Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Legal History

2012

PDF

Discipline
Institution
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 134

Full-Text Articles in Law

Selection Biases, Mark A. Graber, Sanford Levinson Dec 2012

Selection Biases, Mark A. Graber, Sanford Levinson

Mark Graber

No abstract provided.


Dred Scott, John San(D)Ford, And The Case For Collusion, David T. Hardy Dec 2012

Dred Scott, John San(D)Ford, And The Case For Collusion, David T. Hardy

David T. Hardy

Dred Scott v. John F. A. Sandford was one of the most critical cases in Supreme Court history, “an astonisher,” as Lincoln phrased it. In the “Opinion of the Court,” which was not actually the opinion of the Court (parts of it mustered only three votes), Chief Justice Taney stretched to insulate slavery in every way manageable. The ruling became instead an application of the “law of unintended consequences.” It led to the rise of Abraham Lincoln (who devoted much of his “House Undivided” speech to it), the destruction of Stephen Douglas’ presidential campaign (since it held his core position ...


Circumspect Agatis Revisted, David K. Millon Dec 2012

Circumspect Agatis Revisted, David K. Millon

David K. Millon

None available.


Objectivity And Democracy, David K. Millon Dec 2012

Objectivity And Democracy, David K. Millon

David K. Millon

As a response to skepticism about the possibility of objectivity in legal decisionmaking conventionalism posits the shared understandings of the legal profession (about method and the implications of doctrine) as the source of constraint in legal interpretation. In this Article, Professor Millon argues that conventionalism's proponents have failed to offer an adequate account of interpretive constraint, but that conventionalism properly understood can nevertheless provide a useful perspective on the possibility of objectivity in legal interpretation. This account locates interpretive constraint in the practices of the legal profession as a whole, acting as an "interpretive community" or constituting a distinctive ...


Book Review, (Reviewing Norman Doe, Fundamental Authority In Late Medieval English Law (1990)), David K. Millon Dec 2012

Book Review, (Reviewing Norman Doe, Fundamental Authority In Late Medieval English Law (1990)), David K. Millon

David K. Millon

None available.


The First Antistrust Statute, David K. Millon Dec 2012

The First Antistrust Statute, David K. Millon

David K. Millon

None available.


Roger Groot, Legal Historian, David K. Millon Nov 2012

Roger Groot, Legal Historian, David K. Millon

David K. Millon

No abstract provided.


Faith In The Republic: A Frances Lewis Law Center Conversation, Ann Maclean Massie, David K. Millon Nov 2012

Faith In The Republic: A Frances Lewis Law Center Conversation, Ann Maclean Massie, David K. Millon

David K. Millon

None available.


More Than Formulaic, Arthur Mitchell Fraas Oct 2012

More Than Formulaic, Arthur Mitchell Fraas

Unique at Penn

Contextual essay about an 18th-century American legal formulary created by Jared Ingersoll.


How Bad Were The Official Records Of The Federal Convention?, Mary Sarah Bilder Oct 2012

How Bad Were The Official Records Of The Federal Convention?, Mary Sarah Bilder

Mary Sarah Bilder

The official records of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 have been neglected and dismissed by scholars for the last century, largely to due to Max Farrand’s criticisms of both the records and the man responsible for keeping them - Secretary of the Convention William Jackson. This Article disagrees with Farrand’s conclusion that the Convention records were bad, and aims to resurrect the records and Jackson’s reputation. The Article suggests that the endurance of Farrand’s critique arises in part from misinterpretations of certain procedural components of the Convention and failure to appreciate the significance of others, understandable considering ...


Property And Republicanism In The Northwest Ordinance, Matthew J. Festa Sep 2012

Property And Republicanism In The Northwest Ordinance, Matthew J. Festa

Matthew J. Festa

This Article shows that individual property rights held a central place in the republican ideology of the founding era by examining the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. Between the two predominant strains of founding-era political ideology—liberalism and republicanism—the conventional view holds that individual property rights were central to Lockean liberalism, but not to the republican political tradition, where property is thought to have played more of a communitarian role as part of promoting civic virtue and the common good. Republicanism has been invoked in modern debates, and its emphases are present in current ideas such as the important new ...


The Phantom Fleet Of Porto Principe: Piracy And Admiralty Jurisdiction In The Atlantic Colonies, 1666-1698, Douglas R. Burgess Dr. Sep 2012

The Phantom Fleet Of Porto Principe: Piracy And Admiralty Jurisdiction In The Atlantic Colonies, 1666-1698, Douglas R. Burgess Dr.

