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The Duty Of Treatment: Human Rights And The Hiv/Aids Pandemic, Noah B. Novogrodsky Sep 2008

The Duty Of Treatment: Human Rights And The Hiv/Aids Pandemic, Noah B. Novogrodsky

Noah B Novogrodsky

This article argues that the treatment of HIV and AIDS is spawning a juridical, advocacy and enforcement revolution. The intersection of AIDS and human rights was once characterized almost exclusively by anti-discrimination and destigmatization efforts. Today, human rights advocates are demanding life-saving treatment and convincing courts and legislatures to make states pay for it. Using a comparative Constitutional law methodology that places domestic courts at the center of the struggle for HIV treatment, this article shows how the provision of AIDS medications is reframing the right to health and the implementation of socio-economic rights. First, it locates an emerging right ...


"Mr. Presidential Candidate: Whom Would You Nominate?", Stuart M. Benjamin, Mitu Gulati Sep 2008

"Mr. Presidential Candidate: Whom Would You Nominate?", Stuart M. Benjamin, Mitu Gulati

Stuart M Benjamin

Presidential candidates compete on multiple fronts for votes. Who is more likeable? Who will more effectively negotiate with allies and adversaries? Who has the better vice-presidential running mate? Who will make better appointments to the Supreme Court and the cabinet? This last question is often discussed long before the inauguration, for the impact of a Secretary of State or a Supreme Court Justice can be tremendous. The importance of such appointments notwithstanding, presidential candidates are not pushed to name their prospective appointees, pre-election. In other words, we do not expect candidates to compete on naming the better slates of nominees ...


"Mr. Presidential Candidate: Whom Would You Nominate?", Stuart M. Benjamin, Mitu Gulati Sep 2008

"Mr. Presidential Candidate: Whom Would You Nominate?", Stuart M. Benjamin, Mitu Gulati

Stuart M Benjamin

Presidential candidates compete on multiple fronts for votes. Who is more likeable? Who will more effectively negotiate with allies and adversaries? Who has the better vice-presidential running mate? Who will make better appointments to the Supreme Court and the cabinet? This last question is often discussed long before the inauguration, for the impact of a Secretary of State or a Supreme Court Justice can be tremendous. The importance of such appointments notwithstanding, presidential candidates are not pushed to name their prospective appointees, pre-election. In other words, we do not expect candidates to compete on naming the better slates of nominees ...


Statistical String Theory For Courts: If The Data Don't Fit..., David F. Babbel Sep 2008

Statistical String Theory For Courts: If The Data Don't Fit..., David F. Babbel

David F Babbel

The primary purpose of this article is to provide courts with an important new tool for applying the correct probability distribution to a given legal question. This tool is path-breaking and will have an extensive impact on how a wide variety of cases are decided. In areas as diverse as criminal prosecutions and civil lawsuits alleging securities fraud, courts must assess the relevance and reliability of statistical data and the inferences drawn therefrom. But, courts and expert witnesses often make mistaken assumptions about what probability distributions are appropriate for their analyses. Using the wrong probability distribution can lead to invalid ...


"Mr. Presidential Candidate: Whom Would You Nominate?", Stuart M. Benjamin, Mitu Gulati Sep 2008

"Mr. Presidential Candidate: Whom Would You Nominate?", Stuart M. Benjamin, Mitu Gulati

Stuart M Benjamin

Presidential candidates compete on multiple fronts for votes. Who is more likeable? Who will more effectively negotiate with allies and adversaries? Who has the better vice-presidential running mate? Who will make better appointments to the Supreme Court and the cabinet? This last question is often discussed long before the inauguration, for the impact of a Secretary of State or a Supreme Court Justice can be tremendous. The importance of such appointments notwithstanding, presidential candidates are not pushed to name their prospective appointees, pre-election. In other words, we do not expect candidates to compete on naming the better slates of nominees ...


"Mr. Presidential Candidate: Whom Would You Nominate?", Stuart M. Benjamin, Mitu Gulati Aug 2008

"Mr. Presidential Candidate: Whom Would You Nominate?", Stuart M. Benjamin, Mitu Gulati

Stuart M Benjamin

Presidential candidates compete on multiple fronts for votes. Who is more likeable? Who will more effectively negotiate with allies and adversaries? Who has the better vice-presidential running mate? Who will make better appointments to the Supreme Court and the cabinet? This last question is often discussed long before the inauguration, for the impact of a Secretary of State or a Supreme Court Justice can be tremendous. The importance of such appointments notwithstanding, presidential candidates are not pushed to name their prospective appointees, pre-election. In other words, we do not expect candidates to compete on naming the better slates of nominees ...


