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2011

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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Hollowness Of The Harm Principle, Steven D. Smith Dec 2011

The Hollowness Of The Harm Principle, Steven D. Smith

Steven D. Smith

Among the various instruments in the toolbox of liberalism, the so-called “harm principle,” presented as the central thesis of John Stuart Mill’s classic On Liberty, has been one of the most popular. The harm principle has been widely embraced and invoked in both academic and popular debate about a variety of issues ranging from obscenity to drug regulation to abortion to same-sex marriage, and its influence is discernible in legal arguments and judicial opinions as well. Despite the principle’s apparent irresistibility, this essay argues that the principle is hollow. It is an empty vessel, alluring but without any ...


The Better Part Of Valor: The Real Id Act, Discretion, And The “Rule” Of Immigration Law, Daniel Kanstroom Nov 2011

The Better Part Of Valor: The Real Id Act, Discretion, And The “Rule” Of Immigration Law, Daniel Kanstroom

Daniel Kanstroom

This article considers the problems raised by a federal law--the “REAL ID Act”--that seeks to preclude judicial review of discretionary immigration law decisions. Discretion, the flexible shock absorber of the administrative state, must be respected by our legal system. However, as Justice Felix Frankfurter once wrote, discretion is, “only to be respected when it is conscious of the traditions which surround it and of the limits which an informed conscience sets to its exercise.” The article suggests that judicial construction of the REAL ID Act will plumb the deep meaning of this qualification. The new law states, essentially, that ...


Law And Lawyers In The U.S.: The Hero-Villain Dichotomy, Judith A. Mcmorrow Oct 2011

Law And Lawyers In The U.S.: The Hero-Villain Dichotomy, Judith A. Mcmorrow

Judith A. McMorrow

Lawyers in U.S. culture are often presented in either an extremely positive or extremely negative light. Although popular culture exaggerates and oversimplifies the 'good v. bad' dynamic of lawyers, this dichotomy provides important insights into the role attorneys play in the U.S. legal system, the boundaries of legal ethics, and the extent to which the U.S. legal system is relied upon to address our society's great moral and social dilemmas.


What Should Guide Determinations Of Foreign Official Immunity In Us Courts After Samantar?, Chris C. Morley Oct 2011

What Should Guide Determinations Of Foreign Official Immunity In Us Courts After Samantar?, Chris C. Morley

Chris C Morley

In the recent Samantar decision, the Supreme Court held that individual foreign officials were not covered by the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act but might still be covered by common law immunity. This article analyzes the extent of that common law immunity and discusses whether more recent developments in domestic and international human rights law should impact the availability of immunity for officials accused of torture, extra-judicial killings, and other violations of the law of nations.

Although the bulk of authority from US and foreign courts suggests that foreign officials should enjoy immunity for acts committed within the scope of their ...


Civil Protective Orders In Integrated Domestic Violence Court: An Empirical Study, Erika Rickard Oct 2011

Civil Protective Orders In Integrated Domestic Violence Court: An Empirical Study, Erika Rickard

Erika Rickard

New York's Integrated Domestic Violence (IDV) Court was created to streamline the judicial process and promote efficiency and victim safety in cases of domestic violence. One would expect this collaboration and concerted effort on improving the justice system for victims of domestic violence would yield faster results than under the traditional system. The data presented here indicate just the opposite: IDV Courts take longer to address motions for civil protective orders, and are not significantly more likely to grant such orders than traditional matrimonial courts. Delays in the civil protective order process suggest that the problem-solving court may not ...


Checking The Staats: How Long Is Too Long To Give Adequate Public Notice In Broadening Reissue Patent Applications?, David M. Longo Sep 2011

Checking The Staats: How Long Is Too Long To Give Adequate Public Notice In Broadening Reissue Patent Applications?, David M. Longo

David M. Longo

No abstract provided.


In Defense Of The Substance-Procedure Dichotomy, Jennifer S. Hendricks Sep 2011

In Defense Of The Substance-Procedure Dichotomy, Jennifer S. Hendricks

College of Law Faculty Scholarship

John Hart Ely famously observed, “We were all brought up on sophisticated talk about the fluidity of the line between substance and procedure,” but for most of Erie’s history, the Supreme Court has answered the question “Does this state law govern in federal court?” with a “yes” or a “no.” Beginning, however, with Gasperini v. Center for Humanities, and continuing with Semtek v. Lockheed and Shady Grove v. Allstate, a shifting coalition of justices has pursued a third path. Instead of declaring state law applicable or inapplicable, they have claimed for themselves the prerogative to fashion law that purportedly ...


