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2007

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Measuring The Value Of Class And Collective Action Employment Settlements: A Preliminary Assessment, Samuel Estreicher, Kristina Yost Dec 2007

Measuring The Value Of Class And Collective Action Employment Settlements: A Preliminary Assessment, Samuel Estreicher, Kristina Yost

New York University Law and Economics Working Papers

This paper represents an initial effort to test, quantitatively, whether the class or collective action is a necessary vehicle for resolving employment disputes because typical claims are not valuable enough for individuals to pursue them on their own. Because most class actions ultimately settle, this study begins the process of evaluating the hypothesis by calculating the potential recoveries individual members of class actions are slated to receive in class action settlements as a comparison point for awards obtained in individual employment arbitration. Examining public data on employment class or collective action settlements, we find that with the exception perhaps of ...


Measuring The Value Of Class And Collective Action Employment Settlements: A Preliminary Assessment, Samuel Estreicher, Kristina Yost Dec 2007

Measuring The Value Of Class And Collective Action Employment Settlements: A Preliminary Assessment, Samuel Estreicher, Kristina Yost

New York University Public Law and Legal Theory Working Papers

This paper represents an initial effort to test, quantitatively, whether the class or collective action is a necessary vehicle for resolving employment disputes because typical claims are not valuable enough for individuals to pursue them on their own. Because most class actions ultimately settle, this study begins the process of evaluating the hypothesis by calculating the potential recoveries individual members of class actions are slated to receive in class action settlements as a comparison point for awards obtained in individual employment arbitration. Examining public data on employment class or collective action settlements, we find that with the exception perhaps of ...


Policy Evaluation Of Hillsborough County’S Family Dependency Treatment Court, Shawn M. Martin, Kathleen A. Moore Dec 2007

Policy Evaluation Of Hillsborough County’S Family Dependency Treatment Court, Shawn M. Martin, Kathleen A. Moore

Kathleen A Moore

Child abuse and neglect is a troubling issue all too familiar with courts in the United States. The problem becomes even more complicated when substance abuse is involved. In 2004, approximately 500,000 children were removed from their homes because of abuse and neglect issues1. In the past few years, a judicial model appeared to address both substance abuse and child dependency issues. This model, entitled Family Dependency Treatment Court (FDTC) enables the court to mandate treatment for parents and make reunification dependent on treatment compliance. The FDTC program in Hillsborough County, Florida is now in its second year and ...


Interpreting The Fourteenth Amendment: Two Don'ts And Three Dos, Garrett Epps Dec 2007

Interpreting The Fourteenth Amendment: Two Don'ts And Three Dos, Garrett Epps

All Faculty Scholarship

A sophisticated reading of the legislative record of the framing of the Fourteenth Amendment can provide courts and scholars with some general interpretive principles to guide their application of the Amendment to current legal problems. The author argues that two common legal conceptions about the Amendment are, in fact, misconceptions. The first is that the Amendment was chiefly concerned with the immediate situation of freed slaves in the former slave states. Instead, he argues, the legislative record suggests that the framers were broadly concerned with the rights not only of freed slaves but also of foreign-born immigrants in the North ...


The Curious Complications With Back-End Opt-Out Rights, Rhonda Wasserman Nov 2007

The Curious Complications With Back-End Opt-Out Rights, Rhonda Wasserman

University of Pittsburgh School of Law Working Paper Series

Class action litigation seeks to mediate pressing conflicts between individual autonomy and collective justice; federal supervision and local control; self-interested class counsel and the represented class. These conflicts are exacerbated when a federal court that approves a class action settlement later seeks to enjoin state court litigants from violating its terms. Yet the demand for such injunctions has increased in light of the advent of back-end opt-out rights. In recent years, class members have been afforded “back-end,” or delayed, opportunities to opt out of a class action once the terms of the settlement are disclosed. These back-end opt-out rights may ...


Dukes V. Wal-Mart: A New Interpretation Of The Class-Action Model, Mark Fischer Nov 2007

Dukes V. Wal-Mart: A New Interpretation Of The Class-Action Model, Mark Fischer

Mark Fischer

Dukes V. Wal-Mart: A New Interpretation of the Class-Action Model By: Mark Fischer TABLE OF CONTENTS Dukes v. Wal-Mart: A New Interpretation of the Class-Action Model Page Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………..1 Background……………………………………………………………………………………..2 Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 23……………………………………………………..............5 I. Commonality………………………………………………………………………….6 II. Typicality…………………………………………………………………………….7 Due Process Concerns…………………………………………………………………..............8 Impermissible Predomination of Monetary Claims over Claims for Declaratory and Injunctive Relief…………………………………………………………………………………………....9 Ninth Circuit Panel Dissenting Opinion………………………………………………………...9 Wal-Mart’s Response: Petition for Rehearing En Banc……………………………………….12 I. Application of Rule 23……………………………………………………………....12 II. Plaintiff’s Lack of Article III Standing……………………………………………..16 III. Title VII and Due Process Impact of the ...