Redefining Harm, Reimagining Remedies And Reclaiming Domestic Violence Law, Margaret Johnson Aug 2008

Redefining Harm, Reimagining Remedies And Reclaiming Domestic Violence Law, Margaret Johnson

Margaret E Johnson

Women subjected to domestic violence are disserved by the civil domestic violence laws that should effectively address and redress their harms. The Civil Protective Order [CPO] laws should remedy all domestic abuse and not solely physical violence or criminal acts. All forms of abuse, including psychological, emotional, economic and physical abuse, cause severe emotional distress, physical harm, isolation, sustained fear, intimidation, poverty, degradation, humiliation, and coerced loss of autonomy. Moreover, all abuse is interrelated, because, as researchers have demonstrated, most domestic violence is the fundamental operation of systemic oppression through the exertion of power and control. Given the effectiveness of ...


"Mr. Presidential Candidate: Whom Would You Nominate?", Stuart M. Benjamin, Mitu Gulati Aug 2008

"Mr. Presidential Candidate: Whom Would You Nominate?", Stuart M. Benjamin, Mitu Gulati

Stuart M Benjamin

Presidential candidates compete on multiple fronts for votes. Who is more likeable? Who will more effectively negotiate with allies and adversaries? Who has the better vice-presidential running mate? Who will make better appointments to the Supreme Court and the cabinet? This last question is often discussed long before the inauguration, for the impact of a Secretary of State or a Supreme Court Justice can be tremendous. The importance of such appointments notwithstanding, presidential candidates are not pushed to name their prospective appointees, pre-election. In other words, we do not expect candidates to compete on naming the better slates of nominees ...


Critical Error, Bryan Adamson Aug 2008

Critical Error, Bryan Adamson

Bryan L Adamson

Critical Error raises a novel double standard: while fact-specific trial court findings of actual malice are reviewed under the “independent judgment” standard (a wholesale re-weighting of the trial court record and decision) on appeal, intentional race discrimination findings are reviewed under the far more deferential Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 52 clear error standard. Both legal concepts are arrived at through assessing state-of-mind determinations; both directly trigger constitutional proscriptions. Only actual malice, however, is classified as a constitutional fact, thus taking it out of the more deferential standard of review. The Supreme Court has failed to clarify this important procedural ...


Parsing Supreme Court Dicta To Adjudicate Non-Workplace Harms, Lisa D. Taylor Aug 2008

Parsing Supreme Court Dicta To Adjudicate Non-Workplace Harms, Lisa D. Taylor

Lisa D Taylor

When the Supreme Court issued its landmark Title VII decision in Burlington Northern & Santa Fe Railway Co v. White, it concluded that the statute’s anti-retaliation provision reaches beyond the workplace to redress non-workplace harms. All of the harms alleged in that case, however, bore a clear and direct relationship to the plaintiff’s employment. As such, the Court’s instruction on that point was unnecessary. The debate over the dictum-holding distinction is rich, but this Article concludes that the Court’s discussion of non-workplace harms in Burlington Northern was indisputably dictum. It is commonplace among the lower federal courts ...


"Mr. Presidential Candidate: Whom Would You Nominate?", Stuart M. Benjamin, Mitu Gulati Aug 2008

"Mr. Presidential Candidate: Whom Would You Nominate?", Stuart M. Benjamin, Mitu Gulati

Stuart M Benjamin

Presidential candidates compete on multiple fronts for votes. Who is more likeable? Who will more effectively negotiate with allies and adversaries? Who has the better vice-presidential running mate? Who will make better appointments to the Supreme Court and the cabinet? This last question is often discussed long before the inauguration, for the impact of a Secretary of State or a Supreme Court Justice can be tremendous. The importance of such appointments notwithstanding, presidential candidates are not pushed to name their prospective appointees, pre-election. In other words, we do not expect candidates to compete on naming the better slates of nominees ...


The Appropriations Power And Sovereign Immunity, Jay Tidmarsh, Paul F. Figley Aug 2008

The Appropriations Power And Sovereign Immunity, Jay Tidmarsh, Paul F. Figley

Jay Tidmarsh

Historical discussions of sovereign immunity assume that the Constitution contains no explicit text regarding sovereign immunity. As a result, arguments about the existence — or non-existence — of sovereign immunity begin with the English and American common-law doctrines of sovereign immunity, and ask whether the founding period altered that doctrine. Exploring political, fiscal, and legal developments in England and the American colonies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, this article shows that focusing on common-law developments is misguided. The common-law approach to sovereign immunity ended in the early 1700s. The Bankers’ Case (1690-1700), which is often regarded as the first modern common-law ...


