Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Economics

Discipline
Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 2012

Full-Text Articles in Law

Is Antitrust's Consumer Welfare Principle Imperiled?, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Jun 2018

Is Antitrust's Consumer Welfare Principle Imperiled?, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship

Antitrust’s consumer welfare principle stands for the proposition that antitrust policy should encourage markets to produce output as high as is consistent with sustainable competition, and prices that are accordingly as low. Such a policy does not protect every interest group. For example, it opposes the interests of cartels or other competition-limiting associations who profit from lower output and higher prices. It also runs counter to the interest of less competitive firms that need higher prices in order to survive. Market structure is relevant to antitrust policy, but its importance is contingent rather than absolute – that is, market structure ...


Investment Spending And Gdp, Kevin Zaldivar Jun 2018

Investment Spending And Gdp, Kevin Zaldivar

Celebration of Learning

This study's mission is to give a modern day analysis to investment spending and to provide insight to the degree of impact certain investments have on our GDP. This should interest local,state,and federal policy makers as well as anyone who practices their civic duty.


A 2016 Copa America Bump For Major League Soccer? Strengthening The Case For Legal Action Arising From The Corrupted 2022 World Cup Bid, Jeff Todd, R. Todd Jewell Apr 2018

A 2016 Copa America Bump For Major League Soccer? Strengthening The Case For Legal Action Arising From The Corrupted 2022 World Cup Bid, Jeff Todd, R. Todd Jewell

William & Mary Business Law Review

Governmental and private investigations have generated evidence of corruption in the bidding process to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, which went to Qatar rather than the United States. One economic study has shown an increase in professional soccer attendance in European countries that host the World Cup and the European Championships. Accordingly, Major League Soccer and its investor-operators could pursue tort and unfair competition claims to argue that denial of a 2022 World Cup USA will result in lowered attendance, and thus lost profits and diminished business value. Key differences in American and European soccer leagues and sports markets ...


Be Careful What You Wish For? Reducing Inequality In The Twenty-First Century, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Orli K. Avi-Yonah Apr 2018

Be Careful What You Wish For? Reducing Inequality In The Twenty-First Century, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Orli K. Avi-Yonah

Michigan Law Review

A review of Walter Scheidel, The Great Leveler: Violence and the History of Inequality from the Stone Age to the Twenty-First Century.


An Identity Theory Of The Short- And Long-Term Investor Debate, Claire A. Hill Feb 2018

An Identity Theory Of The Short- And Long-Term Investor Debate, Claire A. Hill

Seattle University Law Review

Economics famously treats market actors as homogeneous. People are homo economicus, rational self-interested maximizers of their own utility. So far, so good, notwithstanding supposed behavioral “deviations” from rationality (more on those later). That people can view their own utility very differently from one another is recognized in theory, but not so much in practice. Also not sufficiently recognized is the extent to which people’s views of their own utility reflect their theories of who they are and how the world works, and that they hold such views and theories not just atomistically, but also collectively—that is, socially.


Contract, Promise, And The Right Of Redress, Andrew S. Gold Feb 2018

Contract, Promise, And The Right Of Redress, Andrew S. Gold

William & Mary Business Law Review

This Essay reviews Nathan Oman’s recent book, The Dignity of Commerce. The book is compelling, and it makes an important and original contribution to contract theory—a contribution that insightfully shows how markets matter. Yet, in the course of developing a market-centered justification for contract law, The Dignity of Commerce also downplays the significance of consent and promissory morality. In both cases, the book’s argument is problematic, but this Essay will address questions of promissory morality. Oman contends that promise-based accounts struggle with contract law’s bilateralism and with its private standing doctrine. Yet, promissory morality is a ...


A Pragmatist’S View Of Promissory Law With A Focus On Consent And Reliance, Robert A. Hillman Feb 2018

A Pragmatist’S View Of Promissory Law With A Focus On Consent And Reliance, Robert A. Hillman

William & Mary Business Law Review

This Article discusses Professor Nate Oman’s excellent new book, The Dignity of Commerce, which makes an impressive case for how markets can produce “desirable” outcomes for society. In addition to a comprehensive account of what he calls “virtues” of markets, such as their tendency to produce cooperation, trust, and wealth, the book is full of useful and persuasive supporting information and discussions.

Oman is not only a fan of markets, but he asserts that markets are the “center” of contract theory, and provide its normative foundation. Elaborating, Oman concludes that “contract law exists primarily to support markets” and that ...


