox, in the context of the legal profession. The paper makes the claim that the “sandbox” regulatory model is in fact better suited to fostering innovation in the legal services arena than it is in the financial technology, or fintech, arena in which the sandbox concept developed. However, any effort to transplant a technique from one context to another needs to be carefully considered. This article is comparative across disciplines – financial regulation and legal services regulation – and across jurisdictions – covering the United Kingdom, the United …


From Tether To Terra: The Current Stablecoin Ecosystem And The Failure Of Regulators, Mary E. Burke Jan 2023

From Tether To Terra: The Current Stablecoin Ecosystem And The Failure Of Regulators, Mary E. Burke

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

The Tether controversy and Terra crash have placed stablecoins in the regulatory spotlight. Stablecoins are often portrayed as posing systemic risks to financial markets, with some pundits labelling them “the villain of the finance world.” Global regulatory bodies, namely the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Bank of International Settlement (BIS), and political leaders, including the Biden Administration, have all called for stablecoin regulation. These officials allege that stablecoins’ structure, combined with their exponential growth, pose a unique risk to global markets. Before the May 2022 Terra crash, government reports superficially treated stablecoins by exclusively focusing on asset-backed coins. Post …


When Uncle Sam Spills: A State Regulator’S Guide To Enforcement Actions Against The Federal Government Under The Clean Water Act, Ian M. Staeheli Dec 2022

When Uncle Sam Spills: A State Regulator’S Guide To Enforcement Actions Against The Federal Government Under The Clean Water Act, Ian M. Staeheli

Washington Law Review

The U.S. government is one of the largest polluters on the planet. With over 700 domestic military bases and countless more federal facilities and vessels operating within state borders, there exists an enormous potential for spills and discharges of pollutants into state waters. The regulatory burden for enforcing environmental laws against the federal government falls on the Environmental Protection Agency and state regulators. But enforcing laws and regulations against the federal government and its progeny is a daunting regulatory task.

Other scholarship addresses some of the vexing peculiarities involved when regulating Uncle Sam. Those works discuss the “confusing mess” that …


Let The Exceptions Do The Work: How Florida Should Approach Environmental Regulation After Cedar Point Nursery V. Hassid, Olivia Johnson Nov 2022

Let The Exceptions Do The Work: How Florida Should Approach Environmental Regulation After Cedar Point Nursery V. Hassid, Olivia Johnson

University of Miami Law Review

For nearly fifty years, courts distinguished between per se physical takings and regulatory takings. Yet, in 2021, the Supreme Court signaled a change of course with the monumental Cedar Point Nursery v. Hassid decision. The ruling challenges the government’s ability to mandate anything that impacts private property. In the face of environmental catastrophe and increasing pressure to assuage our climate crisis, how can governments respond without triggering a takings challenge?
Chief Justice Roberts in his majority decision may have left the door cracked open for governments to work around the Cedar Point Nursery ruling. By looking at the legacy of …


Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (Spacs) And The Sec, Neal Newman, Lawrence J. Trautman Oct 2022

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (Spacs) And The Sec, Neal Newman, Lawrence J. Trautman

Faculty Scholarship

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs) are simply enterprises that raise money from the public with the intention of purchasing an existing business and becoming publicly traded in the securities markets. If the SPAC is successful in raising money and the acquisition takes place, the target company takes the SPAC’s place on a stock exchange in a transaction that resembles a public offering. Also known as “blank-check” or “reverse merger” companies, this process avoids many of the pitfalls of a traditional initial public offering.

During late 2020 and 2021 an unprecedented surge in the popularity and issuance of Special Purpose Acquisition …


On Monopolistic Practices In Bitcoin: A Coded Solution: A Coded Solution Sep 2022

On Monopolistic Practices In Bitcoin: A Coded Solution: A Coded Solution

Indian Journal of Law and Technology

The underlying values inherent in the creation of bitcoins are those of decentralization and accessibility. The horizontal power structure is an integral part of bitcoins’ architecture – this paper seeks to find a feasible alternative to status quo in order to preserve these characteristics. First, we look at the harms of monopolies and how the concentration of bitcoins is exceptionally harmful to its continued existence. Second, we expose the inadequacies of the existing regulatory frameworks, and discuss how status quo militates against the foundational ideology of bitcoin as a non-institutional cryptocurrency. Third, we undertake a comparative study of the existing …


Infrastructure Innovation In India: What Can Be Inferred From Eu Regulation?, Serge J.H. Gijrath Sep 2022

Infrastructure Innovation In India: What Can Be Inferred From Eu Regulation?, Serge J.H. Gijrath

