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Full-Text Articles in Law

Right On Time: First Possession In Property And Intellectual Property, Dotan Oliar, James Y. Stern Mar 2019

Right On Time: First Possession In Property And Intellectual Property, Dotan Oliar, James Y. Stern

Faculty Publications

How should we allocate property rights in unowned tangible and intangible resources? This Article develops a model of original acquisition that draws together common law doctrines of first possession with original acquisition doctrines in patent, copyright, and trademark law. The common denominator is time: in each context, doctrine involves a trade-off between assigning entitlements to resources earlier or later in the process of their development and use. Early awards risk granting exclusivity to parties who may not be capable of putting resources to their best use. Late awards prolong contests for ownership, which may generate waste or discourage acquisition efforts ...


Constitutional Injury And Tangibility, Rachel Bayefsky May 2018

Constitutional Injury And Tangibility, Rachel Bayefsky

William & Mary Law Review

The Supreme Court, in the 2016 case Spokeo, Inc. v. Robins, announced a framework for determining whether a plaintiff had alleged an injury that would permit entry into federal court. The Court indicated that a plaintiff, in order to have constitutional standing, needed to suffer harm that was “concrete” or “real.” In explaining how courts could ascertain whether an alleged harm was concrete, the Court created a category of “intangible” harm subject to a distinctive, and arguably more demanding, concreteness inquiry than “tangible” harm, a category that seemingly includes only physical or economic harm. In particular, Spokeo directed courts to ...


A Pragmatist’S View Of Promissory Law With A Focus On Consent And Reliance, Robert A. Hillman Feb 2018

A Pragmatist’S View Of Promissory Law With A Focus On Consent And Reliance, Robert A. Hillman

William & Mary Business Law Review

This Article discusses Professor Nate Oman’s excellent new book, The Dignity of Commerce, which makes an impressive case for how markets can produce “desirable” outcomes for society. In addition to a comprehensive account of what he calls “virtues” of markets, such as their tendency to produce cooperation, trust, and wealth, the book is full of useful and persuasive supporting information and discussions.

Oman is not only a fan of markets, but he asserts that markets are the “center” of contract theory, and provide its normative foundation. Elaborating, Oman concludes that “contract law exists primarily to support markets” and that ...


Does Contract Law Need Morality?, Kimberly D. Krawiec, Wenhao Liu Feb 2018

Does Contract Law Need Morality?, Kimberly D. Krawiec, Wenhao Liu

William & Mary Business Law Review

In The Dignity of Commerce, Nathan Oman sets out an ambitious market theory of contract, which he argues is a superior normative foundation for contract law than either the moralist or economic justifications that currently dominate contract theory. In doing so, he sets out a robust defense of commerce and the marketplace as contributing to human flourishing that is a refreshing and welcome contribution in an era of market alarmism. But the market theory ultimately falls short as either a normative or prescriptive theory of contract. The extent to which law, public policy, and theory should account for values other ...


Contract, Promise, And The Right Of Redress, Andrew S. Gold Feb 2018

Contract, Promise, And The Right Of Redress, Andrew S. Gold

William & Mary Business Law Review

This Essay reviews Nathan Oman’s recent book, The Dignity of Commerce. The book is compelling, and it makes an important and original contribution to contract theory—a contribution that insightfully shows how markets matter. Yet, in the course of developing a market-centered justification for contract law, The Dignity of Commerce also downplays the significance of consent and promissory morality. In both cases, the book’s argument is problematic, but this Essay will address questions of promissory morality. Oman contends that promise-based accounts struggle with contract law’s bilateralism and with its private standing doctrine. Yet, promissory morality is a ...


Equal Liberty In Proportion, Joshua E. Weishart Oct 2017

Equal Liberty In Proportion, Joshua E. Weishart

William & Mary Law Review

As federal law continues to devolve more education policy making to states, state courts will remain a primary forum for settling education rights. State fora do not inspire confidence, however, because their doctrine is so uncertain. A majority of state supreme courts do not specify a level of scrutiny and at times seem to be improvising judicial review. The resulting decisions can exhibit a troubling lack of foresight. Most notably, while federal doctrine increasingly reveals the interrelation of liberty and equality claims, state courts have failed to capitalize on that point—even though their decisions were among the first to ...


Legislative Exhaustion, Michael Sant’Ambrogio Mar 2017

Legislative Exhaustion, Michael Sant’Ambrogio

William & Mary Law Review

Legislative lawsuits are a recurring by-product of divided government. Yet the Supreme Court has never definitively resolved whether Congress may sue the executive branch over its execution of the law. Some scholars argue that Congress should be able to establish Article III standing when its interests are harmed by executive action or inaction just like private parties. Others, including most prominently the late Justice Antonin Scalia, argue that intergovernmental disputes do not constitute Article III “cases” or “controversies” at all. Rather, the Framers envisioned the political branches resolving their differences through nonjudicial means.

