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Full-Text Articles in Law

Where And How To Draw The Line Between Reasonable Corporal Punishment And Abuse, Doriane Lambelet Coleman, Kenneth A. Dodge, Sarah Keeton Campbell Apr 2010

Where And How To Draw The Line Between Reasonable Corporal Punishment And Abuse, Doriane Lambelet Coleman, Kenneth A. Dodge, Sarah Keeton Campbell

Law and Contemporary Problems

No abstract provided.


How Much Evidence Is Enough? Conventions Of Causal Inference, David Kriebel Jan 2009

How Much Evidence Is Enough? Conventions Of Causal Inference, David Kriebel

Law and Contemporary Problems

One of the most important issues for science in the courtroom is the determination of causality. Like science in the courtroom, science in the regulatory arena can also bring a clash of cultures, misunderstanding, and controversy--especially when decisions must be made with some urgency with interested parties watching closely. Here, Kriebel discusses some conventions in the conduct of science and in the ways that scientific information is communicated to nonscientists that can make it difficult for judges, lawyers, regulators, and politicians to do their jobs making decisions about complex environmental and health issues.


How Does Science Come To Speak In The Courts? Citations Intertexts, Expert Witnesses, Consequential Facts, And Reasoning, Charles Bazerman Jan 2009

How Does Science Come To Speak In The Courts? Citations Intertexts, Expert Witnesses, Consequential Facts, And Reasoning, Charles Bazerman

Law and Contemporary Problems

Citations, in their highly conventionalized forms, visibly indicate each texts explicit use of the prior literature that embodies the knowledge and contentions of its field. This relation to prior texts has been called intertextuality in literary and literacy studies. Here, Bazerman discusses the citation practices and intertextuality in science and the law in theoretical and historical perspective, and considers the intersection of science and law by identifying the judicial rules that limit and shape the role of scientific literature in court proceedings. He emphasizes that from the historical and theoretical analysis, it is clear that, in the US, judicial reasoning ...


Trials And Tribulations: What Happens When Historians Enter The Courtroom, David Rosner Jan 2009

Trials And Tribulations: What Happens When Historians Enter The Courtroom, David Rosner

Law and Contemporary Problems

In recent years, historians have been brought into legal cases in unprecedented numbers. As the courts have tried to adjudicate responsibility for environmental and occupational diseases, history has played an increasingly central role in decisions that affect the cases themselves and in social policy regarding risk. In suits over tobacco-related diseases, asbestosis, radiation, and other toxic substances, more historians of technology and science, social history, and public health are being sought to provide testimony aimed at assessing responsibility for damages that have arisen years--sometimes decades--after exposure. Here, Rosner traces the use of historians as experts in litigation.


Essay: Conventions In Science And In The Courts: Images And Realities, Jerome R. Ravetz Jan 2009

Essay: Conventions In Science And In The Courts: Images And Realities, Jerome R. Ravetz

Law and Contemporary Problems

No abstract provided.


Irreconcilable Differences? The Troubled Marriage Of Science And Law, Susan Haack Jan 2009

Irreconcilable Differences? The Troubled Marriage Of Science And Law, Susan Haack

Law and Contemporary Problems

There haven't always been scientific witnesses: in fact, there haven't always been witnesses. In early medieval times, courts relied on tests by oath, ordeal, and sometimes by combat. Here, Haack provides a brief historical background to the use of scientific experts in law and then proceeds to discuss in greater detail the values underlying scientific inquiry, the uncertainty in the quest of knowledge and understanding, and the methods by which consensus is reached, even if that consensus is always tentative. She then contrasts scientific inquiry with the law's quest for "truth" in the courtroom and, particularly, the ...


The Arts Of Persuasion In Science And Law: Conflicting Norms In The Courtroom, Herbert M. Kritzer Jan 2009

The Arts Of Persuasion In Science And Law: Conflicting Norms In The Courtroom, Herbert M. Kritzer

Law and Contemporary Problems

Epistemology is important in the debate about science and technology in the courtroom. The epistemological issues and the arguments about them in the context of scientific and technical evidence are now well developed. Of equal importance, though, is an understanding of norms of persuasion and how those norms may differ across disciplines and groups. Norms of persuasion in the courtroom and in legal briefs differ from norms at a scientific conference and in scientific journals. Here, Kritzer examines the disconnect between science and the courtroom in terms of the differing norms of persuasion found within the scientific community and within ...