The Price Of Misdemeanor Representation, Erica J. Hashimoto Nov 2007

The Price Of Misdemeanor Representation, Erica J. Hashimoto

Scholarly Works

Nobody disputes either the reality of excessive caseloads in indigent defense systems or their negative effects. More than forth years after Gideon v. Wainwright, however, few seem willing to accept that additional resources will not magically appear to solve the problem. Rather, concerned observers demand more funds while state and local legislators resist those entreaties in the face of political resistance and pressures to balance government budgets. Recognizing that indigent defense systems must operate in a world of limited resources, states should reduce the number of cases streaming into those systems by significantly curtailing the appointment of counsel in low-level ...


Illegal Immigration And The Southwest Border District Courts, Thomas J. Bak Oct 2007

Illegal Immigration And The Southwest Border District Courts, Thomas J. Bak

Thomas J. Bak

Abstract This paper examines the increase in immigration filings in federal district courts in the southwest United States during the period from 1993 through 2005, a time when the Border Patrol and U.S. Attorneys in southern California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas stepped up enforcement of U.S. immigration laws. It follows the shift in the tide of immigration cases from the Southern District of California (CA,S), eastward, as successive initiatives in different Border Patrol sectors continually diverted the flow of illegal immigrants. A mathematical model is used to show the strong correlation between immigration case filings and ...


Does Australia Have A Constitution? Part I -- The Powers Constitution, Howard Schweber, Ken Mayer Oct 2007

Does Australia Have A Constitution? Part I -- The Powers Constitution, Howard Schweber, Ken Mayer

Howard Schweber

The conventional wisdom about the Australian Constitution is that it neither says what it means, nor means what it says. The gap between language and meaning is starkest in the sections on executive power, in which the explicit language vesting all executive power in the Governor-General is supplanted by the conventions of Responsible Government, according to a universally accepted view of what the constitutional framers intended to create. One consequence of this divergence between language and practice is that constitutional interpretation normally requires a series of finesses, in which much of the text is read out of the document entirely ...


Political Judges And Popular Justice: A Conservative Victory Or A Conservative Dilemma?, George D. Brown Oct 2007

Political Judges And Popular Justice: A Conservative Victory Or A Conservative Dilemma?, George D. Brown

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Most of the judges in America are elected. Yet the institution of the elected judiciary is in trouble, perhaps in crisis. The pressures of campaigning, particularly raising money, have produced an intensity of electioneering that many observers see as damaging to the institution itself. In an extraordinary development, four justices of the Supreme Court recently expressed concern over possible loss of trust in state judicial systems. Yet mechanisms that states have put in place to strike a balance between the accountability values of an elected judiciary and rule of law values of unbiased adjudication are increasingly invalidated by the federal ...


From Incitement To Indictment? Prosecuting Iran's President For Advocating Israel's Destruction And Piecing Together Incitement Law's Emerging Analytical Framework, Gregory S. Gordon Sep 2007

From Incitement To Indictment? Prosecuting Iran's President For Advocating Israel's Destruction And Piecing Together Incitement Law's Emerging Analytical Framework, Gregory S. Gordon

Gregory S. Gordon

On October 25, 2005, at an anti-Zionism conference in Tehran, Iran's President, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, called for Israel to "be wiped off the face of the map" -- the first in a series of incendiary speeches arguably advocating liquidation of the Jewish state. Certain commentators argue that these speeches constitute direct and public incitement to commit genocide. This Article analyzes these arguments by examining the nature and scope of recent groundbreaking developments in incitement law arising from the Rwandan genocide prosecutions. For the first time in the legal literature, the Article pieces together an analytical framework based on principles derived from ...


The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act: Using A "Shield" Statute As A "Sword" For Obtaining Federal Jurisdiction In Art And Antiquities Cases, Lauren F. Redman Sep 2007

The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act: Using A "Shield" Statute As A "Sword" For Obtaining Federal Jurisdiction In Art And Antiquities Cases, Lauren F. Redman

Lauren F Redman

This paper examines the emergence of art and antiquities restitution cases being brought in U.S. federal courts under the FSIA. The purpose of the paper is twofold. First, it aims to serve as a compendium of the major art and antiquities restitution cases brought under the FSIA up to this point. In addition, it examines several questions concerning the appropriateness of the FSIA being used in the way it has been in the context of the art cases. Have the jurisdiction granting provisions springing from the exceptions to the FSIA eclipsed the primary purpose of foreign sovereign immunity, which ...


