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International law

2009

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Articles 1 - 30 of 101

Full-Text Articles in Law

One Spark Can Set A Fire: The Role Of Intent In Incitement To Genocide, Kate Kovarovic Dec 2009

One Spark Can Set A Fire: The Role Of Intent In Incitement To Genocide, Kate Kovarovic

Kate Kovarovic

The world was introduced to an entirely new method of warfare during World War II: that which was fought with words. Hitler mastered the art of media manipulation, and the world struggled to overcome his capacity to influence the German people. After the war, the international community felt compelled to restrict the type of conduct that had enabled Hitler to so easily gain control of his audiences. However, legal scholars struggled to balance this need with the protection of free speech. Eventually, the Genocide Convention was drafted to explicitly prohibit direct and public incitement to genocide, but not mere hate ...


Unsex Cedaw: What's Wrong With "Women's Rights", Darren Rosenblum Nov 2009

Unsex Cedaw: What's Wrong With "Women's Rights", Darren Rosenblum

International & Comparative Law Colloquium Papers

Although the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (“CEDAW” or the “Convention”) has succeeded in some respects, even its supporters acknowledge broad failures. CEDAW’s weakness draws on the titular mistaken diagnosis: “women” are not the issue&#;gender disparities are. The 1970’s drafting of CEDAW focused on bringing women to their place at the international law table. What’s wrong with women’s rights? In the international context, CEDAW attempts to empower women but fails to respect other gender inequality. As the preeminent treaty on gender inequality, CEDAW cannot succeed in creating gender equality ...


Treaty Compliance And Violation, Beth A. Simmons Nov 2009

Treaty Compliance And Violation, Beth A. Simmons

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

International law has enjoyed a recent renaissance as an important subfield of study within international relations. Two trends are evident in the recent literature. First, the obsession with theoretical labels is on the decline. Second, empirical, especially quantitative, work is burgeoning. This article reviews the literature in four issues areas — security, war, and peace; international trade; protection of the environment; and human rights — and concludes we have a much stronger basis for assessing claims about compliance and violation now than was the case only a few years ago. Still, the literature suffers from a few weaknesses, including problems of selection ...


Accountability For Property Crimes And Environmental War Crimes: Prosecution, Litigation, And Development, Mark A. Drumbl Nov 2009

Accountability For Property Crimes And Environmental War Crimes: Prosecution, Litigation, And Development, Mark A. Drumbl

Faculty Scholarship

None available.


Multiple Communities And Controlling Corruption, Philip M. Nichols Oct 2009

Multiple Communities And Controlling Corruption, Philip M. Nichols

Legal Studies and Business Ethics Papers

Corruption presents an assurance problem to businesses: all businesses are best off if none act corruptly but in the event that corruption occurs are better off if they act corruptly than if they do not, and because there is no assurance that other actors are not cheating a business does not know how to act. The usual solution to an assurance problem – criminal sanctions imposed on cheaters – does not work in a corrupt system. Integrative Social Contract Theory suggests a solution to the assurance problem. Application of Integrative Social Contract Theory to corruption demonstrates that in the case of corruption ...


Norm Conflict In International Law: Whither Human Rights?, Marko Milanovic Oct 2009

Norm Conflict In International Law: Whither Human Rights?, Marko Milanovic

Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law

No abstract provided.


Constitutions, International Law, And The Settlement Function Of Law: A Schema For Further Reflection, Larry Alexander Oct 2009

Constitutions, International Law, And The Settlement Function Of Law: A Schema For Further Reflection, Larry Alexander

San Diego International Law Journal

Imagine a community living in a defined geographical area. Its members generally believe that their actions should be guided by moral norms, and they generally comply with those norms as they understand them. And, from our external vantage point, we believe that they are indeed subject to moral norms and should comply with them, both in dealing with each other and with those outside their community....


Through A Russian Looking Glass: The Development Of A Russian Rule Of Law And Democracy, Whitney R. Cale Sep 2009

Through A Russian Looking Glass: The Development Of A Russian Rule Of Law And Democracy, Whitney R. Cale

Whitney R Cale

U.S. policymakers, scholars, and citizens alike, have failed to recognize the reality of Russian law and democracy today. Instead, they have embraced a distorted view that concludes that Russian leadership has “hijacked” Russia. This Article challenges this dominant view arguing arguing that a more nuanced approach to Russia is necessary. Specifically, Russia’s multi-faceted and storied history, and intensely fervent nationalism have formed a unique worldview that provides the lens through which to view that country’s understanding of the rule of law and democracy. It is through this lens that the Russia of today may be reconciled, because ...