This Article proposes a different approach to ...


The Vanishing Common Law Judge, Neal Devins, David Klein Feb 2017

The Vanishing Common Law Judge, Neal Devins, David Klein

Faculty Publications

The common law style of judging appears to be on its way out. Trial courts rarely shape legal policymaking by asserting decisional autonomy through distinguishing, limiting, or criticizing higher court precedent. In an earlier study, we demonstrated the reluctance of lower court judges to assert decisional autonomy by invoking the holding–dicta dichotomy. In this Article, we make use of original empirical research to study the level of deference U.S. district court judges exhibit toward higher courts and whether the level of deference has changed over time. Our analysis of citation behavior over an eighty-year period reveals a dramatic ...


Protean Statutory Interpretation In The Courts Of Appeals, James J. Brudney, Lawrence Baum Feb 2017

Protean Statutory Interpretation In The Courts Of Appeals, James J. Brudney, Lawrence Baum

William & Mary Law Review

This Article is the first in-depth empirical and doctrinal analysis of differences in statutory interpretation between the courts of appeals and the Supreme Court. It is also among the first to anticipate how the Supreme Court’s interpretive approach may shift with the passing of Justice Scalia.

We begin by identifying factors that may contribute to interpretive divergence between the two judicial levels, based on their different institutional structures and operational realities. In doing so, we discuss normative implications that may follow from the prospect of such interpretive divergence. We then examine how three circuit courts have used dictionaries and ...


A Concept-Sensitive Managerial Analysis With Law: Applying A Business Concept To A Legal Rule To Identify The Domain Of Business Situations, James E. Holloway Feb 2015

A Concept-Sensitive Managerial Analysis With Law: Applying A Business Concept To A Legal Rule To Identify The Domain Of Business Situations, James E. Holloway

William & Mary Business Law Review

The traditional fact-sensitive managerial analysis with law analyzes business situations to identify legal issues and applies legal rules to facts to make judicial decisions. The fact-sensitive managerial analysis takes decades to identify a family of business situations and lacks the analytical capacity to use business knowledge (concepts) and analytical methods to identify business situations. Alternatively, a concept-sensitive managerial analysis with law increases factual sensitivity by applying a business concept to a legal rule to shorten the duration of identifying an extensive family of business situations. All situations are not useful or effective when making business decisions or managing a business ...


Sovereignty, Territoriality, And The Enforcement Of Foreign Judgments, George Rutherglen, James Y. Stern Jan 2014

Sovereignty, Territoriality, And The Enforcement Of Foreign Judgments, George Rutherglen, James Y. Stern

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Real Legal Realism, Michael Steven Green Jun 2013

The Real Legal Realism, Michael Steven Green

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


Speech, Intent, And The Chilling Effect, Leslie Kendrick Apr 2013

Speech, Intent, And The Chilling Effect, Leslie Kendrick

William & Mary Law Review

Speaker’s intent requirements are a common but unremarked feature of First Amendment law. From the “actual malice” standard for defamation to the specific-intent requirement for incitement, many types of expression are protected or unprotected depending on the state of mind with which they are said. To the extent that courts and commentators have considered why speaker’s intent should determine First Amendment protection, they have relied upon the chilling effect. On this view, imposing strict liability for harmful speech, such as defamatory statements, would overdeter, or chill, valuable speech, such as true political information. Intent requirements are necessary prophylactically ...


Is There Really A Difference Between Justification And Excuse Or Did We Academics Make It Up?, Linda A. Malone Jan 2009

Is There Really A Difference Between Justification And Excuse Or Did We Academics Make It Up?, Linda A. Malone

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Securities Fraud, Recidivism, And Deterrence, Jayne W. Barnard Jul 2008

Securities Fraud, Recidivism, And Deterrence, Jayne W. Barnard

Faculty Publications

Legal scholars have expended considerable energy on the study of high-level securities fraud violators-Ken Lay, Bernie Ebbers, Dennis Kozlowski, etc. There has been little attention, however, to the perpetrators of "retail" securities fraud-the con artists who sell bogus stock over the Internet, orchestrate elaborate pump-and-dump schemes, and create a never-ending array of purportedly "risk free" investment opportunities. Collectively, and in a cruel mockery of capitalism, these offenders extract hundreds of millions dollars from investors each year. In this article, Professor Barnard examines this group of offenders, focusing particularly on those who recidivate-often moving from state to state and scheme to ...