Originalism And The Problem Of Fundament Fairness, R. George Wright Sep 2007

Originalism And The Problem Of Fundament Fairness, R. George Wright

R. George Wright Professor

Originalism is perhaps the most prominent theory of how to interpret the Constitution. Originalism, however, rests upon a process of constitutional drafting and ratification that systematically excluded important demographic groups. Originalism thus rests on a fundamental injustice. Crucially, this fundamental injustice is not confined to the past once the various excluded groups gain the franchise. Originalist theories remain crucially tainted and skewed, particularly with respect to constitutional questions on which originally excluded groups had interests diverging from those of non-excluded groups. The continuing effects of the fundamental unfairness of the constitutional drafting and ratifying process are explored through considering the ...


When Worlds Collide: Federal Construction Of State Institutional Competence, Marcia L. Mccormick Sep 2007

When Worlds Collide: Federal Construction Of State Institutional Competence, Marcia L. Mccormick

Marcia L. McCormick

The federal courts routinely encounter issues of state law. Often a state court will have already analyzed the law at issue, either in a separate case or in the very situation before the federal court. In every one of those cases, the federal courts must decide whether to defer to the state court analysis and, if so, how much. The federal courts will often defer, but many times have not done so, and they rarely explain the reasons for the departures they make. While this lack of transparency gives the federal courts the greatest amount of discretion and power, it ...


The Equality Paradise: Paradoxes In The Power Of Law To Promote Equality, Marcia L. Mccormick Sep 2007

The Equality Paradise: Paradoxes In The Power Of Law To Promote Equality, Marcia L. Mccormick

Marcia L. McCormick

This paper, written for the Gloucester Conference, “Too Pure an Air: Law and the Quest for Freedom, Justice, and Equality,” is a brief exploration of a broader project. Every civil rights movement must struggle with how to allocate scarce resources to accomplish the broadest change possible. This paper compares the legal and political strategies of the Black rights movement and the women’s rights movement in the United States, comparing both the strategy choices and the results. These two movement followed essentially the same strategies. Where they have attained success and where each has failed demonstrates the limits of American ...


Is That All There Is?: "The Problem" In Court-Oriented Mediation, Nancy A. Welsh, Leonard L. Riskin Sep 2007

Is That All There Is?: "The Problem" In Court-Oriented Mediation, Nancy A. Welsh, Leonard L. Riskin

Nancy A Welsh

The “alternative” process of mediation is now well-institutionalized in the courts and widely (though not universally) perceived to save time and money and satisfy lawyers and litigants. However, the process has failed to meet important aspirations of its early proponents and certain expectations and needs of one-shot players. In particular, court-oriented mediation now reflects the dominance and preferences of lawyers and insurance claims adjusters. These repeat players understand “the problem” to be addressed in personal injury, employment, contract, medical malpractice and other civil non-family disputes as a matter of merits assessment and litigation risk analysis. Mediation is structured so that ...


United States Implementation Of The International Criminal Court: Towards The Federalism Of Free Nations, Lauren F. Redman Aug 2007

United States Implementation Of The International Criminal Court: Towards The Federalism Of Free Nations, Lauren F. Redman

Lauren F Redman

The political winds are changing, and a more liberal United States government may very well be receptive to ratification of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. The nature and scope of international law are also changing. Individuals are sharing responsibility with states for grave breaches of international law, and globalization has resulted in a marked increase in international tribunals deciding disputes affecting individual interests. Despite these trends, Americans have been wary of the International Criminal Court (ICC).

Federal courts principles borrowed from the legal process school can and should be implemented to govern relations between ICC and domestic ...


“Manifest” Destiny?: How Some Courts Have Fallaciously Come To Require A Greater Showing Of Congressional Intent For Jurisdictional Exhaustion Than They Require For Preemption, Colin Miller Aug 2007

“Manifest” Destiny?: How Some Courts Have Fallaciously Come To Require A Greater Showing Of Congressional Intent For Jurisdictional Exhaustion Than They Require For Preemption, Colin Miller

Colin Miller

Abstract for Colin Miller, “Manifest” Destiny?: How Some Courts Have Fallaciously Come To Require A Greater Showing Of Congressional Intent For Jurisdictional Exhaustion Than They Require For Preemption Congress engages in preemption when it enacts federal legislation that supersedes any existing state and local laws in a particular field and proscribes any future state and local regulation of that field. Because preemption repeals state and local legislative authority over traditional areas of state law, courts have understandably required that preemptive legislation evince “clear and manifest” Congressional intent to supersede state and local legislation. Conversely, when Congress includes a jurisdictional exhaustion ...


