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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Supreme "Courts" Of The Roman Empire, C.G. Bateman Jan 2018

The Supreme "Courts" Of The Roman Empire, C.G. Bateman

C.G. Bateman

Question
Why and how did Constantine go further than merely tolerating Christianity, and put himself at the head of their affairs and legislate Christian bishops into the position of Roman judges whose decisions were not subject to appeal? What effect did the rescript of 333 have on the meaning of the earlier edict of 318, and why is this important?[1]
 
Constantine, the Roman Emperor from 315-337, was a law-giver who first put the Christian Church in the place of primacy in the organization of the state that it only lost as recently as the seventeenth century; as such, he ...


Studying The "New" Civil Judges, Anna E. Carpenter Dec 2017

Studying The "New" Civil Judges, Anna E. Carpenter

Anna E. Carpenter

We know very little about the people and institutions that make up the bulk of the United States civil justice system: state judges and state courts. Our understanding of civil justice is based primarily on federal litigation and the decisions of appellate judges. Staggeringly little legal scholarship focuses on state courts and judges. We simply do not know what most judges are doing in their day-to-day courtroom roles or in their roles as institutional actors and managers of civil justice infrastructure. We know little about the factors that shape and influence judicial practices, let alone the consequences of those practices ...


A Comparative Examination Of Counter-Terrorism Law And Policy, Laurent Mayali, John Yoo Dec 2017

A Comparative Examination Of Counter-Terrorism Law And Policy, Laurent Mayali, John Yoo

Laurent Mayali

This article conducts a comparative analysis of U.S. and European counter-terrorism law and policy. Recent attacks vy ISIS in the U.S., France, and Germany have revealed important differences between American and European approaches. Before September 11, 2001, the United States responded to terrorism primarily with existing law enforcement authorities, though in isolated cases it pursued military measures abroad. In this respect, it lagged behind the approach of European nations, which had confronted internal terrorism inspired vy leftwing ideology or separatist goals. But after the 9-11 attacks, the United States adopted a preventive posture that aimed to pre-empt terrorist ...


Law Enforcement And Criminal Law Decisions, Erwin Chemerinsky Jun 2017

Law Enforcement And Criminal Law Decisions, Erwin Chemerinsky

Erwin Chemerinsky

No abstract provided.


Proportionality Review In Administrative Law, Jud Mathews Mar 2017

Proportionality Review In Administrative Law, Jud Mathews

Jud Mathews

At the most basic level, the principle of proportionality captures the common-sensical proposition that, when the government acts, the means it chooses should be well-adapted to achieve the ends it is pursuing. The proportionality principle is an admonition, as German administrative law scholar Fritz Fleiner famously wrote many decades ago, that “the police should not shoot at sparrows with cannons”. The use of proportionality review in constitutional and international law has received ample attention from scholars in recent years, but less has been said about proportionality’s role within administrative law. This piece suggest that we can understand the differences ...


Trial Courts: An Economic Perspective, Robert D. Cooter, Daniel L. Rubinfeld Feb 2017

Trial Courts: An Economic Perspective, Robert D. Cooter, Daniel L. Rubinfeld

Daniel L. Rubinfeld

This article describes economic research on models of legal disputes. Concepts such as rational choice and static equilibrium are often used inaccurately in the noneconomic research presented in this issue. This article critiques the longitudinal studies, illustrating a number of problems of conceptualization and data analysis. Finally, the authors consider normative models of dispute resolution and the evolution and effects of judge-made law.


Construction, Originalist Interpretation And The Complete Constitution, Richard Kay Dec 2016

Construction, Originalist Interpretation And The Complete Constitution, Richard Kay

Richard Kay

 In recent years, the literature of constitutional originalism has adopted a new concept, “constitutional construction.” This Essay critically examines that concept. Contrary to some claims, the difference between “interpretation” and “construction” is not well established in common law adjudication. Furthermore, contemporary descriptions of constitutional construction tend to leave some ill-defined discretion in the hands of constitutional decision-makers. Finally, the Essay disputes the claim that constitutional construction is indispensable because the constitutional text is incomplete, that failing to provide a decision-rule for many—indeed for most—constitutional disputes. The Constitution would indeed be incomplete if interpreted according to the “new” or ...


The French Prosecutor As Judge. The Carpenter’S Mistake?, Mathilde Cohen Dec 2016

The French Prosecutor As Judge. The Carpenter’S Mistake?, Mathilde Cohen

Mathilde Cohen

In France as elsewhere, prosecutors and their offices are seldom seen as agents of democracy. A distinct theoretical framework is itself missing to conceptualize the prosecutorial function in democratic states committed to the rule of law. What makes prosecutors democratically legitimate? Can they be made accountable to the public? Combining democratic theory with original qualitative empirical data, my hypothesis is that in the French context, prosecutors’ professional status and identity as judges determines to a great extent whether and how they can be considered democratic figures.
 
