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2012

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Articles 31 - 60 of 202

Full-Text Articles in Law

The Role Of Religion In A Catholic Law School: A Century Of Experience At Loyola University Chicago, Thomas M. Haney Aug 2012

The Role Of Religion In A Catholic Law School: A Century Of Experience At Loyola University Chicago, Thomas M. Haney

Thomas M. Haney

The purpose of this article is to examine the record of a Catholic law school, the School of Law of Loyola University Chicago, which a few years ago celebrated its centennial. This is a detailed study of how the Catholic identity of Loyola Chicago’s law school has manifested itself over the past century, during several distinct eras. The article concludes that the criteria chosen to identify a truly Catholic law school will determine the result of whether any particular law school is indeed Catholic, and that different scholars and commentators will choose different criteria, therefore arriving at different conclusions ...


Restorative Justice In The Gilded Age: Shared Principles Underlying Two Movements In Criminal Justice, Ali M. Abid Aug 2012

Restorative Justice In The Gilded Age: Shared Principles Underlying Two Movements In Criminal Justice, Ali M. Abid

Ali M Abid

Two very different approaches to Criminal Justice have developed in recent years suggesting systemic reforms that would reduce rates of crime and incarceration and lessen the disproportionate effect on minority groups and other suspect classes. The first of these is the Restorative Justice movement, which has programs operating in most US states and many countries around the world. The Restorative Justice movement focuses on reintegrating offenders with the community and having them repair the damage directly to their victims. The movement describes itself as based on the systems of indigenous and pre-modern societies and as wholly distinct from the conventional ...


Battle For The Disclosure Tort: Scholars’ Untold Story, Jared A. Wilkerson Aug 2012

Battle For The Disclosure Tort: Scholars’ Untold Story, Jared A. Wilkerson

Jared A. Wilkerson

Legal scholars guided the creation and development of privacy torts, including what would become known as the disclosure tort, for about seventy-five years (1890–1965), a period in which most states came to recognize a common law or statutory right to privacy. Since then, scholarly attempts to curb or modify the tort have yielded little. This article—beginning with the formalism-realism debate won by Brandeis, Pound, and Prosser and ending with modern experts like Chemerinsky, Posner, and Solove—shows that notwithstanding enormous efforts by some of America’s most respected contemporary academics, would-be reformers of the disclosure tort have not ...


Brazil Begins To Investigate Its Dark Past, But Is It Too Little Too Late?, Thomas Thompson-Flores Aug 2012

Brazil Begins To Investigate Its Dark Past, But Is It Too Little Too Late?, Thomas Thompson-Flores

Thomas L Thompson-Flores

This article analyzes the history of Brazil, the current legal battle over its Amnesty Law, and finally compares the transitional justice process chosen in Brazil versus other South American countries. An historical background of Brazil from 1964 to the present is given to illustrate the reasons behind the methods chosen by Brazil to implement transitional justice in the country. This historical summary begins with the military’s rise to power in 1964; then discusses the harsh policies implemented by the military in order to maintain its power; the process of democratic transition; and finally the steps taken by Brazil in ...


Thomas Jefferson’S Establishment Clause Federalism, David E. Steinberg Aug 2012

Thomas Jefferson’S Establishment Clause Federalism, David E. Steinberg

David E. Steinberg

Thomas Jefferson’s Establishment Clause Federalism by David E. Steinberg

Abstract

According to mainstream legal analysis, Thomas Jefferson read the Establishment Clause as mandating a wall of separation between church and state. The Supreme Court has used this purported Jeffersonian interpretation as a basis for federal intervention into state religious regulation.

This view of Jefferson as an Establishment Clause separationist is not supported by the historical record. A belief in state's rights and limited federal government were Jefferson's most important tenets. Jefferson endorsed a Bill of Rights, which Jefferson and the anti-federalists viewed as a means of constraining ...


Substantive Due Process In Exile: The Supreme Court's Original Interpretation Of The Due Process Clause Of The Fourteenth Amendment, Natalie M. Banta Aug 2012

Substantive Due Process In Exile: The Supreme Court's Original Interpretation Of The Due Process Clause Of The Fourteenth Amendment, Natalie M. Banta

Natalie M Banta

In Substantive Due Process in Exile: The Supreme Court’s Original Interpretation of the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, the author proposes an interpretation of the Supreme Court’s substantive due process jurisprudence, focusing on an often overlooked period between 1873 and 1897. Recently, a flurry of scholarship has addressed the origins of substantive due process. Scholars have focused on how natural law principles were transported to the colonies from the common law of England and how the concept of substantive due process developed before the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment. Scholars then jump to the discussion of ...


