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The Greatest Mall There Never Was: Assessing The Failed Attempt To Build The New Haven Galleria, Jeremy Kutner May 2012

The Greatest Mall There Never Was: Assessing The Failed Attempt To Build The New Haven Galleria, Jeremy Kutner

Student Legal History Papers

In late 1995, a dream that had fixated New Haven’s leadership since the 1960’s was coming to an end. Long buffeted by a population and wealth exodus to the suburbs, leaders had looked to a glittery downtown shopping mall to draw people, and their money, back to the city. Downtown was remade to accommodate retail heavy hitters: Macy’s, Malley’s, and the Chapel Square Mall. But it wasn’t working. Macy’s was gone. Chapel Square was hemorrhaging tenants. And so, after decades of public effort to make large-scale retail work downtown, the city’s mayor was ...


The City's Role In Renewal: A Comparative Study Of Redevelopment In Two New Haven Districts, Rachael Doud Jan 2012

The City's Role In Renewal: A Comparative Study Of Redevelopment In Two New Haven Districts, Rachael Doud

Student Legal History Papers

Looking forward to New Haven’s future, we are faced with the question of what role the city should take in redevelopment. John Elwood looked for insight into that question in his 1994 article Rethinking Government Participation in Urban Renewal: Neighborhood Revitalization in New Haven. He examined two redevelopment projects: the Ninth Square and Upper State Street. While the former was achieved in a Lee-esque manner, with significant government funding and involvement, the latter was initiated and carried out largely by small property owners, although the government did provide incentives and assistance.

Elwood characterizes the Ninth Square project as “coarse-grained ...


Community Policing In New Haven: Social Norms, Police Culture, And The Alleged Crisis Of Criminal Procedure, Caroline Van Zile May 2011

Community Policing In New Haven: Social Norms, Police Culture, And The Alleged Crisis Of Criminal Procedure, Caroline Van Zile

Student Legal History Papers

Nick Pastore will forever be known as one of New Haven’s most colorful historical figures. The Chief of Police in New Haven from 1990 to 1997, Pastore was well-known for his outrageous comments and unusual antics. New Haven’s chief proponent of community policing, Pastore referred to himself in interviews as “’an outstanding patrol officer,’ a ‘super crime-fighting cop,’ ‘a good cop with the Mafia,’ [and] ‘Sherlock Holmes.’” Pastore, unlike his immediate predecessor, highly valued working with the community and advocated for a focus on reducing crime rather than increasing arrests. Pastore once informed that New York Times that ...


Meaningful Community Participation In Land Use Decision Making Through Ad Hoc Procedures In New Haven, Connecticut, Laura Huizar May 2011

Meaningful Community Participation In Land Use Decision Making Through Ad Hoc Procedures In New Haven, Connecticut, Laura Huizar

Student Legal History Papers

The last few decades have seen efforts to develop community-based planning models and other mechanisms for increased community participation in the land use approval process. Community Benefits Agreements (CBAs), in particular, have risen in popularity across the nation as a tool for ensuring meaningful participation in development. Such agreements generally arise from direct negotiation between community groups and developers where community groups push to secure community benefits in exchange for support. At the same time, however, takings law doctrine may be shifting in a way that could dissuade cities from actively incorporating community groups into planning or negotiating with developers ...


Diffuse Aspirations: Mixed-Income Housing In The Context Of For-Profit Urban Revitalization, Christopher Miller May 2011

Diffuse Aspirations: Mixed-Income Housing In The Context Of For-Profit Urban Revitalization, Christopher Miller

Student Legal History Papers

This paper evaluates the success of mixed-income housing in the context of a for-profit development in New Haven, Connecticut. It takes as its sample the development and the tenants of The Residences at Ninth Square, a mixed-use, mixed-income apartment complex located in the center of the historic city. The early parts of the paper (Parts II-III) tell the story of the neighborhood and contextualize the study in the geography and the history of New Haven, Connecticut. Part IV describes the development in detail. Part V looks to the expectations and commitments undertaken by the developers of The Residences. Part VI ...


Financing Innovation: Infrastructure Development In New Haven, 1750-1850, Thomas P. Schmidt Dec 2010

Financing Innovation: Infrastructure Development In New Haven, 1750-1850, Thomas P. Schmidt

Student Legal History Papers

The nineteenth century was a time of astonishing change in technologies of transportation. When the Constitution was ratified, to travel from New Haven to Hartford would require an arduous and uncertain trip on a rough road that could span more than a day. At the start of the twentieth century, railroads conveyed thousands of people daily along that route in a few hours, and the first automobiles were motoring over roads. The great progress in infrastructure development radically transformed the commercial, physical, and cultural landscape of America.

This transformation required great mobilizations of capital and human labor, which, in turn ...


The Constitutional Canon As Argumentative Metonymy, Ian C. Bartrum May 2009

The Constitutional Canon As Argumentative Metonymy, Ian C. Bartrum

Faculty Scholarship Series

This article builds on Philip Bobbitt's Wittgensteinian insights into constitutional argument and law. I examine the way that we interact with canonical texts as we construct arguments in the forms that Bobbitt has described. I contend that these texts serve as metonyms for larger sets of associated principles and values, and that their invocation usually is not meant to point to the literal meaning of the text itself. This conception helps explain how a canonical text's meaning in constitutional argument can evolve over time, and hopefully offers the creative practitioner some insight into the kinds of arguments that ...