The French judicial function is defined more broadly than in the United States, encompassing ...


Resolving Cases On The Merits, Jay Tidmarsh Oct 2016

Resolving Cases On The Merits, Jay Tidmarsh

Jay Tidmarsh

Prepared for a Symposium on Civil Justice Reform, this essay examines the role of the “on the merits” principle in modern American procedure. After surveying the possible meanings of the phrase, the essay critiques its most common understanding due to its economic inefficiency and its lack of strong philosophical support. Relying on the recent work of Amartya Sen, the essay proposes that the principle be replaced with a “fair outcome” principle that melds both “procedural” and “substantive” concerns.


Judicial Innovation And Sexual Harassment Doctrine In The U.S. Court Of Appeals., Laura P. Moyer, Holley Takersley Sep 2016

Judicial Innovation And Sexual Harassment Doctrine In The U.S. Court Of Appeals., Laura P. Moyer, Holley Takersley

Laura Moyer

The determination that sexual harassment constituted “discrimination based on sex” under Title VII was first made by the lower federal courts, not Congress. Drawing from the literature on policy diffusion, this article examines the adoption of hostile work environment standards across the U.S. Courts of Appeals in the absence of controlling Supreme Court precedent. The results bolster recent findings about the influence of female judges on their male colleagues and suggest that in addition to siding with female plaintiffs, female judges also helped to shape legal rules that promoted gender equality in the workplace.


Lower Courts And Constitutional Comparativism, Roger P. Alford Aug 2016

Lower Courts And Constitutional Comparativism, Roger P. Alford

Roger P. Alford

The issue of constitutional comparativism has been a topic of significant commentary in recent years. However, there is one aspect of this subject that has been almost completely ignored by scholars: the reception, or lack thereof, of constitutional comparativism by state and lower federal courts. While the Supreme Court's enthusiasm for constitutional comparativism has waxed and now waned, lower state and federal courts have remained resolutely agnostic about this new movement. This is of tremendous practical significance because over ninety-nine percent of all cases are resolved by lower state and federal courts. Accordingly, if the lower courts eschew constitutional ...


Litigation Reform: An Institutional Approach, Stephen B. Burbank, Sean Farhang Aug 2016

Litigation Reform: An Institutional Approach, Stephen B. Burbank, Sean Farhang

Sean Farhang

The program of regulation through private litigation that Democratic Congresses purposefully created starting in the late 1960s soon met opposition emanating primarily from the Republican party. In the long campaign for retrenchment that began in the Reagan administration, consequential reform proved difficult and ultimately failed in Congress. Litigation reformers turned to the courts and, in marked contrast to their legislative failure, were well-rewarded, achieving growing rates of voting support from an increasingly conservative Supreme Court on issues curtailing private enforcement under individual statutes. We also demonstrate that the judiciary’s control of procedure has been central to the campaign to ...


Resurrecting Trial By Statistics, Jay Tidmarsh Jun 2016

Resurrecting Trial By Statistics, Jay Tidmarsh

Jay Tidmarsh

“Trial by statistics” was a means by which a court could resolve a large number of aggregated claims: a court could try a random sample of claim, and extrapolate the average result to the remainder. In Wal-Mart, Inc. v. Dukes, the Supreme Court seemingly ended the practice at the federal level, thus removing from judges a tool that made mass aggregation more feasible. After examining the benefits and drawbacks of trial by statistics, this Article suggests an alternative that harnesses many of the positive features of the technique while avoiding its major difficulties. The technique is the “presumptive judgment”: a ...


The Languishing Public Safety Doctrine, Brian Gallini May 2016

The Languishing Public Safety Doctrine, Brian Gallini

Brian Gallini

Every semester, law students across the country read New York v. Quarles in criminal procedure.  The Supreme Court’s 1984 decision in Quarles established the public safety exception—the first and only exception to the requirements of Miranda v. Arizona.  But at the time of Quarles’s issuance, no one could have predicted just how long it would sit untouched by the Supreme Court. 

Application of Quarles to high profile defendants like James Holmes and Dzhokhar Tsarnaev illustrate the need for more clarity in the context of applying the public safety exception. Mores specifically, those cases demonstrate why the Supreme ...


On The Linguistic Design Of Multinational Courts — The French Capture, Mathilde Cohen Dec 2015

On The Linguistic Design Of Multinational Courts — The French Capture, Mathilde Cohen

Mathilde Cohen

This Article discusses the importance of language in the institutional design of European and international courts, which I refer to as “linguistic design.” What is at stake in the choice a court’s official or working language? Picking a language has far-reaching consequences on a court’s composition and internal organizational culture, possibly going as far as influencing the substantive law produced. This is the case because language choices impact the screening of the staff and the manufacture of judicial opinions. Linguistic design imposes costs on non-native speakers forced to use a second (or third) language and confers a set ...