The Failure Of Bowles V. Russell, Scott Dodson Apr 2008

The Failure Of Bowles V. Russell, Scott Dodson

Faculty Publications

The Supreme Court recently decided Bowles v. Russell—perhaps that Term’s most underrated case—which characterized the time to file a civil notice of appeal as jurisdictional and therefore not subject to equitable excuses for noncompliance. In so holding, the Court overstated the supporting precedent, inflated the jurisdictional importance of statutes, and undermined an important recent movement to clarify when a rule is jurisdictional and when it is not. This did not have to be. The Court missed a golden opportunity to chart a middle course—holding the rule mandatory but nonjurisdictional—that would have been more consistent with ...


Charitable Deductions For Rail-Trail Conversions: Reconciling The Partial Interest Rule And The National Trails System Act, Scott Andrew Bowman, Danaya H. Rosenberg Apr 2008

Charitable Deductions For Rail-Trail Conversions: Reconciling The Partial Interest Rule And The National Trails System Act, Scott Andrew Bowman, Danaya H. Rosenberg

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

This Article examines an undeveloped legal topic at the intersection of tax law and real property law: charitable deductions from income tax liability for donations of railroad corridors that are to be converted into recreational trails. The very popular rails-to-trails program assists in the conversion of abandoned railroad corridors into hiking and biking trails. However, the legal questions surrounding the property rights of these corridors have been complex and highly litigated. In 1983, Congress amended the National Trails System Act to provide a mechanism for facilitating these conversions, a process called railbanking. In essence, a railroad transfers its real property ...


Family Structure, Children, And Law, Vivian E. Hamilton Apr 2007

Family Structure, Children, And Law, Vivian E. Hamilton

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Creative Sanctions For Online Investment Fraud, Jayne W. Barnard Jan 2007

Creative Sanctions For Online Investment Fraud, Jayne W. Barnard

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Palazzolo, The Public Trust, And The Property Owner's Reasonable Expectations: Takings And The South Carolina Marsh Island Bridge Debate, Erin Ryan Oct 2006

Palazzolo, The Public Trust, And The Property Owner's Reasonable Expectations: Takings And The South Carolina Marsh Island Bridge Debate, Erin Ryan

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


What Do Snowmobiles, Mercury Emissions, Greenhouse Gases, And Runoff Have In Common?: The Controversy Over "Junk Science", Linda A. Malone Apr 2006

What Do Snowmobiles, Mercury Emissions, Greenhouse Gases, And Runoff Have In Common?: The Controversy Over "Junk Science", Linda A. Malone

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Space, Place, And Speech: The Expressive Topography, Timothy Zick Jan 2006

Space, Place, And Speech: The Expressive Topography, Timothy Zick

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Coercion And Choice Under The Establishment Clause, Cynthia V. Ward Jan 2006

Coercion And Choice Under The Establishment Clause, Cynthia V. Ward

Faculty Publications

In recent Establishment Clause cases the Supreme Court has found nondenominational, state-sponsored prayers unconstitutionally "coercive" -although attendance at the events featuring the prayer was not required by the state; religious dissenters were free to choose not to say the challenged prayers; and dissenters who so chose, or who chose not to attend the events, suffered no state-enforced sanction. Part I of this Article lays out the historical background that gave rise to the coercion test, traces the development of that test in the Court's case law, and isolates the core elements in the vision of coercion that animates the ...


The Best Scientific Evidence Available: The Whaling Moratorium And Divergent Interpretations Of Science, A. W. Harris Feb 2005

The Best Scientific Evidence Available: The Whaling Moratorium And Divergent Interpretations Of Science, A. W. Harris

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.


Communis Opinio And The Method Of Statutory Interpretation: Interpreting Law Or Changing Law, Michael P. Healy Dec 2001

Communis Opinio And The Method Of Statutory Interpretation: Interpreting Law Or Changing Law, Michael P. Healy

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


When Lochner Met Dolan: The Attempted Transformation Of American Land Use Law By Constitutional Interpretation, Ronald H. Rosenberg, Nancy Stroud Jul 2001

When Lochner Met Dolan: The Attempted Transformation Of American Land Use Law By Constitutional Interpretation, Ronald H. Rosenberg, Nancy Stroud

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Allocution For Victims Of Economic Crimes, Jayne W. Barnard Jan 2001

Allocution For Victims Of Economic Crimes, Jayne W. Barnard

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Courtroom Technologies On And In Appellate Proceedings And Courtrooms, Fredric I. Lederer Jul 2000

The Effect Of Courtroom Technologies On And In Appellate Proceedings And Courtrooms, Fredric I. Lederer

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


A Strategy For Mercy, Robert L. Misner Apr 2000

A Strategy For Mercy, Robert L. Misner

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


Journals Of The Century In Law, Christopher Byrne Jan 2000

Journals Of The Century In Law, Christopher Byrne

Library Staff Publications

In this essay I will humbly add my contribution to this vast literature by ranking the twentieth century's best law journals. I am not treading upon virgin ground. Over the past twenty years a number of scholars have ranked law reviews and journals using a variety of methodologies.