Douglas R Burgess Dr.

No abstract provided.


Proxy Sovereignty And The Problem Of Immunity, Sarah L. Brinton Sep 2012

Proxy Sovereignty And The Problem Of Immunity, Sarah L. Brinton

Sarah L Brinton

The U.S. Constitution creates a three-branch federal government that acts on behalf of the sovereign people. Each constitutional branch—Congress, the executive, and the judiciary—is constrained to exercise only the powers and act only in the roles assigned it by the sovereign people via the Constitution. Despite this tripartite, proxy-sovereign nature of the U.S. national government, current federal sovereign immunity jurisprudence affords Congress the exclusive right to act as sovereign to waive immunity. This Article argues that the Constitution more faithfully supports another configuration of the waiver power. To do so, this Article introduces the proxy-sovereign framework ...


The Constitutional Procedural Principle: A Normative Morphology For Gauging Threats To Judicial Independence, Tara Price Sep 2012

The Constitutional Procedural Principle: A Normative Morphology For Gauging Threats To Judicial Independence, Tara Price

Tara Price

For more than two hundred years, judicial review has served as the foundation of the American judicial branch. And yet, more than two centuries later, scholars and political figures continue to debate its proper place in American government. Recently, Presidential candidate Newt Gingrich waded into this debate, calling for members of Congress and the President to take stronger actions to check and balance what he termed “judicial supremacy.” Cries for a weakened judicial branch and insistence on the importance of reining in activist judges are becoming commonplace throughout American history.

As Gingrich and many before him have realized, the President ...


Changing The Paradigm Of International Criminal Law: Considering The Work Of The United Nations War Crimes Commission Of 1943-1948, Daniel T. Plesch, Shanti Sattler Sep 2012

Changing The Paradigm Of International Criminal Law: Considering The Work Of The United Nations War Crimes Commission Of 1943-1948, Daniel T. Plesch, Shanti Sattler

Daniel T Plesch

Changing the Paradigm of International Criminal Law: Considering the Work of the United Nations War Crimes Commission of 1943-1948 by Dr Dan Plesch and Shanti Sattler This article discusses the precedents of the largely forgotten United Nations War Crimes Commission (U.N.W.C.C.) of 1943-1948. The work of this multinational body should be regarded as a source of customary international law. We seek to introduce the U.N.W.C.C. and the thousands of national trials it supported into modern discourse about the development of international criminal justice and argue why they are relevant to current deliberations ...


Battle For The Disclosure Tort: Scholars’ Untold Story, Jared A. Wilkerson Aug 2012

Battle For The Disclosure Tort: Scholars’ Untold Story, Jared A. Wilkerson

Jared A. Wilkerson

Legal scholars guided the creation and development of privacy torts, including what would become known as the disclosure tort, for about seventy-five years (1890–1965), a period in which most states came to recognize a common law or statutory right to privacy. Since then, scholarly attempts to curb or modify the tort have yielded little. This article—beginning with the formalism-realism debate won by Brandeis, Pound, and Prosser and ending with modern experts like Chemerinsky, Posner, and Solove—shows that notwithstanding enormous efforts by some of America’s most respected contemporary academics, would-be reformers of the disclosure tort have not ...


Brazil Begins To Investigate Its Dark Past, But Is It Too Little Too Late?, Thomas Thompson-Flores Aug 2012

Brazil Begins To Investigate Its Dark Past, But Is It Too Little Too Late?, Thomas Thompson-Flores

Thomas L Thompson-Flores

This article analyzes the history of Brazil, the current legal battle over its Amnesty Law, and finally compares the transitional justice process chosen in Brazil versus other South American countries. An historical background of Brazil from 1964 to the present is given to illustrate the reasons behind the methods chosen by Brazil to implement transitional justice in the country. This historical summary begins with the military’s rise to power in 1964; then discusses the harsh policies implemented by the military in order to maintain its power; the process of democratic transition; and finally the steps taken by Brazil in ...