"The Distant 'Big' Hospital": Linking Development, Poverty And Reproductive Health-A Gender Mainstreaming Approach, Edith Miguda Sep 2009

"The Distant 'Big' Hospital": Linking Development, Poverty And Reproductive Health-A Gender Mainstreaming Approach, Edith Miguda

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Start: Overcoming Remaining Challenges, Elizabeth Zolotukhina Sep 2009

Start: Overcoming Remaining Challenges, Elizabeth Zolotukhina

Journal of Strategic Security

During the administrations of Presidents George W. Bush and VladimirPutin, the governments of Russia and the United States could not agreeon how to codify their balance of strategic offensive nuclear forces after the existing Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (START) expired onDecember 5, 2009.1 The United States and Russia are currently engagedin negotiations to replace START with a new treaty before the end of this year.


Cyber Apocalypse Now: Securing The Internet Against Cyberterrorism And Using Universal Jurisdiction As A Deterrent, Kelly Gable Aug 2009

Cyber Apocalypse Now: Securing The Internet Against Cyberterrorism And Using Universal Jurisdiction As A Deterrent, Kelly Gable

Kelly Gable

No abstract provided.


Cyber Apocalypse Now: Securing The Internet Against Cyberterrorism And Using Universal Jurisdiction As A Deterrent, Kelly Gable Aug 2009

Cyber Apocalypse Now: Securing The Internet Against Cyberterrorism And Using Universal Jurisdiction As A Deterrent, Kelly Gable

Kelly Gable

No abstract provided.


A No-Excuse Approach To Transitional Justice: Reparations As Tools Of Extraordinary Justice, David C. Gray Aug 2009

A No-Excuse Approach To Transitional Justice: Reparations As Tools Of Extraordinary Justice, David C. Gray

David C. Gray

It is sometimes the case that a debate goes off the rails so early that riders assume the rough country around them is the natural backdrop for their travels. That is certainly true in the debate over reparations in transitions to democracy. Reparations traditionally are understood as material or symbolic awards to victims of an abusive regime granted outside of a legal process. While some reparations claims succeed—such as those made by Americans of Japanese decent interned during World War II and those made by European Jews against Germany after World War II—most do not. The principal culprits ...


Rule-Skepticism, "Strategery," And The Limits Of International Law, David Gray Aug 2009

Rule-Skepticism, "Strategery," And The Limits Of International Law, David Gray

David C. Gray

This is a review essay of Eric Posner and Jack Goldsmith's fascinating book, The Limits of International Law. In the essay I provide an exegesis of the core argument of the book, which is that the conduct of states in fields occupied by international law is more powerfully described by game theory than by law talk. In particular, the authors argue that state conduct traditionally described in terms of obedience and violation is actually determined by self-interest modified by the strategic conditions of identifiable games; principally coincidence games, coordination games, coercion games, and iterated prisoner dilemmas. In the essay ...


Reproductive Rights In The Legal Academy: A New Role For Transnational Law, Martha F. Davis, Bethany Withers Aug 2009

Reproductive Rights In The Legal Academy: A New Role For Transnational Law, Martha F. Davis, Bethany Withers

Journal of Legal Education

No abstract provided.


Legal Education Reform In China Through U.S.-Inspired Transplants, Matthew S. Erie Aug 2009

Legal Education Reform In China Through U.S.-Inspired Transplants, Matthew S. Erie

Journal of Legal Education

No abstract provided.


A Unified Theory Of International Law, The State, And The Individual: Transnational Legal Harmonization In The Context Of Economic And Legal Globalization, James D. Wilets Jul 2009

A Unified Theory Of International Law, The State, And The Individual: Transnational Legal Harmonization In The Context Of Economic And Legal Globalization, James D. Wilets

James D Wilets

This article presents an original theory of international law that reconciles the norm-making processes occurring at the international, state and individual level. It is the central thesis of this paper that economic globalization is not happening in a vacuum, but is rather engendering legal globalization, much in the way that centralized regulation followed trans-state economic globalization within the United States and Europe.