Judicial Lobbying, Jonas Anderson Dec 2015

Judicial Lobbying, Jonas Anderson

J. Jonas Anderson

Abstract: Judges who lobby Congress for legal reform tread into an ethical gray area: lobbying is legally permissible, but generally frowned upon. Currently, there are no legal or ethical constraints on judges speaking publicly regarding proposed legislative changes, only an ill-defined norm against the practice. Scholars have largely dismissed judicial lobbying efforts as the result of haphazard, one-off events, driven by the unique interests, expertise, or ideology of the individual judge involved. According to scholars, there is nothing that should be done-not to mention little that could be done-to restrict judges from lobbying.

Judicial lobbying occurs, in large part, when ...


The Routinization Of Debt Collection: An Essay On Social Change And Conflict In The Courts, Robert Kagan Dec 2015

The Routinization Of Debt Collection: An Essay On Social Change And Conflict In The Courts, Robert Kagan

Robert Kagan

No abstract provided.


Penal Culture And Hyperincarceration: The Revival Of The Prison, Alex Steel, Chris Cunneen, David Brown, Eileen Baldry, Melanie Schwartz, Mark Brown Dec 2015

Penal Culture And Hyperincarceration: The Revival Of The Prison, Alex Steel, Chris Cunneen, David Brown, Eileen Baldry, Melanie Schwartz, Mark Brown

David C. Brown

What are the various forces influencing the role of the prison in late modern societies? What changes have there been in penality and use of the prison over the past 40 years that have led to the re-valorization of the prison? Using penal culture as a conceptual and theoretical vehicle, and Australia as a case study, this book analyses international developments in penality and imprisonment. Authored by some of Australia’s leading penal theorists, the book examines the historical and contemporary influences on the use of the prison, with analyses of colonialism, post colonialism, race, and what they term the ...


In The Eye Of The Beholder: Tort Litigants' Evaluations Of Their Experiences In The Civil Justice System, E. Lind, Robert Maccoun, Patricia Ebener, William Felstiner Dec 2015

In The Eye Of The Beholder: Tort Litigants' Evaluations Of Their Experiences In The Civil Justice System, E. Lind, Robert Maccoun, Patricia Ebener, William Felstiner

Robert MacCoun

Little is known about the reactions of tort litigants to traditional and alternative litigation procedures. To explore this issue, we interviewed litigants in personal injury cases in three state courts whose cases had been resolved by trial, court-annexed arbitration, judicial settlement conferences, or bilateral settlement. The litigants viewed the trial and arbitration procedures as fairer than bilateral settlement, apparently because they believed that trials and arbitration hearings gave their case more respectful treatment. They were less satisfied with the outcome of judicial settlement conferences than with the outcome of bilateral settlements, because judicial settlement conference outcomes were more likely to ...


China's Judicial System And Judicial Reform, Nicholas Howson Dec 2015

China's Judicial System And Judicial Reform, Nicholas Howson

Nicholas Howson

The following is an extract from the statement delivered by Michigan Law School Professor Nicholas Howson at the inaugural “China-U.S. Rule of Law Dialogue” held at Beijing’s Tsinghua University July 29-30, 2010, and convened by Tsinghua Law Dean Wang Zhenmin and Harvard Law School Professor and East Asian Legal Studies Director William Alford, and with the support of the China-United States Exchange Foundation chaired by C.H. Tung, first chief executive and president of the Executive Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The dialogue was organized as a private meeting between senior PRC law professors and ...


The Role Of Courts In Improving The Legislative Process, Ittai Bar-Siman-Tov Nov 2015

The Role Of Courts In Improving The Legislative Process, Ittai Bar-Siman-Tov

Dr. Ittai Bar-Siman-Tov

In recent years, there has been growing and widespread discontent with the state of the legislative process in many legislatures. At the same time, there is an emerging trend of courts exercising judicial review of the legislative process. Against this backdrop, this article explores the question of what can be the role of courts in efforts to improve the legislative process. The article offers a fresh perspective on the problems in the legislative process and their causes. It then develops a novel argument – that does not rest upon a cynical view of legislatures, nor on a rosy picture of courts ...


Hollow Hopes, Flypaper, And Metaphors, Malcolm M. Feeley Nov 2015

Hollow Hopes, Flypaper, And Metaphors, Malcolm M. Feeley

Malcolm Feeley

No abstract provided.


Two Models Of The Criminal Justice System: An Organizational Perspective, Malcolm M. Feeley Nov 2015

Two Models Of The Criminal Justice System: An Organizational Perspective, Malcolm M. Feeley

Malcolm Feeley

Systematic studies of the administration of justice in the United States have stressed either the rational-goal model or the functional-systems model. The former model emphasizes problems with the justice system's formal rules of operation and appears to be the dominant view of appellate judges, lawyers, and law students, while the latter model is concerned with the identification and adaptation of action to the environment and the interests of action within the system.