The Xinfang Phenomenon: Why The Chinese Prefer Administrative Petitioning Over Litigation, Taisu Zhang Aug 2008

The Xinfang Phenomenon: Why The Chinese Prefer Administrative Petitioning Over Litigation, Taisu Zhang

Student Scholarship Papers

In recent years, the Chinese public, when facing disputes with government officials, hav preferred a non-legal means of resolution, the Xinfang system, over litigation. Some scholars explain this by claiming that administrative litigation is less effective than Xinfang petitioning. Others argue that the Chinese have historically eschewed litigation and continue to do so habitually. This paper proposes a new explanation: Chinese have traditionally litigated administrative disputes, but only when legal procedure is not too adversarial and allows for the possibility of reconciliation through court-directed settlement. Since this possibility does not formally exist in modern Chinese administrative litigation, people tend to ...


Liquor Laws And Constitutional Conventions: A Legal History Of The Twenty-First Amendment, Ethan P. Davis Apr 2008

Liquor Laws And Constitutional Conventions: A Legal History Of The Twenty-First Amendment, Ethan P. Davis

Student Scholarship Papers

In 1933 America decisively ended its ill-fated experiment in national prohibition by enacting the Twenty-first Amendment. This article tells the tale of America’s return to liquor from a legal perspective. It recounts the ebb and flow of the prohibitionist movements in the nineteenth century, the congressional debates over the Twenty-first Amendment, the state laws, popular votes, and constitutional conventions that followed, and the state liquor regulatory systems adopted afterwards. A legal approach to prohibition illuminates intriguing, largely overlooked topics, including the constitutional questions activated by Congress’s unprecedented decision to submit the amendment to state conventions rather than legislatures ...


Mixed Contracts And The U.C.C.: A Proposal For A Uniform Penalty Default To Protect Consumers, Jesse M. Brush Jul 2007

Mixed Contracts And The U.C.C.: A Proposal For A Uniform Penalty Default To Protect Consumers, Jesse M. Brush

Student Scholarship Papers

Although Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code provides a standard set of rules for goods transactions, it is silent on the treatment of mixed goods and services contracts. Without guidance from the Code, courts have taken a number of different approaches to such contracts. These varied tests encourage opportunistic behavior: sellers withhold information about implied warranties during negotiations, and can later claim they do not apply. Uninformed buyers must either forfeit their warranty protection or resort to an expensive court determination of the Code’s applicability. This Article proposes a “penalty default” of applying the Code in consumer contracts ...


Lost Opportunity: Bush V. Holmes And The Application Of State Constitutional Uniformity Clauses To School Voucher Programs, Jamie S. Dycus Aug 2006

Lost Opportunity: Bush V. Holmes And The Application Of State Constitutional Uniformity Clauses To School Voucher Programs, Jamie S. Dycus

Student Scholarship Papers

This article analyzes the Florida Supreme Court’s recent decision in Bush v. Holmes, in which the court struck down Florida’s school voucher program as a violation of Florida's constitutional uniformity clause. It argues that the court erred by applying a simplistic and ahistorical definition of uniformity, and recommends that future courts applying state constitutional uniformity clauses to school voucher schemes take a different approach.

Specifically, it argues that courts in future cases should begin by acknowledging frankly the necessity of determining the meaning of uniformity. Next, drawing on case law and historical evidence, they should fashion definitions ...


Manson V. Brathwaite Revisited:Towards A New Rule Of Decision For Due Process Challenges, Giovanna Shay, Timothy O'Toole Mar 2006

Manson V. Brathwaite Revisited:Towards A New Rule Of Decision For Due Process Challenges, Giovanna Shay, Timothy O'Toole

Faculty Scholarship Series

A major cause of wrongful convictions is mistaken eyewitness identification. The leading Supreme Court case governing due process challenges to identification procedures, Manson v. Brathwaite, is almost 30 years old, and does not account for decades of social science research on eyewitness I.D. In fact, parts of the Manson test designed to ensure reliability run counter to research findings. In this piece, O'Toole and Shay describe the problems with the Manson test, and propose a new rule of decision for due process challenges to identification procedures.


“For The Murder Of His Own Female Slave, A Woman Named Mira...” : Law, Slavery And Incoherence In Antebellum North Carolina, Anthony V. Baker Mar 2006

“For The Murder Of His Own Female Slave, A Woman Named Mira...” : Law, Slavery And Incoherence In Antebellum North Carolina, Anthony V. Baker

Student Scholarship Papers

“for the murder of his own female slave, a woman named Mira...” : Law, Slavery and Incoherence in Antebellum North Carolina

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“The death of culture begins when its normative institutions fail to communicate ideals in ways that remain inwardly compelling...”