Trapped In The Law? How Lawyers Reconcile The Legal And Social Aspects Of Their Work, Hadar Aviram Aug 2008

Trapped In The Law? How Lawyers Reconcile The Legal And Social Aspects Of Their Work, Hadar Aviram

Hadar Aviram

This Article addresses an immensely important, and often neglected, problem faced by legal practitioners in their daily professional lives: how do legal actors feel, and act, when the cases in which they are involved have evident, and disturbing, socio-economic implications? This situation is particularly uncomfortable for prosecutors, judges, and defense attorneys, whose criminal case workload often reflects much deeper social inequalities and problems, and whose defendant population is characterized by an overrepresentation of disempowered groups. Legal actors who engage daily with "the tip of the social iceberg" in the courtroom are keenly aware of the broader aspects of the problem ...


“Mr. Presidential Candidate: Whom Would You Nominate?”, Stuart M. Benjamin, Mitu Gulati Aug 2008

“Mr. Presidential Candidate: Whom Would You Nominate?”, Stuart M. Benjamin, Mitu Gulati

Stuart M Benjamin

Presidential candidates compete on multiple fronts for votes. Who is more likeable? Who will more effectively negotiate with allies and adversaries? Who has the better vice-presidential running mate? Who will make better appointments to the Supreme Court and the cabinet? This last question is often discussed long before the inauguration, for the impact of a Secretary of State or a Supreme Court Justice can be tremendous. The importance of such appointments notwithstanding, presidential candidates are not pushed to name their prospective appointees, pre-election. In other words, we do not expect candidates to compete on naming the better slates of nominees ...


A Tale Of Two Waivers: Waiver Of The Jury Waiver Defense Under The Federal Rules Of Civil Procedure, Jarod S. Gonzalez Jul 2008

A Tale Of Two Waivers: Waiver Of The Jury Waiver Defense Under The Federal Rules Of Civil Procedure, Jarod S. Gonzalez

Jarod S. Gonzalez

There is an extensive amount of academic commentary on the enforceability of pre-dispute contractual jury waivers. My article, entitled A Tale of Two Waivers: Waiver of the Jury Waiver Defense under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, considers a related topic that has not received much scholarly attention: the procedure for raising a jury waiver defense in federal civil litigation. Specifically, I advocate a novel approach that treats a contractual jury waiver defense as an affirmative defense under Rule 8 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. The affirmative defense approach requires a party that desires to strike a jury ...


Habitations Of Cruelty - Pitfalls Of Expanding Hate Crime Legislation To Include The Homeless, Scott Steiner May 2008

Habitations Of Cruelty - Pitfalls Of Expanding Hate Crime Legislation To Include The Homeless, Scott Steiner

Scott A Steiner

Hate crime law has developed and expanded substantially since its earliest forms. A concerted effort is currently underway to expand existing hate crime legislation to include the homeless.

This paper provides a history of both state and federal hate crime legislation, examines precisely what a hate crime is (and how that definition differs from state to state), explores the growing problem of violence against the homeless, and analyzes recent developments in expanding state and local law to protect based on homelessness.

It offers both arguments in favor and arguments against the expansion of hate crime laws to include the homeless ...


Comparing Judicial Compensation: Apples, Oranges, And Cherry-Picking, Matthew W. Wolfe, Reed Watson Mar 2008

Comparing Judicial Compensation: Apples, Oranges, And Cherry-Picking, Matthew W. Wolfe, Reed Watson

Matthew W. Wolfe

United States Supreme Court Chief Justice John Roberts describes the American judiciary as the envy of other constitutional democracies. But in one respect, the judiciary apparently trails others: judicial pay. Citing higher salaries of judges in other countries, Chief Justice Roberts and Associate Justices Stephen Breyer and Samuel Alito have all argued that inadequate judicial pay leads to a decline in judicial performance and quality. Judicial pay advocates apparently make these comparisons to emphasize that low judicial salaries “threaten” judicial quality and independence or, alternatively, that high judicial salaries “ensure” quality and independence. But the argument is incomplete, relying upon ...