Does Contract Law Need Morality?, Kimberly D. Krawiec, Wenhao Liu Feb 2018

Does Contract Law Need Morality?, Kimberly D. Krawiec, Wenhao Liu

William & Mary Business Law Review

In The Dignity of Commerce, Nathan Oman sets out an ambitious market theory of contract, which he argues is a superior normative foundation for contract law than either the moralist or economic justifications that currently dominate contract theory. In doing so, he sets out a robust defense of commerce and the marketplace as contributing to human flourishing that is a refreshing and welcome contribution in an era of market alarmism. But the market theory ultimately falls short as either a normative or prescriptive theory of contract. The extent to which law, public policy, and theory should account for values other ...


Whatever Did Happen To The Antitrust Movement?, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Feb 2018

Whatever Did Happen To The Antitrust Movement?, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship

Antitrust in the United States today is caught between its pursuit of technical rules designed to define and implement defensible economic goals, and increasing calls for a new antitrust “movement.” The goals of this movement have been variously defined as combating industrial concentration, limiting the economic or political power of large firms, correcting the maldistribution of wealth, control of high profits, increasing wages, or protection of small business. High output and low consumer prices are typically unmentioned.

In the 1960s the great policy historian Richard Hofstadter lamented the passing of the antitrust “movement” as one of the “faded passions of ...


Martin Luther King Jr. On Economy, Ecology, And Civilization: Toward A Mlk Jr-Inspired Ecotheology, Theodore Walker Jan 2018

Martin Luther King Jr. On Economy, Ecology, And Civilization: Toward A Mlk Jr-Inspired Ecotheology, Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

This MLK Jr-inspired ecotheology [eco-theology] connects “economics,” “ecology,” and “ecological civilization” to the theological ethics of Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

Though we often remember King primarily as a domestic civil rights leader; attention to King’s book—Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? (1967) reveals that he advanced a global ethics. King called for replacing recourse to war with nonviolent resistance to evil, and for abolishing poverty throughout “the world house.” He prescribed that we “civilize ourselves by the total, direct and immediate abolition of poverty.” King was concerned with civilizing “the world house” (house ...


Stock Market Manipulation And Its Regulation, Merritt B. Fox, Lawrence R. Glosten, Gabriel Rauterberg Jan 2018

Stock Market Manipulation And Its Regulation, Merritt B. Fox, Lawrence R. Glosten, Gabriel Rauterberg

Articles

More than eighty years after federal law first addressed stock market manipulation, the federal courts remain fractured by disagreement and confusion concerning manipulation law's most foundational issues. There remains, for example, a sharp split among the federal circuits concerning manipulation law's central question: Whether trading activity alone can ever be considered illegal manipulation under federal law? Academics have been similarly confused-economists and legal scholars cannot agree on whether manipulation is even possible in principle, let alone on how to properly address it in practice.


Technology-Based? Cost Factoring In U.S. Environmental Standards, Jamison E. Colburn Nov 2017

Technology-Based? Cost Factoring In U.S. Environmental Standards, Jamison E. Colburn

Michigan Journal of Environmental & Administrative Law

Environmental controls in the United States are often said to be “technology-based” because the polluter’s duties are determined by the available technology for controlling that pollution rather than by the social costs and benefits of doing so. Indeed, this is much of what distinguishes U.S. environmental law post-1970 from that which preceded it. But technology-based standards have in fact weighed the costs of controlling pollution in unique, often obscure ways, yielding an analysis that defies standardization and basic notions of transparency. Often lumped under an umbrella heading called “feasibility” analysis and justified on the grounds that it avoids ...


Social Value Orientation And The Law, Rebecca Hollander-Blumoff Nov 2017

Social Value Orientation And The Law, Rebecca Hollander-Blumoff

William & Mary Law Review

Social value orientation is a psychological trait defined as an individual’s natural preference with respect to the allocation of resources. Law and economics scholarship takes as its starting point the rational actor, who is by definition interested solely in maximizing her own personal utility. But social psychology research demonstrates that, in study after study, approximately half of individuals demonstrate a “prosocial” orientation, meaning that they are interested in maximizing the total outcome of the group and are dedicated to an equal split of resources. Only around a quarter of individuals identify as “proself” individualists who prefer to maximize their ...


Spillovers Theory And Its Conceptual Boundaries, Brett Frischmann Sep 2017

Spillovers Theory And Its Conceptual Boundaries, Brett Frischmann

Brett Frischmann

No abstract provided.


The Retirement Strategy Of Supreme Court Justices: An Economic Approach, Kayla M. Joyce Apr 2017

The Retirement Strategy Of Supreme Court Justices: An Economic Approach, Kayla M. Joyce

Honors Scholar Theses

Previous research has identified strategic behavior in the nomination, confirmation, and retirement processes of the Supreme Court, each independently. This paper analyzes the interaction between the justices, the president, and the Senate in these processes. I constructed a game theoretic model to consider the nomination and approval process of Supreme Court justices and the change in dynamics that might result from an impending election. I hypothesize that sitting justices take into account the party affiliations of the president and the Senate when they are deciding whether it is the optimal time to retire to achieve their own strategic objectives. The ...