Indian Journal of Law and Technology

This article assesses the innovation policy objectives underlying the proposed EU Telecom Single Market (TSM) regulation considering disruptive technological developments and asks what the regulator in India can infer from such regulation. The paper explores the network operator’s dilemma of how to deal with investments in a time where fundamental innovation comes from outside, and the regulator’s dilemma of how to improve the conditions for access to the operators’ networks and safeguard a level playing field. The measures with respect to two technological developments: the deployment of 5G and the goal to ensure very high-speed broadband access in the EU …


Law And Technology: Two Modes Of Disruption, Three Legal Mindsets, And The Big Picture Of Regulatory Responsibilities, Roger Brownsword Sep 2022

Law And Technology: Two Modes Of Disruption, Three Legal Mindsets, And The Big Picture Of Regulatory Responsibilities, Roger Brownsword

Indian Journal of Law and Technology

This article introduces three ideas that are central to understanding the ways in which law and legal thinking are disrupted by emerging technologies and to maintaining a clear focus on the responsibilities of regulators. The first idea is that of a double disruption that technological innovation brings to the law. While the first disruption tells us that the old rules are no longer fit for purpose and need to be revised and renewed, the second tells us that, even if the rules have been changed, regulators might now be able to dispense with the use of rules (the rules are …


Intellectual Property And India’S Development Policy, Sudhir Krishnaswamy Sep 2022

Intellectual Property And India’S Development Policy, Sudhir Krishnaswamy

Indian Journal of Law and Technology

As India wades into the 21st century, we are faced with a strategic choice about how we imagine and institutionalise new modes of regulation of access, control and production of information, knowledge and cultural resources. The rapid legislative activity on intellectual property, most recently the Patent (3rd Amendment) Act, 2005, has so radically shifted the goalposts of the debate that we are still to catch our breath! This essay is an exercise in deep breathing and careful reasoning to relieve us from our present breathless state.


The Case For Regulating Crypto-Assets, Jaideep Reddy Sep 2022

The Case For Regulating Crypto-Assets, Jaideep Reddy

Indian Journal of Law and Technology

In July 2019, the Ministry of Finance, Government of India announced that an Inter-Ministerial Committee (the ‘Committee’) had submitted its report (the ‘Committee Report’) recommending that possessing or dealing with cryptocurrency be banned and made a criminal offence. This article examines whether such a ban is justified under our constitutional scheme. The article finds that the right to carry on various kinds of crypto-asset activities can be traced to various enumerated fundamental rights under the Constitution of India. Analyzing the Committee Report, the article finds that its recommendation of an outright ban is unlikely to be a reasonable restriction on …


It’S Raining Crypto: The Need For Regulatory Clarification When It Comes To Airdrops, Carol R. Goforth Sep 2022

It’S Raining Crypto: The Need For Regulatory Clarification When It Comes To Airdrops, Carol R. Goforth

Indian Journal of Law and Technology

Worldwide regulatory restrictions have pushed crypto entrepreneurs to take creative and novel approaches in their struggle to create viable user networks for new tokens. One of the most interesting vehicles for dispersing tokens is the ‘airdrop’, a process by which a developer essentially ‘gives away’ tokens. The developers’ motives in these airdrops are typically not completely altruistic. Instead, the goal is to increase the ‘buzz’ about new forms of crypto, and to encourage recipients to voluntarily promote the token that they now also own. The regulatory reaction to this technique has been mixed. A few nations, most notably China, have …


Regulation Weakness And Lack Of Public Awareness Has Impeded The Implementation Of Environmental Policies In Saudi Arabia, Nada Gurmalla Algamdy Sep 2022

Regulation Weakness And Lack Of Public Awareness Has Impeded The Implementation Of Environmental Policies In Saudi Arabia, Nada Gurmalla Algamdy

Dissertations & Theses

This research aimed to substantially illustrate that the weakness of environmental regulations and lack of public participation in urban planning alongside poor public awareness in Saudi Arabia has inhibited the implementation of environmental policies across this region. To study these issues, this research compared the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (“KSA”) to the United States (“US”) building on numerous studies to illustrate how the identified weaknesses correlate with weak or ineffective environmental policies. It is well known that it would be better to use a European country “because it's known that the EU has tough environmental measures" as a model for …


Legal Implications Of A Ubiquitous Metaverse And A Web3 Future, Jon M. Garon Sep 2022

Legal Implications Of A Ubiquitous Metaverse And A Web3 Future, Jon M. Garon

Marquette Law Review

The metaverse is understood to be an immersive virtual world serving as the locus for all forms of work, education, and entertainment experiences. Depicted in books, movies, and games, the metaverse has the potential not just to supplement real-world experiences but to substantially supplant them. This Article explores the rapid emergence and evolution of the Web3 technologies at the heart of the metaverse movement. Web3 itself is a paradigmatic shift in internet commerce.