Livingstone And The Law: Africa’S Greatest Explorer And The Abolition Of The Slave Trade, Jay Milbrandt Aug 2012

Livingstone And The Law: Africa’S Greatest Explorer And The Abolition Of The Slave Trade, Jay Milbrandt

Jay Milbrandt

Few historical events have had such tragic, widespread, and lingering consequences as the exportation of slaves from Africa. While the abolition of western Africa’s transatlantic slave trade is well documented, the events and legal framework that led to the abolition of the slave trade in East Africa remain practically untold. There, an unlikely hero championed abolition: Missionary and explorer Dr. David Livingstone. His method: an ambitious publicity stunt to dramatically change international law.

This article will illustrate how explorer David Livingstone’s advocacy profoundly affected the legal landscape to restrict the slave trade in East Africa, and eventually dealt ...


The Role Of Religion In A Catholic Law School: A Century Of Experience At Loyola University Chicago, Thomas M. Haney Aug 2012

The Role Of Religion In A Catholic Law School: A Century Of Experience At Loyola University Chicago, Thomas M. Haney

Thomas M. Haney

The purpose of this article is to examine the record of a Catholic law school, the School of Law of Loyola University Chicago, which a few years ago celebrated its centennial. This is a detailed study of how the Catholic identity of Loyola Chicago’s law school has manifested itself over the past century, during several distinct eras. The article concludes that the criteria chosen to identify a truly Catholic law school will determine the result of whether any particular law school is indeed Catholic, and that different scholars and commentators will choose different criteria, therefore arriving at different conclusions ...


Scalia & Garner's Reading Law: A Civil Law For The Age Of Statutes?, James R. Maxeiner Aug 2012

Scalia & Garner's Reading Law: A Civil Law For The Age Of Statutes?, James R. Maxeiner

James R Maxeiner

In Reading Law: The Interpretation of Legal Texts U.S. Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia and American legal lexicographer Bryan A. Garner challenge Americans to start over in dealing with statutes in the Age of Statutes. They propose “textualism,” i.e., “that the words of a governing text are of paramount concern, and what they convey in their context is what the text means.” Textualism is to remedy American lack of “a generally agreed-on approach to the interpretation of legal texts.” That deficiency makes American law unpredictable, unequal, undemocratic and political. In the book’s Foreword Chief Judge Frank Easterbrook ...


Resolving The Original Sin Of Bolling V. Sharpe, Gregory Dolin Aug 2012

Resolving The Original Sin Of Bolling V. Sharpe, Gregory Dolin

Gregory Dolin

On May 17, 1954 the Supreme Court handed down two decisions that for the first time categorically held that racial segregation in public schools was per se unlawful – Brown v. Board of Education and Bolling v. Sharpe. Ostensibly, both cases dealt with a same question; however, in Brown the entity accused of discrimination was a creature of the State of Kansas, while in Bolling the discrimination was practiced by the federal government. The problem that the Supreme Court faced was the language of the Fourteenth Amendment, which, by its own terms, guaranteed “equal protection of the laws” only vis-à-vis states ...


Juries, The Law, And The Original Function Of The Full Faith And Credit Clause, Hugo D. Leith Aug 2012

Juries, The Law, And The Original Function Of The Full Faith And Credit Clause, Hugo D. Leith

Hugo D Leith

No abstract provided.


Is An Inviolable Constitution A Suicide Pact? Historical Perspectives On An Overriding Executive Power To Protect The Salus Populi, Ryan P. Alford Aug 2012

Is An Inviolable Constitution A Suicide Pact? Historical Perspectives On An Overriding Executive Power To Protect The Salus Populi, Ryan P. Alford

Ryan P Alford

The Article posits that every constitutional order within the Western legal tradition that influenced the Framers recognized the necessity of control over executive emergency powers. It responds to the work of scholars such as Michael Stokes Paulsen, John Yoo, Eric Posner, and Adrian Vermuele, who have used historical arguments to justify strong claims about unbridled presidentialism in national security matters.

The Article demonstrates that it has always been recognized that one of the fundamental purposes of a constitution (written or unwritten) is to provide a framework for the exercise of executive power. It details how, throughout history, legal opinion has ...