Traditional definitions of international do not address this phenomenon and consider these new forms of transnational norm creation as simply exceptions to the general rule that international law is created by nation-states within the framework of multinational institutions ...


Influenza A(H1n1) And Pandemic Preparedness Under The Rule Of International Law, Lawrence O. Gostin Jul 2009

Influenza A(H1n1) And Pandemic Preparedness Under The Rule Of International Law, Lawrence O. Gostin

O'Neill Institute Papers

A novel strain of Influenza A (H1N1) spread rapidly through Mexico in April 2009 and now spans the globe. By the time WHO was notified and responded, geographical containment was not feasible, leading the agency to call for mitigation. The international outbreak of SARS in 2003 and the more recent Influenza A (H5N1) among birds with limited transmission to humans helped prepare the world for the current pandemic threat. SARS galvanized the WHO to revise the antiquated International Health Regulations (IHR) in 2005, which took effect June 15, 2007. Governments instituted preparedness plans in response to avian influenza.

Despite increased ...


Book Review: The Iraq War And International Law, Maxwell O. Chibundu Jul 2009

Book Review: The Iraq War And International Law, Maxwell O. Chibundu

Faculty Scholarship

A review of The Iraq War and International Law edited by Phil Shiner and Andrew Williams. Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2008.


Constitutionalization And The Unity Of The Law Of International Responsibility, André Nolkaemper Jul 2009

Constitutionalization And The Unity Of The Law Of International Responsibility, André Nolkaemper

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

The law of international responsibility fulfills essentially two functions: reparation for injury and protection of the rule of law and global order. Notwithstanding the fundamental difference between these objectives, the law of international responsibility traditionally has been conceived in unitary norms consisting of a single set of principles that applies to all breaches of rules of international law. With the further development of international law that unity becomes difficult to maintain. On the one hand, there is an increasing need for a further refinement of liability principles for the determination of compensation for injury. On the other hand, the process ...


When Common Interests Are Not Common: Why The Global Basic Structure Should Be Democratic, Andreas Føllesdal Jul 2009

When Common Interests Are Not Common: Why The Global Basic Structure Should Be Democratic, Andreas Føllesdal

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

The global constitution-the fundamental international norms and structures that serve constitutional functions-should include mechanisms of democratic contestation and accountability. This central claim of global constitutionalism faces three objections extrapolated from arguments made by Andrew Moravcsik and Giandomenico Majone in debates about the democratic deficit of the European Union (EU): the global constitution only regulates issues of low salience for citizens; democratic control is explicitly counter to the self-binding system that international regulations aim to achieve; and the EU's track record suggests that democratic control at the international level may be unnecessary to ensure congruence between voters' preferences and actual ...


Introduction: Global Constitutionalism From An Interdisciplinary Perspective, Anne Peters, Klaus Armingeon Jul 2009

Introduction: Global Constitutionalism From An Interdisciplinary Perspective, Anne Peters, Klaus Armingeon

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

Global Constitutionalism – Process and Substance, Symposium. Kandersteg, Switzerland, January 17-20, 2008


The Merits Of Global Constitutionalism, Anne Peters Jul 2009

The Merits Of Global Constitutionalism, Anne Peters

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

Global constitutionalism is an agenda that identifies and advocates for the application of constitutionalist principles in the international legal sphere. Global constitutionalization is the gradual emergence of constitutionalist features in international law. Critics of global constitutionalism doubt the empirical reality of constitutionalization, call into question the analytic value of constitutionalism as an academic approach, and fear that the discourse is normatively dangerous because it is anti-pluralist, artificially creates a false legitimacy, and promises an unrealistic end of politics. This article addresses these objections. I argue that global constitutionalization is likely to compensate for globalization induced constitutionalist deficits on the national ...