What Weyerhaeuser Suggests For Punitive Damages, Nickolai G. Levin Aug 2007

What Weyerhaeuser Suggests For Punitive Damages, Nickolai G. Levin

Nickolai G. Levin

In Weyerhaeuser Co. v. Ross-Simmons Hardwood Lumber Co., 127 U.S. 1069 (2007), the Supreme Court addressed the antitrust claim of “predatory bidding”—i.e., that a manufacturer paid too much for an “input.” Although the Ninth Circuit allowed predatory-bidding liability to be based on the jury’s subjective estimation that the defendant paid more than “necessary” for an input, the Supreme Court reversed, holding that the objective, two-part “predatory pricing” test from Brooke Group Ltd. v. Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp., 509 U.S. 209 (1993), should govern predatory-bidding claims instead. Otherwise, the Court explained, there would be a serious ...


Liberal Justices' Reliance On Legislative History: Principle, Strategy, And The Scalia Effect, James J. Brudney Aug 2007

Liberal Justices' Reliance On Legislative History: Principle, Strategy, And The Scalia Effect, James J. Brudney

James J. Brudney

Abstract for “Liberal Justices’ Reliance on Legislative History: Principle, Strategy, and the Scalia Effect”

This article conducts an in-depth examination of Supreme Court Justices’ reliance on legislative history during the Burger, Rehnquist, and early Roberts eras. In doing so, it makes two important contributions to current statutory interpretation debates.

First, the article presents a powerful case against the conventional wisdom that legislative history is a “politicized” resource, invoked opportunistically by federal judges. The premise that judges regularly rely on legislative history to promote their preferred policy positions—if true—should find ample support in the majority opinions of liberal Supreme ...


The Cash Value Of Courts, Frank B. Cross Aug 2007

The Cash Value Of Courts, Frank B. Cross

Frank B Cross

There is strong theoretical and historical reason to believe that judicial systems are an important determinant of economic wellbeing. Numerous empirical studies have now found that a measure typically called “rule of law” is associated with economic growth and other variables of interest. I conclude that the best broad “rule of law” scale is that of the World Bank Governance Matters and the best available scale for the judiciary alone is the World Economic Forum’s judicial independence metric. My analysis also shows that both these scales have a remarkably large effect on economic growth, limiting corruption, and constraining the ...


Doctrine Formulation And Distrust, Toby J. Heytens Aug 2007

Doctrine Formulation And Distrust, Toby J. Heytens

Toby J Heytens

Legal scholars exhaustively debate the substantive wisdom of Supreme Court decisions and the appropriate methods for interpreting legal texts, but rarely consider the more pragmatic need to craft rules that will be faithfully implemented by the lower court judges who have the last word in the overwhelming majority of cases. Political scientists, in contrast, invest tremendous effort seeking to determine whether lower courts “comply” with Supreme Court directives, but find themselves unable to explain why their own studies generally find high levels of compliance. This Article argues that part of the answer lies in the Court’s ability to craft ...


Three Faces Of Deference, Paul Horwitz Aug 2007

Three Faces Of Deference, Paul Horwitz

Paul Horwitz

Deference – the substitution by a decision maker of someone else’s judgment for its own – is a pervasive tool of constitutional doctrine. But although it has been studied at more abstract levels of jurisprudence and at very specific doctrinal levels, it has received surprisingly little general attention in constitutional scholarship. This Article aims to fill that gap.

This Article makes three primary contributions to the literature. First, it provides a careful examination of deference as a doctrinal tool in constitutional law, and offers a taxonomy of deference. In particular, it suggests that deference can best be understood as relying on ...


Where Lies The Emperor's Robe? An Inquiry Into The Problem Of Judicial Legitimacy, Gregory C. Pingree Aug 2007

Where Lies The Emperor's Robe? An Inquiry Into The Problem Of Judicial Legitimacy, Gregory C. Pingree

Gregory C. Pingree

Gregory C. Pingree Article Abstract

Where Lies the Emperor’s Robe?

An Inquiry Into The Problem of Judicial Legitimacy

Today the American judiciary is, by any reasonable assessment, under attack. In politicians’ pious calls for religious retribution in response to controversial judicial decisions (e.g., in the Terri Schiavo case); in recent state ballot initiatives calling for “Jail-4 Judges” who don’t render decisions ideologically satisfactory to some groups; in the embattled and nearly intractable confirmation process for federal judges; and certainly in the wake of Bush v. Gore, which left many Americans convinced that the judiciary is not the ...