Monopolies And The Constitution: A History Of Crony Capitalism, Steven G. Calabresi Aug 2012

Monopolies And The Constitution: A History Of Crony Capitalism, Steven G. Calabresi

Steven G Calabresi

This article explores the right of the people to be free from government granted monopolies or from what we would today call “Crony Capitalism.” We trace the constitutional history of this right from Tudor England down to present day state and federal constitutional law. We begin with Darcy v. Allen (also known as the Case of Monopolies decided in 1603) and the Statute of Monopolies of 1624, both of which prohibited English Kings and Queens from granting monopolies. We then show how the American colonists relied on English rights to be free from government granted monopolies during the Revolutionary War ...


Religion And The Equal Protection Clause, Steven G. Calabresi, Abe Salander Aug 2012

Religion And The Equal Protection Clause, Steven G. Calabresi, Abe Salander

Steven G Calabresi

This article argues that state action that discriminates on the basis of religion is unconstitutional under the Equal Protection Doctrine even if it does not violate the Establishment Clause or the Free Exercise Clause as incorporated by the Fourteenth Amendment. State action that discriminates on the basis of religion should be subject to strict scrutiny and should almost always be held unconstitutional. We thus challenge the Supreme Court’s recent decision in Christian Legal Society v. Martinez in which a 5 to 4 majority of the Court wrongly allowed a California state school to discriminate against a Christian Legal Society ...


Prometheus And The Natural Phenomenon Doctrine: Let’S Not Lose Sight Of The Forest For The Trees, Samantak Ghosh Aug 2012

Prometheus And The Natural Phenomenon Doctrine: Let’S Not Lose Sight Of The Forest For The Trees, Samantak Ghosh

Samantak Ghosh

The Supreme Court’s recent decision on patentable subject matter, Mayo Collaborative Services. v. Prometheus Laboratories, has come in for a lot of criticism from the biotechnology industry. Whenever the Supreme Court renders a judgment that is a significant departure from the past and arguably gets it wrong, the voices questioning the underlying principle behind the decision become stronger. Unfortunately, Prometheus was a poor vehicle for recalibrating a doctrine that has been untouched for the past three decades. However, it is important to dissociate the specific opinion from the principle animating the opinion, the natural phenomenon doctrine. If the natural ...


How Government Guarantees In Housing Finance Promote Stability, David Min Aug 2012

How Government Guarantees In Housing Finance Promote Stability, David Min

David Min

In the aftermath of the financial crisis, major reforms of the U.S. housing finance system are likely. One of the key issues facing policy makers in this area is whether and to what extent the federal government should maintain its current role in the residential mortgage markets. Since the New Deal, the federal government has guaranteed the primary sources of housing finance in the United States—bank and thrift deposits, and the obligations of the mortgage securitization conduits Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and Ginnie Mae.

The prevailing view of government guarantees is that they increase financial instability because they ...


Act Up, Fight Back, Fight Aids! The Legacy Of Act Up’S Policies And Actions From 1987-1994, Nathan H. Madson Aug 2012

Act Up, Fight Back, Fight Aids! The Legacy Of Act Up’S Policies And Actions From 1987-1994, Nathan H. Madson

Nathan H Madson

The AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) was founded in 1987 after a speech by Larry Kramer implored people to address the widespread destruction and deaths caused by HIV/AIDS. Since its founding, ACT UP has worked to improve the public’s awareness of the disease and to push for legislation that not only protected People With AIDS (PWAs), but also improved their access to medications and treatments. The way in which ACT UP achieved these goals, however, has provided a framework for other marginalized groups to make a similar impact. Some of the tools ACT UP used include ...


Hydropower: It's A Small World After All, Gina Warren Aug 2012

Hydropower: It's A Small World After All, Gina Warren

Gina Warren

Global warming is here. As exhibited by the recent droughts, heat waves, severe storms and floods, climate change is no longer a question for the future, but a problem for the present. Of the many ways to help combat climate change, this article discusses the use of the most abundant renewable energy source on the plant – water. While large-scale hydropower (think Hoover Dam) is unlikely to see increased development due to its negative impact on the environment, fish, and wildlife, small-scale hydropower (think a highly technologically-advanced water mill) is environmentally-friendly and would produce clean, renewable energy to benefit local communities ...