Substantive Due Process In Exile: The Supreme Court's Original Interpretation Of The Due Process Clause Of The Fourteenth Amendment, Natalie M. Banta Aug 2012

Substantive Due Process In Exile: The Supreme Court's Original Interpretation Of The Due Process Clause Of The Fourteenth Amendment, Natalie M. Banta

Natalie M Banta

In Substantive Due Process in Exile: The Supreme Court’s Original Interpretation of the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, the author proposes an interpretation of the Supreme Court’s substantive due process jurisprudence, focusing on an often overlooked period between 1873 and 1897. Recently, a flurry of scholarship has addressed the origins of substantive due process. Scholars have focused on how natural law principles were transported to the colonies from the common law of England and how the concept of substantive due process developed before the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment. Scholars then jump to the discussion of ...


Livingstone And The Law: Africa’S Greatest Explorer And The Abolition Of The Slave Trade, Jay Milbrandt Aug 2012

Livingstone And The Law: Africa’S Greatest Explorer And The Abolition Of The Slave Trade, Jay Milbrandt

Jay Milbrandt

Few historical events have had such tragic, widespread, and lingering consequences as the exportation of slaves from Africa. While the abolition of western Africa’s transatlantic slave trade is well documented, the events and legal framework that led to the abolition of the slave trade in East Africa remain practically untold. There, an unlikely hero championed abolition: Missionary and explorer Dr. David Livingstone. His method: an ambitious publicity stunt to dramatically change international law.

This article will illustrate how explorer David Livingstone’s advocacy profoundly affected the legal landscape to restrict the slave trade in East Africa, and eventually dealt ...


The Role Of Religion In A Catholic Law School: A Century Of Experience At Loyola University Chicago, Thomas M. Haney Aug 2012

The Role Of Religion In A Catholic Law School: A Century Of Experience At Loyola University Chicago, Thomas M. Haney

Thomas M. Haney

The purpose of this article is to examine the record of a Catholic law school, the School of Law of Loyola University Chicago, which a few years ago celebrated its centennial. This is a detailed study of how the Catholic identity of Loyola Chicago’s law school has manifested itself over the past century, during several distinct eras. The article concludes that the criteria chosen to identify a truly Catholic law school will determine the result of whether any particular law school is indeed Catholic, and that different scholars and commentators will choose different criteria, therefore arriving at different conclusions ...


Scalia & Garner's Reading Law: A Civil Law For The Age Of Statutes?, James R. Maxeiner Aug 2012

Scalia & Garner's Reading Law: A Civil Law For The Age Of Statutes?, James R. Maxeiner

James R Maxeiner

In Reading Law: The Interpretation of Legal Texts U.S. Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia and American legal lexicographer Bryan A. Garner challenge Americans to start over in dealing with statutes in the Age of Statutes. They propose “textualism,” i.e., “that the words of a governing text are of paramount concern, and what they convey in their context is what the text means.” Textualism is to remedy American lack of “a generally agreed-on approach to the interpretation of legal texts.” That deficiency makes American law unpredictable, unequal, undemocratic and political. In the book’s Foreword Chief Judge Frank Easterbrook ...


Juries, The Law, And The Original Function Of The Full Faith And Credit Clause, Hugo D. Leith Aug 2012

Juries, The Law, And The Original Function Of The Full Faith And Credit Clause, Hugo D. Leith

Hugo D Leith

No abstract provided.


Religion And The Equal Protection Clause, Steven G. Calabresi, Abe Salander Aug 2012

Religion And The Equal Protection Clause, Steven G. Calabresi, Abe Salander

Steven G Calabresi

This article argues that state action that discriminates on the basis of religion is unconstitutional under the Equal Protection Doctrine even if it does not violate the Establishment Clause or the Free Exercise Clause as incorporated by the Fourteenth Amendment. State action that discriminates on the basis of religion should be subject to strict scrutiny and should almost always be held unconstitutional. We thus challenge the Supreme Court’s recent decision in Christian Legal Society v. Martinez in which a 5 to 4 majority of the Court wrongly allowed a California state school to discriminate against a Christian Legal Society ...


Prometheus And The Natural Phenomenon Doctrine: Let’S Not Lose Sight Of The Forest For The Trees, Samantak Ghosh Aug 2012

Prometheus And The Natural Phenomenon Doctrine: Let’S Not Lose Sight Of The Forest For The Trees, Samantak Ghosh

Samantak Ghosh

The Supreme Court’s recent decision on patentable subject matter, Mayo Collaborative Services. v. Prometheus Laboratories, has come in for a lot of criticism from the biotechnology industry. Whenever the Supreme Court renders a judgment that is a significant departure from the past and arguably gets it wrong, the voices questioning the underlying principle behind the decision become stronger. Unfortunately, Prometheus was a poor vehicle for recalibrating a doctrine that has been untouched for the past three decades. However, it is important to dissociate the specific opinion from the principle animating the opinion, the natural phenomenon doctrine. If the natural ...