Science, Law And The Expert Witness, Joseph Sanders Jan 2009

Science, Law And The Expert Witness, Joseph Sanders

Law and Contemporary Problems

Expert witnessing is a particularly useful place to observe the clash of legal and scientific conventions because it is here that one group of people (scientific experts) who are integrated into one set of conventions are challenged by the expectations of a different set of conventions. Here, Sanders looks at how legal conventions affect the behavior of expert witnesses when they appear in court in both criminal and civil cases. He also reviews differences in scientific and legal conventions as they apply to expert knowledge and discusses two central reasons for these differences: adversarialism and closure.


Merton And The Hot Tub: Scientific Conventions And Expert Evidence In Australian Civil Procedure, Gary Edmond Jan 2009

Merton And The Hot Tub: Scientific Conventions And Expert Evidence In Australian Civil Procedure, Gary Edmond

Law and Contemporary Problems

Recently in Australia, common-law judges began to modify the way expert evidence is prepared and presented. Judges from a range of civil jurisdictions have conscientiously sought to reduce expert partisanship and the extent of expert disagreement in an attempt to enhance procedural efficiency and improve access to justice. One of these reforms, concurrent evidence, enables expert witnesses to participate in a joint session with considerable testimonial latitude. This represents a shift away from an adversarial approach and a conscientious attempt to foster scientific values and norms. Here, Edmond describes how changes to Australian civil procedure, motivated by judicial concerns about ...


Revisiting The Legal Link Between Genetics And Crime, Deborah W. Denno Apr 2006

Revisiting The Legal Link Between Genetics And Crime, Deborah W. Denno

Law and Contemporary Problems

In 1994, convicted murderer Stephen Mobley became a cause celebre when he appealed his death sentence before the Georgia Supreme Court in the case of Mobley v. State. Denno describes the potential implications arising from the high-profile case of Stephen Mobley. He sought to introduce a then-cutting-edge theory that violence could be based on a genetic or neurochemical abnormality as mitigating evidence during capital sentencing.


Behavioral Genetics Research And Criminal Dna Databases, D. H. Kaye Apr 2006

Behavioral Genetics Research And Criminal Dna Databases, D. H. Kaye

Law and Contemporary Problems

Kaye discusses DNA databanks and the potential use of such databanks for behavioral genetics research. He addresses the concern that DNA databanks serve as a limitless repository for future research and that the samples used in the databanks could be used for research into a crime gene.


Genetic Predictions Of Future Dangerousness: Is There A Blueprint For Violence?, Erica Beecher-Monas, Edgar Garcia-Rill Apr 2006

Genetic Predictions Of Future Dangerousness: Is There A Blueprint For Violence?, Erica Beecher-Monas, Edgar Garcia-Rill

Law and Contemporary Problems

Beecher-Monas and Garcia-Rill consider the unfortunate probability that behavioral genetics evidence will be misused to substantiate predictions of future dangerousness.


“Regulatory Daubert”: A Proposal To Enhance Judicial Review Of Agency Science By Incorporating Daubert Principles Into Administrative Law, Alan Charles Raul, Julie Zampa Dwyer Oct 2003

“Regulatory Daubert”: A Proposal To Enhance Judicial Review Of Agency Science By Incorporating Daubert Principles Into Administrative Law, Alan Charles Raul, Julie Zampa Dwyer

Law and Contemporary Problems

In Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc, the US Supreme Court empowered federal judges to reject irrelevant or unreliable scientific evidence. Daubert provides a suitable framework for reviewing the quality of agency science and the soundness of agency decisions consistent with the standards established for review of agency rulemakings under the Administrative Procedure Act.


On The Prospect Of “Daubertizing” Judicial Review Of Risk Assessment, Thomas O. Mcgarity Oct 2003

On The Prospect Of “Daubertizing” Judicial Review Of Risk Assessment, Thomas O. Mcgarity

Law and Contemporary Problems

Lawyers for companies subject to federal health, safety and environmental regulation hope that stringent substantive judicial review will relieve their clients of the burdens of much regulation without the need for troublesome legislative battles they seem unable to win. McGarity argues that assigning a Daubert-like (Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc) gatekeeper role to courts engaged in judicial review of agency risk assessments is a profoundly bad idea.