Shaping The Disclosure Tort: Scholars' Early Importance And Modern Impotence, Jared A. Wilkerson Aug 2012

Shaping The Disclosure Tort: Scholars' Early Importance And Modern Impotence, Jared A. Wilkerson

Jared A. Wilkerson

Legal scholars guided the creation and development of the disclosure tort for about seventy-five years (1890–1965), a period in which most states recognized a common law or statutory right to privacy. Since then, however, scholarly attempts to curb or modify the tort have yielded nothing. This article—beginning with the formalism-realism debate won by such sages as Brandeis, Pound, and Prosser and ending with modern experts like Chemerinsky, Posner, and Solove—shows that notwithstanding enormous efforts by some of America’s most respected contemporary academics, would-be reformers of the disclosure tort have not budged it since Prosser’s definition ...


Death And Rehabilitation, Meghan J. Ryan Aug 2012

Death And Rehabilitation, Meghan J. Ryan

Meghan J. Ryan

While rehabilitation is reemerging as an important penological goal, the Supreme Court is eroding the long-revered divide between capital and non-capital sentences. This raises the question of whether and how rehabilitation applies in the capital context. Courts and scholars have long concluded that it does not—that death is completely irrelevant to rehabilitation. Yet, historically, the death penalty in this country has been imposed in large part to induce the rehabilitation of offenders’ characters. Additionally, there are tales of the worst offenders transforming their characters when they are facing death, and several legal doctrines are based on the idea that ...


The Contradictory Stance On Jury Nullification, Kenneth J. Duvall Aug 2012

The Contradictory Stance On Jury Nullification, Kenneth J. Duvall

Kenneth J Duvall

Arguments about jury nullification in both courts and academia proceed under the assumption that either proponents and opponents of nullification could decisively carry the day. But as current Supreme Court law stands, nullification is at once prohibited and protected. This Article shines a light on the uneasy, confusing compromise in the doctrine, and finds that the two ways out of the dilemma—fully embracing nullification, or rejecting it—are equally taboo to the American legal mind. In Part I, this Article briefly explains the contested history of nullification. In Part II, it examines modern courts’ intermittent recognition of nullification. Part ...


Danbury Hatters In Sweden: An American Perspective Of Employer Remedies For Illegal Collective Actions, César F. Rosado Marzán, Margot Nikitas Aug 2012

Danbury Hatters In Sweden: An American Perspective Of Employer Remedies For Illegal Collective Actions, César F. Rosado Marzán, Margot Nikitas

All Faculty Scholarship

The European Court of Justice's ("ECJ") Laval quartet held that worker collective actions that impacted freedom of services and establishment in the E.U. violated E.U. law. After Laval, the Swedish Labor Court imposed exemplary or punitive damages on labor unions for violating E.U. law. These cases have generated critical discussions regarding not only the proper balance between markets and workers’ freedom of association, but also what should be the proper remedies for employers who suffer illegal actions by labor unions under E.U. law. While any reforms to rebalance fundamental freedoms as a result of the ...


Stewardship And Dominium: How Disparate Conceptions Of Ownership Influence Possession Doctrines, Martin Hirschprung Aug 2012

Stewardship And Dominium: How Disparate Conceptions Of Ownership Influence Possession Doctrines, Martin Hirschprung

martin hirschprung

The law is ambiguous regarding the level and extent of possession necessary to effect ownership. It can be argued that one’s conception of the nature of ownership influences this standard of possession. I further argue that the application of the concept of stewardship to questions of possession will aid in resolving the disputes between museums and indigenous groups regarding cultural artifacts. In order to demonstrate the relationship between one’s conception of ownership and its attendant standard of possession, it is useful to contrast different legal definitions of ownership, particularly the Roman concept of dominium, with a religious model ...


The Unity Thesis: How Positivism Distorts Constitutional Argument, John Lunstroth Aug 2012

The Unity Thesis: How Positivism Distorts Constitutional Argument, John Lunstroth

John Lunstroth

Democracy and civil rights are distorted and polarizing ideas that pit the rich against the poor, and should be abandoned in favor of an emphasis on the common good. To reach that conclusion I argue the US Constitution is and has always been designed to protect the wealth of the ruling class. All political associations or states have this as a central idea. My argument rests on a unique jurisprudential principle, the Unity Thesis. The main school of legal theory, positivism (the science of law) is based on the idea law is always separate from morals. I argue the opposite ...