Earning Deference: Reflections On The Merger Of Environmental And Land-Use Law, Michael Allan Wolf Nov 2015

Earning Deference: Reflections On The Merger Of Environmental And Land-Use Law, Michael Allan Wolf

Michael A Wolf

The bedrock notion that courts should, in the overwhelming majority of cases, defer to lawmakers is currently under attack in the nation's courts, commentary and classrooms. Leading the way are several United States Supreme Court Justices who, in cases involving the Commerce Clause, the Takings Clause and Section Five of the Fourteenth Amendment, are much more willing than their immediate predecessors to second-guess the motives and tactics of elected and appointed officials at all levels of government. Given this new juris-political reality, it is more important than ever that local government officials--who are often (though, certainly, not always justifiably ...


Judicial Treatment Of The Antitrust Treatise, Hillary Greene, D. Daniel Sokol Nov 2015

Judicial Treatment Of The Antitrust Treatise, Hillary Greene, D. Daniel Sokol

D. Daniel Sokol

This essay examines Herbert Hovenkamp's influence in antitrust law and policy in the courts. This essay focuses its attention primarily with the Treatise and primarily in the area of merger law – procedural with issues of antitrust injury and substantively with merger efficiencies. The essay provides a case count citation analysis of Hovenkamp's scholarship and compares Hovenkamp to other major figures in antitrust scholarship (Bork and Posner) and to the other antitrust treatises (Kintner and Sullivan) in the courts. Our meta-level findings show that Hovenkamp is far more cited than other treatise writers or scholars who have been recognized ...


Book Review: Justice In Robes By Ronald Dworkin (2006), Dan Priel Oct 2015

Book Review: Justice In Robes By Ronald Dworkin (2006), Dan Priel

Dan Priel

Since the 1960's Ronald Dworkin has been arguing for a particular account of law that he believed was both explanatorily superior to the one offered by competing theories, and also the basis for normative arguments for producing right answers to legal questions. Justice in Robes collects Dworkin's most recent essays on this subject and thus provides the appropriate opportunity for assessing the legal theory of one of the more influential legal philosophers. In this Review I seek to offer a clearer account than appears in the book itself of Dworkin's project, and in this way offer a ...


The Enforcement Of Prisoners’ Rights In The United States: An Access To The Courts Issue, Roberta M. Harding Aug 2015

The Enforcement Of Prisoners’ Rights In The United States: An Access To The Courts Issue, Roberta M. Harding

Roberta M. Harding

This article examines how the development and status of the rights of incarcerated people is significantly effected by their ability to access the judiciary; specifically the federal judicial system. The relatively recent explosion in the American prison population provided the impetus for researching this topic. The objective was to examine whether this tremendous rise in the number of people incarcerated in U.S. penal facilities had impacted the posture of the rights afforded to these individuals. One conclusion reached was that the rise in the prison population had harshly eroded the right of access to the courts. The exploration of ...


"The Hindrance Of A Law Degree": Justice Kagan On Law And Experience, Laura Krugman Ray Apr 2015

"The Hindrance Of A Law Degree": Justice Kagan On Law And Experience, Laura Krugman Ray

Laura K. Ray

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Comity In The Law Of Federal Courts, Michael L. Wells Mar 2015

The Role Of Comity In The Law Of Federal Courts, Michael L. Wells

Michael V. Wells

Considerations of comity often require federal courts to defer to state courts when federal issues could be raised in state proceedings. Contexts in which such deference is required include Younger abstention, habeus corpus exhaustion and procedural default, and Pullman and Burford abstention. In this Article, Professor Wells demonstrates that the Supreme Court's opinions fail to make a distinction between cases where comity requires restraint and those where it does not. The Court's motive in invoking comity is not to decrease access to federal courts, but instead to strike a compromise between the individual's interest in a federal ...


Participation, Responsiveness, And The Consultative Process: An Essay For Lon Fuller, Melvin Aron Eisenberg Mar 2015

Participation, Responsiveness, And The Consultative Process: An Essay For Lon Fuller, Melvin Aron Eisenberg

Melvin A. Eisenberg

In this essay, Professor Eisenberg identifies three norms of the adjudicative process put forth by Professor Fuller in The Forms and Limits of Adjudication--attention by the decision-maker, explanation of the decision, and responsiveness of the decision to the parties' proofs and arguments. Professor Eisenberg argues that there is a form of social ordering which, like adjudication, is characterized by assured participation, but which does not require that the decision be responsive to the parties' proofs and arguments. He explores some of the current and potential applications of this form of social ordering, which he terms the Consultative Process. He goes ...