Forensic Interviews Of Children: The Components Of Scientific Validity And Legal Admissibility, Nancy E. Walker Jan 2002

Forensic Interviews Of Children: The Components Of Scientific Validity And Legal Admissibility, Nancy E. Walker

Law and Contemporary Problems

The problems associated with assessments of children's reports of victimization in criminal proceedings came to national attention during the 1980s and 1990s in a series of highly publicized trials of daycare staff. Walker describes information that professionals need to know if they are to conduct valid interview of children in forensic contexts.


Good Enough For Government Work: The Constitutional Duty To Preserve Forensic Interviews Of Child Victims, Lucy S. Mcgough Jan 2002

Good Enough For Government Work: The Constitutional Duty To Preserve Forensic Interviews Of Child Victims, Lucy S. Mcgough

Law and Contemporary Problems

McGough proceeds with the confidence on the premise that a forensic interview of a child by a member of the prosecutorial team offers many opportunities for compromising the reliability of the child's remembered account. A vast volume of research data now exists that documents the conclusion that the forensic interviewing of children is a very delicate, sophisticated, and high-risk enterprise.


Child Witness Policy: Law Interfacing With Social Science, Dorothy F. Marsil, Jean Montoya, David Ross, Louise Graham Jan 2002

Child Witness Policy: Law Interfacing With Social Science, Dorothy F. Marsil, Jean Montoya, David Ross, Louise Graham

Law and Contemporary Problems

The number of children testifying in court has posed serious practical and legal problems for the judicial system. One problem confronting the courts is how to protect children from experiencing the psychological trauma resulting from face-to-face confrontation with a defendant who may have physically harmed the child or threatened future harm to the child.


The Conundrum Of Children, Confrontation, And Hearsay, Richard D. Friedman Jan 2002

The Conundrum Of Children, Confrontation, And Hearsay, Richard D. Friedman

Law and Contemporary Problems

The adjudication of child abuse claims poses an excruciatingly difficult conundrum. In many cases, a large part of the problem is that the prosecution's case depends critically on the statement or testimony of a young child.


Hearsay Exceptions: Adjusting The Ratio Of Intuition To Psychological Science, John E. B. Myers, Ingrid Cordon, Simona Ghetti, Gail S. Goodman Jan 2002

Hearsay Exceptions: Adjusting The Ratio Of Intuition To Psychological Science, John E. B. Myers, Ingrid Cordon, Simona Ghetti, Gail S. Goodman

Law and Contemporary Problems

Myers explores hearsay exeptions by examining three exceptions: excited utterances, statements for purposes of diagnosis or treatment, and the residual hearsay exception. The focus is child declarants, and these exceptions play key roles in child abuse litigation.


The Maturation And Disintegration Of The Hearsay Exception For Statements For Medical Examination In Child Sexual Abuse Cases, Robert P. Mosteller Jan 2002

The Maturation And Disintegration Of The Hearsay Exception For Statements For Medical Examination In Child Sexual Abuse Cases, Robert P. Mosteller

Law and Contemporary Problems

Mosteller examines the treatment of children as victims and witnesses in criminal trials, most frequently involving sexual abuse, over the last quarter of the twentieth century, and from that experience, to draw lessons. He also examines what has been learned about the hearsay exception for "statements for purposes of medical diagnosis of treatment."


Applying Suggestibility Research To The Real World: The Case Of Repeated Questions, Thomas D. Lyon Jan 2002

Applying Suggestibility Research To The Real World: The Case Of Repeated Questions, Thomas D. Lyon

Law and Contemporary Problems

One can discern two parallel trends in the law and the psychology of child witnesses. In the law, appellate courts are beginning to stem the once powerful movement to increase the acceptance of children's testimony and the admissibility of children's out-of-court statements. Lyon analyzes particular strands of each trend.


Why Children’S Suggestibility Remains A Serious Concern, Amye R. Warren, Dorothy F. Marsil Jan 2002

Why Children’S Suggestibility Remains A Serious Concern, Amye R. Warren, Dorothy F. Marsil

Law and Contemporary Problems

Warren and Marsil focus on six areas representing some of the most intractable problems that will require further attention from scientists and practitioners alike. Research on child witnesses is highlighted, concentrating primarily on studies published or presented in the past ten years.