Resurfacing Sovereignty: Who Regulates Surface Mining In Indian Country After Mcgirt?, Robin M. Rotman, Sam J. Carter Sep 2022

Resurfacing Sovereignty: Who Regulates Surface Mining In Indian Country After Mcgirt?, Robin M. Rotman, Sam J. Carter

Faculty Publications

This article examines disputes over surface mining jurisdiction on the Muscogee (Creek) Nation Reservation post-McGirt and the larger implications for sovereignty and environmental justice in Indian Country that follow. Part II summarizes the history of federal, state, and tribal relations and provides an analysis of the McGirt decision and its potential impacts on natural resource issues. Part III offers an examination of jurisdictional uncertainties post-McGirt through an in-depth discussion of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act and the State of Oklahoma v. United States Department of the Interior case. Drawing from the examination of surface mining regulation, Part IV …


The Three Laws: The Chinese Communist Party Throws Down The Data Regulation Gauntlet, William Chaskes Jul 2022

The Three Laws: The Chinese Communist Party Throws Down The Data Regulation Gauntlet, William Chaskes

Washington and Lee Law Review

Criticism of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) runs a wide gamut. Accusations of human rights abuses, intellectual property theft, authoritarian domestic policies, disrespecting sovereign borders, and propaganda campaigns all have one common factor: the CCP’s desire to control information. Controlling information means controlling data. Lurking beneath the People’s Republic of China’s (PRC) tumultuous relationship with the rest of the world is the fight between nations to control their citizens’ data while also keeping it out of the hands of adversaries. The CCP’s Three Laws are its newest weapon in this data war.

One byproduct of the CCP’s emphasis on controlling …


Race And Regulation Podcast Episode 5 - Racial Equity And Data Privacy, Anita L. Allen Jun 2022

Race And Regulation Podcast Episode 5 - Racial Equity And Data Privacy, Anita L. Allen

Penn Program on Regulation Podcasts

In this episode, Anita Allen, an internationally renowned expert on the philosophical dimensions of privacy and data protection law, reveals how race-neutral privacy laws in the U.S. have failed to address the unequal burdens faced online by Black Americans, whose personal data are used in racially discriminatory ways. Professor Allen articulates what she terms an African American Online Equity Agenda to guide the development of race-conscious privacy regulations that can better promote racial justice in the modern digital economy.


Confronting Complexity With Regulatory Excellence: Recommendations In The Wake Of The Philadelphia Refinery Explosion, Cary Coglianese Jun 2022

Confronting Complexity With Regulatory Excellence: Recommendations In The Wake Of The Philadelphia Refinery Explosion, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Following the June 2019 explosion at the Philadelphia Energy Solutions (PES) refinery, the city of Philadelphia now confronts major challenges associated with the future of the refinery site. Whether the site is reopened as a refinery or other chemical-processing operation, or redeveloped for other uses, the city will face challenges endemic to all kinds of public policy issues: complexity, uncertainty, dynamism, tradeoffs, and value choices. This testimony, delivered to the City of Philadelphia Refinery Advisory Group’s Environment Committee, offers three main suggestions to help guide Philadelphia officials in dealing with the future of the PES refinery site. First, city officials …


Cafo’S Are A Public Health Crisis:The Creation Of Covid-19, Helena Masiello Jun 2022

Cafo’S Are A Public Health Crisis:The Creation Of Covid-19, Helena Masiello

University of Miami Law Review

Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (“CAFO’s”) are largely unregulated by State or Federal Laws in the United States. As a result of this lack of oversight, they are a breeding ground for deadly infectious diseases. The COVID-19 epidemic has demonstrated the threat that diseases pose to the United State like H1N1, SARS, and Ebola.
The USDA needs to regulate CAFOs under the mandate given to them by congress in the AHPA to ensure that they are not the epicenter of the next wave of deadly infectious diseases. Scientists have been warning about the disease potential of CAFOs for the last decade, …


Brief Of Professors Michael Knoll And Ruth Mason As Amici Curiae Supporting Petitioners In National Pork Producers Council V. Ross, Michael S. Knoll, Ruth Mason Jun 2022

Brief Of Professors Michael Knoll And Ruth Mason As Amici Curiae Supporting Petitioners In National Pork Producers Council V. Ross, Michael S. Knoll, Ruth Mason

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

The district court erred when it concluded that because Proposition 12 applies only to in-state sales, it could not be extraterritorial. On the contrary, because California regulates pork production based on domestic, inbound, and outbound sales, its regulation is internally inconsistent and overbroad. As an obligation of interstate comity, this Court has understood extraterritoriality to require the basis of regulation to be internally consistent. A regulation is internally consistent when, if every state regulated using the same nexus as the challenged state, cross-border commercial activity would not be regulated by more than one state. Proposition 12 cannot meet this basic …