Oy Vey! The Bernstein Exception: Rethinking The Doctrine In The Wake Of Constitutional Abuses, Corporate Malfeasance And The “War On Terror”, Breana Frankel Mar 2008

Oy Vey! The Bernstein Exception: Rethinking The Doctrine In The Wake Of Constitutional Abuses, Corporate Malfeasance And The “War On Terror”, Breana Frankel

Breana Frankel

Abstract OY VEY! THE BERNSTEIN EXCEPTION: RETHINKING THE DOCTRINE IN THE WAKE OF CONSTITUTIONAL ABUSES, CORPORATE MALFEASANCE AND THE “WAR ON TERROR” Breana Frankel, Assistant Professor, Chapman University School of Law The “Bernstein doctrine” is a classic example of the exception swallowing the rule. The Bernstein exception allows the Executive to intercede in act of state cases when it determines that adjudication would not harm U.S.-foreign relations. The Exception was initially intended solely to permit victims of Nazi war crimes to recover in United States courts. However, in the more than 50 years since its inception, the Bernstein ...


Overlooked Temporal Issues In Statutory Interpretation, Brian G. Slocum Feb 2008

Overlooked Temporal Issues In Statutory Interpretation, Brian G. Slocum

Brian G. Slocum

There is an important but chronically overlooked problem in statutory interpretation. Courts frequently create and modify the rules of statutory interpretation in common law fashion. They never consider, however, whether these new or modified rules should be applied only prospectively to statutes enacted after the judicial decision that created or modified the rules. The failure of courts to consider these temporal issues undermines the assumption, fundamental to statutory interpretation, that Congress chooses statutory language in light of established rules of interpretation and thus risks delegitimizing statutory interpretation. Indeed, as this Article illustrates, the Supreme Court’s failure to consider these ...


Belonging And Empowerment: A New "Civil Rights" Paradigm Based On Lessons From The Past, Rebecca Zietlow Dec 2007

Belonging And Empowerment: A New "Civil Rights" Paradigm Based On Lessons From The Past, Rebecca Zietlow

Rebecca E Zietlow

Despite the advances that African Americans have made in our country as a result of the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s, poverty stubbornly persists in communities of color throughout our country. Our current civil rights paradigm, which is rooted in the Equal Protection Clause, and prohibits intentional state discrimination on the basis of immutable characteristics, simply is not working. This article suggests an alternative approach, one based not solely in equality norms but in facilitating the belonging of outsiders in our society. The subordination of people of color in our society has never been just about race. Rather, racism ...


California's Dueling Harmless Error Standards: Approaches To Federal Constitutional Error In Civil Trials And Establishing The Proper Test For Dependency, Meehan Rasch Dec 2007

California's Dueling Harmless Error Standards: Approaches To Federal Constitutional Error In Civil Trials And Establishing The Proper Test For Dependency, Meehan Rasch

Meehan Rasch

For forty years, California appellate courts generally have applied one discrete harmless error test for federal constitutional error in criminal cases and another for civil proceedings. In appeals from convictions in California state criminal cases, errors rising to a federal constitutional dimension are governed by the standard of Chapman v. California, which requires that these errors be proven by the state to be harmless beyond any reasonable doubt. The more lenient standard (for the trial court) of People v. Watson, which holds errors of state law and procedure harmless unless there is a reasonable probability that such error prejudiced the ...


J.E.B. V. Alabama Ex Rel. T.B., 511 U.S. 127 (1994), Nancy Marder Dec 2007

J.E.B. V. Alabama Ex Rel. T.B., 511 U.S. 127 (1994), Nancy Marder

Nancy S. Marder

No abstract provided.


What's Wrong With Judicial Supremacy? What's Right About Judicial Review?, Robert Lipkin Dec 2007

What's Wrong With Judicial Supremacy? What's Right About Judicial Review?, Robert Lipkin

Robert Justin Lipkin

Skepticism concerning the legitimacy of judicial review typically occurs without distinguishing between judicial review and judicial supremacy. The former gives the Court a say in evaluating the constitutionality of legislation and other government conduct. The latter gives the Court the final say over these matters. This Article defends the Court's role in judicial review but rejects the practice of judicial supremacy. The Article first critically examines some of the more important attempts to justify judicial supremacy and finds them wanting. It then explains why judicial review, as the practice of applying American political philosophical concepts such as federalism, the ...


Book Review: A History Of The Eighth Circuit, Scott Dodson Dec 2007

Book Review: A History Of The Eighth Circuit, Scott Dodson

Scott Dodson

This is a book review of Jeffrey Brandon Morris's "Establishing Justice in Middle America: A History of the Eighth Circuit" (U. Minn. Press 2008).


