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Legal History

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Law and Gender

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Daughter Of Liberty Wedded To Law: Gender And Legal Education At The University Of Pennsylvania Department Of Law 1870-1900, Bridget J. Crawford Apr 2002

Daughter Of Liberty Wedded To Law: Gender And Legal Education At The University Of Pennsylvania Department Of Law 1870-1900, Bridget J. Crawford

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Using the University of Pennsylvania's Law Department and, to some extent, the figure of Carrie Burnham Kilgore as lenses, this article examines a thirty year period of major changes in legal education. In Part I, Prof. Crawford describes the historical roots of the school and its halting establishment in light of the predominant role individual lawyers played in training students through law office clerkships. Part II details several related changes in the legal profession in the 1870s: the law office declined in prominence; bar associations became more active; and law schools developed rigorous requirements. In particular, Prof. Crawford describes ...


Ladies In Red: Learning From America's First Female Bankrupts, Marie Stefanini Newman Jan 1996

Ladies In Red: Learning From America's First Female Bankrupts, Marie Stefanini Newman

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Several years ago, the Honorable Joyce Bihary, a bankruptcy judge in Atlanta, Georgia, asked me3 why our country's first bankruptcy law specifically referred to debtors using “he” or “she” rather than a gender-neutral noun (such as “bankrupts”) or the male possessive pronoun “he.” Implicitly, she was also asking whether there were any women debtors under our early bankruptcy laws. Although I had read the Bankruptcy Act of 1800 more than once, I did not recollect its use of these gender-inclusive pronouns. Nor did I know why the Act employed them. Despite having given considerable thought to contemporary women in ...