Scientific Ignorance And Reliable Patterns Of Evidence In Toxic Tort Causation: Is There A Need For Liability Reform?, Carl F. Cranor, David A. Eastmond Oct 2001

Scientific Ignorance And Reliable Patterns Of Evidence In Toxic Tort Causation: Is There A Need For Liability Reform?, Carl F. Cranor, David A. Eastmond

Law and Contemporary Problems

As a first step to preserving the central aims of tort law, courts will need to recognize the wide variety of respectable, reliable patterns of evidence on which scientists themselves rely for drawing inferences about the toxicity of substances. Courts may also need to take further steps to address the woeful ignorance about the chemical universe. This may necessitate changes in the liability rules.


The Swine Flu Vaccine And Guillain-Barré Syndrome: A Case Study In Relative Risk And Specific Causation, David A. Freedman, Philip B. Stark Oct 2001

The Swine Flu Vaccine And Guillain-Barré Syndrome: A Case Study In Relative Risk And Specific Causation, David A. Freedman, Philip B. Stark

Law and Contemporary Problems

This article discusses the role of epidemiologic evidence in toxic tort cases, focusing on relative risk. Whether specific causation can be inferred if a relative risk is above 2.0 is discussed. The object is to explore the scientific logic behind intuitions of relative risk.


The Admissibility Of Differential Diagnosis Testimony To Prove Causation In Toxic Tort Cases: The Interplay Of Adjective And Substantive Law, Joseph Sanders, Julie Machal-Fulks Oct 2001

The Admissibility Of Differential Diagnosis Testimony To Prove Causation In Toxic Tort Cases: The Interplay Of Adjective And Substantive Law, Joseph Sanders, Julie Machal-Fulks

Law and Contemporary Problems

This article uses the differential diagnosis opinions to explore a pair of interrelationships. The basic causal framework employed by most courts in toxic tort cases is presented. A key to understanding the developing case law in this area is to appreciate the degree to which the courts have adopted the interpretive conventions of science in assessing admissibility.


Too Many Probabilities: Statistical Evidence Of Tort Causation, David W. Barnes Oct 2001

Too Many Probabilities: Statistical Evidence Of Tort Causation, David W. Barnes

Law and Contemporary Problems

Medical scientific testimony is often expressed in terms of two different probabilities: 1. The increased probability of harm if a person is exposed, for example, to a toxin. 2. The observed relationship is an artifact of the experimental method. This article demonstrates that neither probability, taken alone or together, measures whether the "preponderance of the evidence" test is met.


Assessing Causation In Breast Implant Litigation: The Role Of Science Panels, Laural L. Hooper, Joe S. Cecil, Thomas E. Willging Oct 2001

Assessing Causation In Breast Implant Litigation: The Role Of Science Panels, Laural L. Hooper, Joe S. Cecil, Thomas E. Willging

Law and Contemporary Problems

In two recent cases, federal judges appointed panels of scientific experts to help assess conflicting scientific testimony regarding causation of systemic injuries by silicone gel breast implants. This article will describe the circumstances that gave rise to the appointments, the procedures followed in making the appointments and reporting to the courts, and the reactions of the participants in the proceedings.


Of Cherries, Fudge, And Onions: Science And Its Courtroom Perversion, David W. Peterson, John M. Conley Oct 2001

Of Cherries, Fudge, And Onions: Science And Its Courtroom Perversion, David W. Peterson, John M. Conley

Law and Contemporary Problems

The thesis of this article is that the Supreme Court decision in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc.'s focus on the scientific method, however rigorously applied, invites certain classes of abuses. There are instances in which evidence can be made to look more scientific by a process that in fact and substance makes is utterly unscientific.


Kumho And How We Know, Joseph Sanders Jul 2001

Kumho And How We Know, Joseph Sanders

Law and Contemporary Problems

No abstract provided.


Upsetting The Balance Between Adverse Interests: The Impact Of The Supreme Court’S Trilogy On Expert Testimony In Toxic Tort Litigation, Margaret A. Berger Jul 2001

Upsetting The Balance Between Adverse Interests: The Impact Of The Supreme Court’S Trilogy On Expert Testimony In Toxic Tort Litigation, Margaret A. Berger

Law and Contemporary Problems

No abstract provided.