Much Ado About Pluralities: Pride And Precedent Amidst The Cacophy Of Concurrences, And Re-Percolation After Rapanos, Donald J. Kochan, Melissa M. Berry, Matthew J. Parlow Dec 2007

Much Ado About Pluralities: Pride And Precedent Amidst The Cacophy Of Concurrences, And Re-Percolation After Rapanos, Donald J. Kochan, Melissa M. Berry, Matthew J. Parlow

Donald J. Kochan

Conflicts created by concurrences and pluralities in court decisions create confusion in law and lower court interpretation. Rule of law values require that individuals be able to identify controlling legal principles. That task is complicated when pluralities and concurrences contribute to the vagueness or uncertainty that leaves us wondering what the controlling rule is or attempting to predict what it will evolve to become. The rule of law is at least handicapped when continuity or confidence or confusion infuse our understanding of the applicable rules. This Article uses the recent U.S. Supreme Court decision in Rapanos v. United States ...


Much Ado About Pluralities: Pride And Precedent Amidst The Cacophony Of Concurrences, And Re-Percolation After Rapanos, Matthew J. Parlow, Donald J. Kochan Dec 2007

Much Ado About Pluralities: Pride And Precedent Amidst The Cacophony Of Concurrences, And Re-Percolation After Rapanos, Matthew J. Parlow, Donald J. Kochan

Matthew Parlow

Conflicts created by concurrences and pluralities in court decisions create confusion in law and lower court interpretation. Rule of law values require that individuals be able to identify controlling legal principles. That task is complicated when pluralities and concurrences contribute to the vagueness or uncertainty that leaves us wondering what the controlling rule is or attempting to predict what it will evolve to become. The rule of law is at least handicapped when continuity or confidence or confusion infuse our understanding of the applicable rules. This Article uses the recent U.S. Supreme Court decision in Rapanos v. United States ...


Selection To The Kansas Supreme Court, Stephen Ware Dec 2007

Selection To The Kansas Supreme Court, Stephen Ware

Stephen Ware

Kansas is the only state in the union that gives the members of its bar majority control over the selection of state supreme court justices. The bar consequently may have more control over the judiciary in Kansas than in any other state. This process for selecting justices to the Kansas Supreme Court is described by the organized bar as a “merit,” rather than political, process. Other observers, however, emphasize that the process has a political side as well. This paper surveys debate about possible reforms to the Kansas Supreme Court selection process. These reforms would reduce the amount of control ...


Do Cognitive Biases Affect Adjudication?: A Study Of Labor Arbitrators (With Monica Biernat), Martin H. Malin, Monica Biernat Dec 2007

Do Cognitive Biases Affect Adjudication?: A Study Of Labor Arbitrators (With Monica Biernat), Martin H. Malin, Monica Biernat

Martin H. Malin

Labor arbitrators were presented with four cases to decide, each involving a challenge to discipline or discharge of an employee resulting from a work-family conflict. Arbitrators were randomly given versions of the cases in which the gender and one other characteristivc of the employee were varied. The results showed little evidence of direct gender bias in decision-making but did reflect bias against single parents and employees with eldercare, as opposed to childcare, responsibilities. Implications for other adjudicators, including judges, jurors and administrative agency officials are discussed.


Liars And Terrorists And Judges, Oh My: Moral Panic And The Symbolic Politics Of Appellate Review In Asylum Cases, Eric M. Fink Dec 2007

Liars And Terrorists And Judges, Oh My: Moral Panic And The Symbolic Politics Of Appellate Review In Asylum Cases, Eric M. Fink

Eric M Fink

As part of the REAL ID Act, Congress amended the Immigration and Nationality Act to restrict judicial review of adverse credibility determinations by immigration judges. The change came in the wake of controversy of judicial reversals of adverse credibility determinations that the reviewing courts saw as inappropriately speculative and lacking in evidentiary support. Critics, including some appellate judges, have in turn alleged that the appellate courts have been insufficiently deferential to the factual determinations of Immigration Judges (IJs) and the BIA.

This paper examines the argument offered in support of limiting judicial review in this area, and provides an empirical ...


The Cy Pres Problem And The Role Of Damages In Tort Law, Goutam U. Jois Dec 2007

The Cy Pres Problem And The Role Of Damages In Tort Law, Goutam U. Jois

Goutam U Jois

Class action litigation presents a common problem that has received little discussion in the academic literature. In almost every case, the plaintiff class’s recovery is not fully distributed. For example, all possible plaintiffs may not come forward with their claims, the plaintiffs may not be ascertainable, or claims may not be timely submitted. Administrators are regularly posed with the problem of what to do with these residual funds. Currently, courts are free to do virtually anything with such funds. The system is ad hoc, unpredictable, and unguided by any normative principle. In these cases, I propose that the funds ...