Using Signal Theory To Determine Nonobviousness Of Inventions, Michael O'Brien, Idonah Molina Apr 2017

Using Signal Theory To Determine Nonobviousness Of Inventions, Michael O'Brien, Idonah Molina

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Doux Commerce, Religion, And The Limits Of Antidiscrimination Law, Nathan B. Oman Apr 2017

Doux Commerce, Religion, And The Limits Of Antidiscrimination Law, Nathan B. Oman

Faculty Publications

Recent cases involving religious businesses owners who object to providing services for same-sex weddings and resulting lawsuits have generated a vigorous academic and popular debate. That debate centers in part on the proper role of religion in the market. This article develops three theories of the proper relationship between commerce and religion and applies them to these conflicts. The first approach would apply the norms of liberal democratic governments to market actors. The second approach posits that any market outcome is legitimate so long as it results from voluntary contracts. These approaches yield contradictory and indeterminate advice on the conflicts ...


The Secular Benefits Of Comparative Religious Education, Wen Jie (Fred) Tan Apr 2017

The Secular Benefits Of Comparative Religious Education, Wen Jie (Fred) Tan

Brigham Young University Prelaw Review

This paper builds on current literature surrounding the need for increased religious freedom. Theories on conflict and threat describe how peace and religious freedom must be preceded by religious understanding. However, it is erroneous and presumptuous to claim that such religious understanding will increase naturally without intentional policies facilitating a climate tolerance and acceptance. Taboos limit governments' interaction with religion. It will be shown how secular benefits that religious freedom brings provide strong justification for cooperation between both institutions. A policy of comparative religious education improves mutual religious understanding and helps bring about increased economic growth and national security. Because ...


Taxing Wealth Seriously, Edward J. Mccaffery Jan 2017

Taxing Wealth Seriously, Edward J. Mccaffery

Edward J McCaffery

The social and political problems of wealth inequality in America are severe and getting worse. A surprise is that the U.S. tax system, as is, is a significant cause of these problems, not a cure for them.  The tax-law doctrines that allow those who already have financial wealth to live, luxuriously and tax-free, or to pass on their wealth tax-free to heirs, are simple. The applicable legal doctrines have been in place for nearly a century under the income tax, the primary social tool for addressing matters of economic inequality. The analytic pathways to reform are easy to see ...


Knowing Defense, Janet Moore, Andrew L.B. Davies Jan 2017

Knowing Defense, Janet Moore, Andrew L.B. Davies

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

The field of empirical research on public defense is in an early stage of development. Yet the field is also diverse, as a growing community of researchers applies training in disciplines ranging from law and criminology to economics and social psychology. These facts invite reflection on baseline questions about the field that may inform future work. For example, what factors shape our research agendas? What data, methods, and theories are in play? Do these new research agendas align with the research priorities of public defenders and the communities they serve? Should they do so? To begin exploring such questions, this ...


Why Prison?: An Economic Critique, Peter N. Salib Jan 2017

Why Prison?: An Economic Critique, Peter N. Salib

Berkeley Journal of Criminal Law

This Article argues that we should not imprison people who commit crimes. This is true despite the fact that essentially all legal scholars, attorneys, judges, and laypeople see prison as the sine qua non of a criminal justice system. Without prison, most would argue, we could not punish past crimes, deter future crimes, or keep dangerous criminals safely separate from the rest of society. Scholars of law and economics have generally held the same view, treating prison as an indispensable tool for minimizing social harm. But the prevailing view is wrong. Employing the tools of economic analysis, this Article demonstrates ...


Against Creativity, Brian L. Frye Jan 2017

Against Creativity, Brian L. Frye

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

According to the Supreme Court, copyright requires both independent creation and creativity. The independent creation requirement provides that copyright cannot protect an element of a work of authorship that is copied from a previously existing work. But scholars disagree about the meaning of and justification for the creativity requirement.

The creativity requirement should be abandoned because it is irrelevant to the scope of copyrightable subject matter and distorts copyright doctrine by encouraging inefficient “creativity rhetoric.” The purpose of copyright is to encourage the production of economically valuable works of authorship, not creativity.


A New History Of Waste Law: How A Misunderstood Doctrine Shaped Ideas About The Transformation Of Law, Jill M. Fraley Jan 2017

A New History Of Waste Law: How A Misunderstood Doctrine Shaped Ideas About The Transformation Of Law, Jill M. Fraley

Marquette Law Review

In the traditional account, American courts transformed the law of waste, radically diverging from the British courts around the time of the American Revolution. Some of the most influential theorists of American legal history have used this account as evidence that American law is driven by economics. Due to its adoption by influential scholars, this traditional account of waste law has shaped not only our understanding of property law, but also how we view the process of transforming law.