An Automation Tax- Adopt With Caution, Vincent Ooi Jun 2022

An Automation Tax- Adopt With Caution, Vincent Ooi

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The post highlights three main issues that may result from the rapid and widespread automation of jobs: 1) declining tax revenues; 2) inequitable distribution of gains and losses from automation; and 3) social costs of job displacement, such as social support and retraining programmes for displaced workers.An automation tax may be imposed on a temporary basis to manage (slow) the rate of displacement of workers due to the adoption of automation technologies, but should not be a permanent feature. Otherwise, there will be a risk of loss of competitiveness in the long-term, possibly resulting in even greater economic harm.One main …


State Crypto Regulation: Competing Priorities Shaping Different Outcomes, John T. Bender May 2022

State Crypto Regulation: Competing Priorities Shaping Different Outcomes, John T. Bender

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

“Cryptomania” is approaching fever pitch. Public officials, practitioners, and investors alike are becoming convinced that what began as a thought experiment has given rise to a full-fledged movement that is here to stay. This movement could potentially transform the modern financial system as we know it.

Today, crypto assets and related platforms are increasingly being adopted to store, secure, and transmit massive amounts of monetary value worldwide. Enforcement agencies like the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Commodity Futures and Trading Commission have ventured into the fray by employing existing legal regimes to regulate in this new frontier. At the …


Race And Regulation Podcast Episode 2 - Why Are There So Few Black Financial Regulators?, Chris Brummer May 2022

Race And Regulation Podcast Episode 2 - Why Are There So Few Black Financial Regulators?, Chris Brummer

Penn Program on Regulation Podcasts

For generations, regardless of which party has controlled the White House, Black leaders have been virtually absent across the federal government’s financial regulatory bodies—a state of affairs that has severely limited the representation of Black communities and their interests in financial policy decisions in the United States. Chris Brummer of Georgetown Law discusses why longstanding racial disparities in financial regulatory leadership continue even today—and what changes might be required to overcome them.


A New Antitrust Framework To Protect Mom And Pop From Big Tech, Cara Macdonald May 2022

A New Antitrust Framework To Protect Mom And Pop From Big Tech, Cara Macdonald

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

While the economy declined during the COVID-19 pandemic, big technology companies like Amazon and Oracle experienced unprecedented growth and influence. Critics argue big technology companies are finding this level of success in-part due to anticompetitive practices. The crux of the debate rests on whether current, traditional antitrust laws are sufficient to cope with big technology companies. Some theorists argue that current laws are adequate, while others assert that antitrust laws are insufficient to regulate big technology companies because they are so different from the types of companies antitrust laws were designed to regulate. This article concludes that big tech companies …


Small Business Cybersecurity: A Loophole To Consumer Data, Matthew R. Espinosa May 2022

Small Business Cybersecurity: A Loophole To Consumer Data, Matthew R. Espinosa

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Small businesses and small minority owned businesses are vital to our nation’s economy; therefore legislation, regulation, and policy has been created in order to assist them in overcoming their economic stability issues and ensure they continue to serve the communities that rely on them. However, there is not a focus on regulating nor assisting small businesses to ensure their cybersecurity standards are up to par despite them increasingly becoming a victim of cyberattacks that yield high consequences. The external oversight and assistance is necessary for small businesses due to their lack of knowledge in implementing effective cybersecurity policies, the fiscal …


Up In Smoke: Why Regulating Social Media Like Big Tobacco Won’T Work (Yet!), Ian Mckay May 2022

Up In Smoke: Why Regulating Social Media Like Big Tobacco Won’T Work (Yet!), Ian Mckay

Notre Dame Law Review

Lawmakers, pundits, and tech executives’ assertion that social media should be regulated like tobacco in order to protect American teenagers is oversimplistic. While the comparison makes for a good sound bite for the press, the argument disregards the inherent differences between regulating a physical product that has no constitutional protection and a virtual product that can implicate both users’ and social media companies’ First Amendment rights. This paper will identify and analyze some of the main pillars of the tobacco regulatory scheme and apply them to social media products. In Part I, I will define social media and provide a …


Direct Entry Midwives: Political Factors Shaping Variation In Regulation, Gabrielle Shlikas Apr 2022

Direct Entry Midwives: Political Factors Shaping Variation In Regulation, Gabrielle Shlikas

The Compass

No abstract provided.


Informational Regulation, The Environment, And The Public, Katrina Fischer Kuh Apr 2022

Informational Regulation, The Environment, And The Public, Katrina Fischer Kuh

Marquette Law Review

Informational Regulation, the Environment, and the Public generates a typology to analyze how public disclosure functions in informational regulation. In the environmental context, informational regulation compels the public disclosure of environmental information without mandating substantive environmental outcomes in the expectation that disclosure itself will prompt beneficial change in the environmental context. Application of the Article’s typology reveals that the emperor has no clothes: Communication of environmental information to the public is considered central to policies employing informational regulation, but the information produced pursuant to these measures largely fails to reach or be understood by lay individuals. For example, empirical data …