Phillip Rieff

In the spring of 1839 a ‘slave owner,’ ­ Mr. John Hoover ­ was arrested for the brutal murder of his own ‘property,’ a young woman named Mira. Convicted of the capital charge by a jury of his peers ­ 12 fellow ‘slave owners,’ as the relevant law then required ­ his appeal to the North Carolina Supreme Court was rejected in ...


From St. Ives To Cyberspace: The Modern Distortion Of The Medieval 'Law Merchant', Stephen E. Sachs Mar 2005

From St. Ives To Cyberspace: The Modern Distortion Of The Medieval 'Law Merchant', Stephen E. Sachs

Student Scholarship Papers

Modern advocates of corporate self-regulation have drawn unlikely inspiration from the Middle Ages. On the traditional view of history, medieval merchants who wandered from fair to fair were not governed by domestic laws, but by their own lex mercatoria, or "law merchant." This law, which uniformly regulated commerce across Europe, was supposedly produced by an autonomous merchant class, interpreted in private courts, and enforced through private sanctions rather than state coercion. Contemporary writers have treated global corporations as descendants of these itinerant traders, urging them to replace conflicting national laws with a law of their own creation. The standard history ...


The Origins Of "Reasonable Doubt", James Q. Whitman Mar 2005

The Origins Of "Reasonable Doubt", James Q. Whitman

Faculty Scholarship Series

The "reasonable doubt" rule is notoriously difficult to define, and many judges and scholars have deplored the confusion it creates in the minds of jurors. Yet "reasonable doubt" is regarded as a fundamental part of our law. How can a rule of such fundamental importance be so difficult to define and understand?

The answer, this paper tries to show, lies in history. The "reasonable doubt" rule was not originally designed to serve the purpose it is asked to serve today: It was not originally designed to protect the accused. Instead, it was designed to protect the souls of the jurors ...


When Was The Yale Law School Really Founded?, Michael T. Sansbury May 2001

When Was The Yale Law School Really Founded?, Michael T. Sansbury

Student Legal History Papers

In 1874, during the celebration of the Yale Law School's "Semicentennial Anniversary," Theodore Woolsey, a former Yale President and Professor at the Law School, claimed that the Law School had been founded in 1824 when a group of students were listed as "Law Students" in the Yale Catalogue. These students studied in a small proprietary law school started by Seth P. Staples and operated, in 1824, by Samuel J. Hitchcock and David Daggett. Their listing in the catalogue seems to indicate a connection between the Staples-Hitchcock-Daggett school and Yale College. Since 1874, Yale historians and the Yale Law School ...


The Relationship Between Yale's Law School And The Central University In The Late Nineteenth Century, Mark Bartholomew Feb 2000

The Relationship Between Yale's Law School And The Central University In The Late Nineteenth Century, Mark Bartholomew

Student Legal History Papers

This paper describes the Yale Law School in the late 1800s. For most of the period, the school's faculty struggled to gain the attention of an unresponsive university administration. At the same time, the faculty pushed for interdisciplinary study that would tie the Law School to the university's other academic departments.


A Study Of The Housing Patterns Of Yale Law School Students, Masato Hayakawa Oct 1999

A Study Of The Housing Patterns Of Yale Law School Students, Masato Hayakawa

Student Legal History Papers

In 1948, only about one-tenth of the law students lived in what we now term the law student ghetto. By 1997, more law students lived in this neighborhood than in any other - students in this neighborhood outnumbered students living in other off-campus neighborhoods by a margin of two-to-one, and they made up a simple majority of the enrollment.

This paper examines the formation of this concentration. The evidence shows that the law student ghetto did no always exist in its current form, but rather that it is a product of housing developments of the last thirty years. This paper traces ...


The Student View Of Yale Law School 1883-1912: The Shingle, Maureen J. Arrigo Mar 1997

The Student View Of Yale Law School 1883-1912: The Shingle, Maureen J. Arrigo

Student Legal History Papers

During one twenty-year period, the graduating students of Yale Law School published books in which their views of the school (and to a small extent the faculty's views as well) were captured. This series of books - The Yale Shingle - was published from 1893 to 1912.

My goal in writing this paper is profile student life at Yale as reports in the Shingle. Its life spanned an important time in the school's history - a time of significant change.


Public Law And Legal Education In The Nineteenth Century: The Founding Of Burgess' School Of Political Science At Columbia, Alexa S. Bator Oct 1996

Public Law And Legal Education In The Nineteenth Century: The Founding Of Burgess' School Of Political Science At Columbia, Alexa S. Bator

Student Legal History Papers

This paper discusses the founding of the School of Political Science at Columbia University by John W. Burgess in 1880. Burgess established the political science school after failing in his attempts to introduce a program of coursework in political science and public law at Columbia's School of Law. He hoped that the new school would supplement the private-law curriculum of the law school, with the particular aim of preparing students for a career in public service.


The Contracts Notes Of Timothy Merwin: Earliest Evidence Of Instruction At Yale Law School, Peter Stern Jan 1996

The Contracts Notes Of Timothy Merwin: Earliest Evidence Of Instruction At Yale Law School, Peter Stern

Student Legal History Papers

This paper discusses the contracts notes of one of the first students at the Yale Law School. The notes were taken in 1828, making them the earliest known evidence of the method of instruction employed by the law school's founders.