That traditional account, however, came not from a history of the doctrine, but from an elaboration of the benefits of the ...


Aging America, Thomas L. Shaffer Nov 2016

Aging America, Thomas L. Shaffer

Thomas L. Shaffer

Professor Sarah Harper's assessment of the legal, political,

medical, and economic issues associated with old age in the

United States heralded the theme for this Symposium, "Aging

America." Her analysis turns, as she puts it, on "a fundamental

shift in the demographic structure of society. No longer will it be

the norm to have large numbers of young and small numbers of

old,"1 as it was when I was a boy (age 11 on V.J. Day, 1945).

"Rather, we are entering a world where age groups will be distributed

more or less equally across society-an age-symmetric society ...


Inefficient Inequality, Shi-Ling Hsu Oct 2016

Inefficient Inequality, Shi-Ling Hsu

Indiana Journal of Law and Social Equality

For the past several decades, much American lawmaking has been animated by a concern for economic efficiency. At the same time, broad concerns over wealth and income inequality have roiled American politics, and still loom over lawmakers. It can be reasonably argued that a tension exists between efficiency and equality, but that argument has had too much purchase over the past few decades of lawmaking. What has been overlooked is that inequality itself can be allocatively inefficient when it gives rise to collectively inefficient behavior. Worse still, some lawmaking only masquerades as being efficiency-promoting; upon closer inspection, some of this ...


What Does The Minimum Wage Have To Do With Reproductive Rights?, Terry O'Neill Oct 2016

What Does The Minimum Wage Have To Do With Reproductive Rights?, Terry O'Neill

Terry O'Neill

No abstract provided.


Perverse Innovation, Dan L. Burk Oct 2016

Perverse Innovation, Dan L. Burk

William & Mary Law Review

An inescapable feature of regulation is the existence of loopholes: activities that formally comply with the text of regulation, but which in practice avoid the desired outcome of the regulation. Considerable ingenuity may be devoted to exploiting regulatory loopholes. Where technological regulation is at issue, such ingenuity may often be devoted to developing new technology that avoids the regulation; such innovation may be termed “perverse” because it is directed to avoiding the regulation that prompted it. Nonetheless, in this Article I argue that such regulatory circumvention may result in socially beneficial innovation. Drawing on insights from innovation policy in the ...


Closing The Retirement Savings Gap: Are State Automatic Enrollment Iras The Answer?, Kathryn L. Moore Oct 2016

Closing The Retirement Savings Gap: Are State Automatic Enrollment Iras The Answer?, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Drawing on insights from behavioral law and economics, automatic enrollment IRAs are intended to address the nation’s retirement savings gap by taking advantage of workers’ inertia. Although automatic enrollment IRAs were initially intended to apply at the federal level, they have gained little traction at the federal level, and states have begun to step into the breach. Between September 2012 and June 2016, five states enacted state automatic enrollment IRA programs.

Studies have uniformly shown that workers are more likely to participate in an automatic enrollment 401(k) plan than in a traditional opt-in 401(k) plan. Proponents of ...


Result Inequality In Family Law, Margaret F. Brinig Aug 2016

Result Inequality In Family Law, Margaret F. Brinig

Margaret F Brinig

To the extent that family law is governed by statute, all families are treated as though they are the same. This is of course consistent with the equal protection guarantees of the U.S. Constitution as well as those of the states. However, in our pluralistic society, all families are not alike. At birth, some children are born to wealthy, married parents who will always put the children’s interests first and will never engage in domestic violence. Many laws benefit these children, while, according to some academics, they either further disadvantage other children or at best ignore their needs ...


Merger Simulation: A Simplified Approach With New Applications, Roy J. Epstein, Daniel L. Rubinfeld Aug 2016

Merger Simulation: A Simplified Approach With New Applications, Roy J. Epstein, Daniel L. Rubinfeld

Daniel L. Rubinfeld

Merger simulation is growing in importance as a tool to evaluate the unilateral competitive effects of mergers. This paper offers a relatively non-technical description of the principles of merger simulation. In addition, it introduces PCAIDS, a new and highly flexible "calibrated-demand" merger simulation methodology that is based on a simplified version of AIDS. PCAIDS can be implemented using market shares and two price elasticities; scanner or transaction-level data are not required. The paper offers some applications of merger simulation with PCAIDS that include comparisons with other simulation models. It also shows how PCAIDS can be applied to the analysis of ...