Death And Rehabilitation, Meghan J. Ryan Aug 2012

Death And Rehabilitation, Meghan J. Ryan

Meghan J. Ryan

While rehabilitation is reemerging as an important penological goal, the Supreme Court is eroding the long-revered divide between capital and non-capital sentences. This raises the question of whether and how rehabilitation applies in the capital context. Courts and scholars have long concluded that it does not—that death is completely irrelevant to rehabilitation. Yet, historically, the death penalty in this country has been imposed in large part to induce the rehabilitation of offenders’ characters. Additionally, there are tales of the worst offenders transforming their characters when they are facing death, and several legal doctrines are based on the idea that ...


Danbury Hatters In Sweden: An American Perspective Of Employer Remedies For Illegal Collective Actions, César F. Rosado Marzán, Margot Nikitas Aug 2012

Danbury Hatters In Sweden: An American Perspective Of Employer Remedies For Illegal Collective Actions, César F. Rosado Marzán, Margot Nikitas

All Faculty Scholarship

The European Court of Justice's ("ECJ") Laval quartet held that worker collective actions that impacted freedom of services and establishment in the E.U. violated E.U. law. After Laval, the Swedish Labor Court imposed exemplary or punitive damages on labor unions for violating E.U. law. These cases have generated critical discussions regarding not only the proper balance between markets and workers’ freedom of association, but also what should be the proper remedies for employers who suffer illegal actions by labor unions under E.U. law. While any reforms to rebalance fundamental freedoms as a result of the ...


Young Again, Larry Yackle Aug 2012

Young Again, Larry Yackle

Larry Yackle

This essay revisits an old problem in the law of federal courts: the source of the right of action in Ex parte Young. The Supreme Court’s 1908 decision in Young is primarily remembered for its treatment of state sovereign immunity. Yet the plaintiffs’ right of action (their entitlement to sue) presented an independent issue that has long been debated in academic circles. That question is again on the agenda inasmuch as Young figures in the current controversy about whether private litigants may routinely press preemption claims in federal court without explicit authorization from Congress. Proponents contend that preemption suits ...


Predisposition And Positivism: The Forgotten Foundations Of The Entrapment Doctrine", T. Ward Frampton Aug 2012

Predisposition And Positivism: The Forgotten Foundations Of The Entrapment Doctrine", T. Ward Frampton

T. Ward Frampton

For the past eighty years, the entrapment doctrine has provided a legal defense for those facing federal prosecution, but only for those defendants lacking criminal “predisposition” prior to the government’s inducement. The peculiar contours of this doctrine have generated significant academic debate, yet this scholarship has failed to explain why the entrapment doctrine developed as it did in the first instance. This Article addresses this gap by examining competing views on criminality and punishment in America during the doctrine’s emergence, highlighting the significant (though largely forgotten) impact of positivist criminology on the early twentieth-century legal imagination. Though positivism ...


The Unity Thesis: How Positivism Distorts Constitutional Argument, John Lunstroth Aug 2012

The Unity Thesis: How Positivism Distorts Constitutional Argument, John Lunstroth

John Lunstroth

The scientific revolution (or radical Enlightenment) distorted the way we understand the law by causing legal concepts, such as the idea of state, to be split into a scientific (positivist) part and a prudential (moral) part. The Unity Thesis gives us tools for understanding the mechanisms by which that happened and for mapping routes to the future that may be better for everyone. I illustrate using the US Constitution. The idea of the constitution we receive is already a scientific concept, originating in the ideas of state and common good that prevailed well into the 17th century. On the one ...


Self-Reflection Within The Academy: The Absence Of Women In Constitutional Jurisprudence, Karin M. Mika Jul 2012

Self-Reflection Within The Academy: The Absence Of Women In Constitutional Jurisprudence, Karin M. Mika

Karin Mika

This article will suggest that legal education has failed to represent the significant contributions of women in our American legal heritage within its curriculum. It urges that an acknowledgment of the feminine contribution must now be included within the curriculum of law schools in such a way that the contribution is incorporated within traditional substantive courses rather than select courses dealing with primarily "women's issues." Focusing on the Nineteenth and early Twentieth centuries, this article highlights the achievements and legal battles of women which were integral to the overall development of legal theory in our country. It discusses some ...