Young Again, Larry Yackle Aug 2012

Young Again, Larry Yackle

Larry Yackle

This essay revisits an old problem in the law of federal courts: the source of the right of action in Ex parte Young. The Supreme Court’s 1908 decision in Young is primarily remembered for its treatment of state sovereign immunity. Yet the plaintiffs’ right of action (their entitlement to sue) presented an independent issue that has long been debated in academic circles. That question is again on the agenda inasmuch as Young figures in the current controversy about whether private litigants may routinely press preemption claims in federal court without explicit authorization from Congress. Proponents contend that preemption suits ...


Predisposition And Positivism: The Forgotten Foundations Of The Entrapment Doctrine", T. Ward Frampton Aug 2012

Predisposition And Positivism: The Forgotten Foundations Of The Entrapment Doctrine", T. Ward Frampton

T. Ward Frampton

For the past eighty years, the entrapment doctrine has provided a legal defense for those facing federal prosecution, but only for those defendants lacking criminal “predisposition” prior to the government’s inducement. The peculiar contours of this doctrine have generated significant academic debate, yet this scholarship has failed to explain why the entrapment doctrine developed as it did in the first instance. This Article addresses this gap by examining competing views on criminality and punishment in America during the doctrine’s emergence, highlighting the significant (though largely forgotten) impact of positivist criminology on the early twentieth-century legal imagination. Though positivism ...


The Constitutional Referendum Of 1866: Andrew Johnson And The Original Meaning Of The Privileges Or Immunities Clause, Kurt T. Lash Aug 2012

The Constitutional Referendum Of 1866: Andrew Johnson And The Original Meaning Of The Privileges Or Immunities Clause, Kurt T. Lash

Kurt T. Lash

Fourteenth Amendment scholars commonly assume that there is a relative silence in the historical record regarding public discussion of the proposed Amendment. In fact there was rich and extended public debate regarding the meaning of the Section One of the Amendment and the need to protect the privileges and immunities of citizens of the United States. These robust debates did not take place in state legislative assemblies, but in the campaign speeches, newspaper editorials and public documents accompanying the mid-term elections of 1866. Both Democrats and Republicans made the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment a central part of their party ...


The Unity Thesis: How Positivism Distorts Constitutional Argument, John Lunstroth Aug 2012

The Unity Thesis: How Positivism Distorts Constitutional Argument, John Lunstroth

John Lunstroth

The scientific revolution (or radical Enlightenment) distorted the way we understand the law by causing legal concepts, such as the idea of state, to be split into a scientific (positivist) part and a prudential (moral) part. The Unity Thesis gives us tools for understanding the mechanisms by which that happened and for mapping routes to the future that may be better for everyone. I illustrate using the US Constitution. The idea of the constitution we receive is already a scientific concept, originating in the ideas of state and common good that prevailed well into the 17th century. On the one ...


Self-Reflection Within The Academy: The Absence Of Women In Constitutional Jurisprudence, Karin M. Mika Jul 2012

Self-Reflection Within The Academy: The Absence Of Women In Constitutional Jurisprudence, Karin M. Mika

Karin Mika

This article will suggest that legal education has failed to represent the significant contributions of women in our American legal heritage within its curriculum. It urges that an acknowledgment of the feminine contribution must now be included within the curriculum of law schools in such a way that the contribution is incorporated within traditional substantive courses rather than select courses dealing with primarily "women's issues." Focusing on the Nineteenth and early Twentieth centuries, this article highlights the achievements and legal battles of women which were integral to the overall development of legal theory in our country. It discusses some ...


Regulating From Typewriters In An Internet Age: The Development & Regulation Of Mass Media Usage In Presidential Campaigns, Anthony J. King Jul 2012

Regulating From Typewriters In An Internet Age: The Development & Regulation Of Mass Media Usage In Presidential Campaigns, Anthony J. King

Anthony J. King

The American election process has become a misleading process of campaign promises and self-promotion, thus diluting its primary and most fundamental purpose. This discrepancy can be traced to three primary groups; (1) the candidates, who supplied the motive; (2) the mass media, who supplied the means; and (3) the electorate, who so far have allowed it to happen. Seeking to remedy the situation lawmakers have turned to regulations of the media in attempt to assure fairness and nurture the marketplace of ideas. These numerous attempts at fairness have been met with a mixed reception and mixed results leading to questions ...