Foreign Plaintiffs, Forum Non Conveniens, And Consistency, Andrew R. Klein Aug 2007

Foreign Plaintiffs, Forum Non Conveniens, And Consistency, Andrew R. Klein

Andrew R Klein

Few topics inspire more debate than globalization. Yet, despite controversy, a more integrated global economy seems inevitable. As former United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan has stated, “arguing against globalization is like arguing against the laws of gravity.”

One consequence of globalization is an increased likelihood that a person will suffer harm caused by the conduct of an entity based outside her own country. This, in turn, can lead to a victim seeking compensation far from home. The trend is evident in the United States, where an increasing number of foreign plaintiffs are seeking relief based on events that took ...


The Universal Declaration Of Human Rights At Sixty: Is It Still Right For The United States?, Tai-Heng Cheng Jul 2007

The Universal Declaration Of Human Rights At Sixty: Is It Still Right For The United States?, Tai-Heng Cheng

Tai-Heng Cheng

Many scholars and human rights advocates have hailed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a triumph for the human rights movement. The occasion of its sixtieth anniversary in 2008 provides pause to appraise if in fact it has been a success and whether it still is of any value to the United States. To conduct such an appraisal, this article reviewed the contemporaneous records of negotiations leading to the adoption of the Declaration by the UN General Assembly. It also reviewed the decisions of U.S. federal and state courts, the International Court of Justice, and Australian courts that ...


Bilcare, Ksr, Presumptions Of Validity, Preliminary Relief, And Obviousness In Patent Law, Joshua D. Sarnoff Jul 2007

Bilcare, Ksr, Presumptions Of Validity, Preliminary Relief, And Obviousness In Patent Law, Joshua D. Sarnoff

Joshua D Sarnoff

In Bilcare Ltd. v. M/S The Supreme Industries Ltd., the Delhi High Court affirmed a lower court order vacating ex parte injunctions against an alleged infringer of a patent, rejecting arguments that the patent should be presumed valid even though the patent was the subject of opposition proceedings. In KSR International, Inc. v. Teleflex Co., the U.S. Supreme Court reversed the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit’s long-standing interpretation of Section 103 of the Patent Act, i.e., that a challenger seeking to prove invalidity must demonstrate a teaching, suggestion, or motivation to combine ...


A Theory Of Procedural Common Law, Amy Coney Barrett Jul 2007

A Theory Of Procedural Common Law, Amy Coney Barrett

Amy Coney Barrett

Debates about the common lawmaking power of the federal courts focus exclusively on substantive common law. But federal common law is not limited to matters of substance; it reaches matters of procedure as well. Federal law includes a robust body of what might be called “procedural common law”—common law primarily concerned with the regulation of internal court processes rather than substantive rights and obligations. This body of law includes many doctrines that are fixtures in the law of procedure and federal courts. For example, abstention, forum non conveniens, remittitur, stare decisis, and preclusion can all fairly be characterized as ...


The Reagan Revolution In The Network Of Law, Frank B. Cross Jul 2007

The Reagan Revolution In The Network Of Law, Frank B. Cross

Frank B Cross

This paper analyzes the effect of the Rehnquist Court on Supreme Court precedent, using a network of all Court citations to other Supreme Court cases. Network analysis enables a study of the Court’s use of precedent that may not be readily visible from case-by-case reviews. We find that the Rehnquist Court has made a dramatic alteration in the network of precedent and, in the process, set the stage for a potentially revolutionary change in the makeup of the law. This may be very much the effect contemplated by the Reagan Administration in its effort to remake the composition of ...


Pulling Punches: Congressional Constraints On The Supreme Court’S Constitutional Rulings, 1987–2000, Anna Harvey, Barry Friedman Jul 2007

Pulling Punches: Congressional Constraints On The Supreme Court’S Constitutional Rulings, 1987–2000, Anna Harvey, Barry Friedman

New York University Public Law and Legal Theory Working Papers

To date, no study has found evidence that the U.S. Supreme Court is constrained by Congress in its constitutional decisions. We addressed the selection bias inherent in previous studies with a statute-centered, rather than a case-centered, analysis, following all congressional laws enacted between 1987 and 2000. We uncovered considerable congressional constraint in the Court's constitutional rulings. In particular, we found that the probability that the Rehnquist Court would strike a liberal congressional law rose between 47% and 288% as a result of the 1994 congressional elections, depending on the legislative model used.