Constitutionalism, Legal Pluralism, And International Regimes, Alec Stone Sweet Jul 2009

Constitutionalism, Legal Pluralism, And International Regimes, Alec Stone Sweet

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

The international legal order, although pluralist in structure, is in the process of being constitutionalized. This article supports this claim in several different ways. In the Part L I argue that most accepted understandings of "constitution" would readily apply to at least some international regimes. In Part II,I discuss different notions of "constitutional pluralism," and demonstrate that legal pluralism is not necessarily antithetical to constitutionalism. In fact, one finds a great deal of constitutional pluralism within national legal orders in Europe. Part III puts forward an argument that the European Court of Justice, the European Court of Human Rights ...


Multilayered Governance, Pluralism, And Moral Conflict, Thomas Cottier Jul 2009

Multilayered Governance, Pluralism, And Moral Conflict, Thomas Cottier

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

The quest for multilayered governance faces the problem of endemic tensions and disagreements in international relations and doubts as to whether nations truly share common values upon which an international society can be solidly built. Values, however, are equally controversial within the nation-state. We find similar tensions within domestic and regional layers of governance. In any system of governance, diverging and competing values are inevitable. There are differences in degree, but not in principle, when comparing traits of domestic and international governance. Legal experience in the fields of human rights and international trade regulation indicates that under such conditions, procedures ...


A Look At Traditional Islam's General Discord With A Permanent System Of Global Cooperation, Meghan E. Tepas Jul 2009

A Look At Traditional Islam's General Discord With A Permanent System Of Global Cooperation, Meghan E. Tepas

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

In today's world, nation-states do not operate in isolation. Rather, the myriad global organizations and cross-border treaties evidence that the post-World War II political climate is one of interconnectedness and cooperation between states. Against this backdrop, this Note surveys the tension between the current global world order and a strict adherence to traditional source-based application of Islamic law, Shari'a. The tension begins with the concept of statehood, seemingly absent in traditional Islam, and continues with the Islamic unification of religion and state and its limited role for a political leader. Using Iran as an example, this Note argues ...


International Rule Of Law And Constitutional Justice In International Investment Law And Arbitration, Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann Jul 2009

International Rule Of Law And Constitutional Justice In International Investment Law And Arbitration, Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

Judicial administration of justice through reasoned interpretation, application and clarification of legal principles and rules is among the oldest paradigms of constitutional justice. The principles of procedural justice underlying investor-state arbitration remain controversial, especially if confidentiality and party autonomy governing commercial arbitration risk neglecting adversely affected third parties and public interests. There are also concerns that rule-following and formal equality of foreign investors and home states may not ensure substantive justice in the settlement of investment disputes unless arbitrators and courts take more seriously their customary law obligation of settling disputes in conformity with human rights obligations of governments and ...


Defragmentation Of Public International Law Through Interpretation: A Methodological Proposal, Anne Van Aaken Jul 2009

Defragmentation Of Public International Law Through Interpretation: A Methodological Proposal, Anne Van Aaken

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

Fragmentation of public international law (PIL) is perceived as a growing problem and answers to it are proliferating. International courts and tribunals are adjudicating ever more on issues that would be considered-were they not transnational or international in nature-constitutional problems. In national law, countervailing values, or intra-constitutional conflicts, are reconciled through a balancing of those values that is usually embedded in the application of the proportionality principle. A similar mechanism in PIL remains underdeveloped from a methodological point of view. This article aims to develop a methodological proposal for defragmentation through interpretation, drawing on legal theory, to be more precise ...


Civil Rights In International Law: Compliance With Aspects Of The "International Bill Of Rights", Beth Simmons Jul 2009

Civil Rights In International Law: Compliance With Aspects Of The "International Bill Of Rights", Beth Simmons

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

International law has developed what many might consider a constitutional understanding of individual civil rights that individuals can claim vis-à-vis their own governments. This article discusses the development of aspects of international law relating to civil rights and argues that if this body of law is meaningful, we should see evidence of links between acceptance of international legal obligation and domestic practices. Recognizing that external forms of enforcement of civil rights is unlikely (because doing so is not generally in the interest of potential "enforcers"), I argue that international civil rights treaties will have their greatest effect where stakeholders-local citizens-have ...


Book Review: The Iraq War And International Law, Maxwell O. Chibundu Jun 2009

Book Review: The Iraq War And International Law, Maxwell O. Chibundu

Maxwell O. Chibundu

A review of The Iraq War and International Law edited by Phil Shiner and Andrew Williams. Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2008.