Ending Erie's Third Phase: Why The Supreme Court Should Stop Freelancing And Go Back To Drawing Lines Between Substance And Procedure, Jennifer S. Hendricks Sep 2011

Ending Erie's Third Phase: Why The Supreme Court Should Stop Freelancing And Go Back To Drawing Lines Between Substance And Procedure, Jennifer S. Hendricks

College of Law Faculty Scholarship

John Hart Ely famously observed, “We were all brought up on sophisticated talk about the fluidity of the line between substance and procedure,” but for most of Erie’s history, the Supreme Court has answered the question “Does this state law govern in federal court?” with a “yes” or a “no.” Beginning, however, with Gasperini v. Center for Humanities, and continuing with Semtek v. Lockheed and Shady Grove v. Allstate, a shifting coalition of justices has pursued a third path. Instead of declaring state law applicable or inapplicable, they have claimed for themselves the prerogative to fashion law that purportedly ...


Az Youth Summit-Questioning Interviewing Techniques, Jalae Ulicki Aug 2011

Az Youth Summit-Questioning Interviewing Techniques, Jalae Ulicki

Jalae Ulicki

This presentation was focused for a young audience by creating a simulation with various roles assigned to students in order to give them an opportunity to improve their questioning and interviewing techniques and to learn about what lawyers actually do.


Book Review Of Current Issues In Constitutional Litigation: A Context And Practice Casebook (Carolina Academic Press 2011), Christy Whitfield Aug 2011

Book Review Of Current Issues In Constitutional Litigation: A Context And Practice Casebook (Carolina Academic Press 2011), Christy Whitfield

Sarah E. Ricks

This is a book review of Current Issues in Constitutional Litigation: A Context & Practice Casebook (Carolina Academic Press 2011). My perspective is unique because I have worked with and watched this casebook evolve – I was assigned an early draft of the casebook as a law school student taking a constitutional litigation course, I worked as a research assistant on a later version of the casebook, and now, several years later, I have viewed the final result of the casebook as a practicing attorney. As a former law clerk and now as an attorney advisor in the beginning years of practice ...


The Reality Of Eu-Conformity Review In France, Juscelino Colares Aug 2011

The Reality Of Eu-Conformity Review In France, Juscelino Colares

Juscelino F. Colares

French High Courts embraced review of national legislation for conformity with EU law in different stages and following distinct approaches to EU law supremacy. This article tests whether adherence to different views on EU law supremacy has resulted in different levels of EU directive enforcement by the French High Courts. After introducing the complex French systems of statutory, treaty and constitutional review, this study explains how EU-conformity review emerged among these systems and provides an empirical analysis refuting the anecdotal view that different EU supremacy theories produce substantial differences in conformity adjudication outcomes. These Courts' uniformly high rates of EU ...


Originalism And The Aristotelian Tradition: Virtue’S Home In Originalism, Lee Strang Aug 2011

Originalism And The Aristotelian Tradition: Virtue’S Home In Originalism, Lee Strang

Lee J Strang

A concept fundamental to philosophy—virtue—is, with a few notable exceptions, absent from scholarship on constitutional interpretation generally, and originalism in particular. Furthermore, common perceptions of both virtue ethics and originalism have prevented exploration of how incorporating virtue ethics’ insights may make originalism a better theory of constitutional interpretation. This Article fills that void by explaining the many ways in which concepts from virtue ethics are compatible with an originalist theory of constitutional interpretation. More importantly, I show that originalism is more normatively attractive and descriptively accurate when it takes on board virtue ethics’ insights.

Originalism must articulate virtue ...


Judicial Intervention As Risk Reduction, Juliet P. Kostritsky Aug 2011

Judicial Intervention As Risk Reduction, Juliet P. Kostritsky

Juliet P Kostritsky

JUDICIAL INTERVENTION AS RISK REDUCTION J. P. Kostritsky Employing an economics-based consequentialist approach to contract interpretation (focusing on the prospective effect and the factors that might justify intervention) this Article attempts to identify the precise parameters of an optimal framework for contract interpretation. Such a framework would seek to maximize gains from trade. The issue in such cases is always, given the words the parties used, what is the best (surplus maximizing) interpretation of the bargain. Courts can achieve that interpretation by, in part, minimizing the interpretive risk that parties face when they draft an express contract but fail to ...


Does Three Do The Trick In The Ninth? The Liberal Ninth Circuit – Myth Or Fact: How The Three Judge Panel, And A System Of Published And Unpublished Opinions Interact With Political Appointments In The Ninth Circuit, Rachel N. Agress Aug 2011

Does Three Do The Trick In The Ninth? The Liberal Ninth Circuit – Myth Or Fact: How The Three Judge Panel, And A System Of Published And Unpublished Opinions Interact With Political Appointments In The Ninth Circuit, Rachel N. Agress

Rachel N. Agress

This article examines the persistent view that the Ninth Circuit is “overly liberal,” and attempts to evaluate this outlook in light of data collected regarding two variables. The first variable is the composition of individual political orientations of judges on the Ninth Circuit as compared to the political composition of other circuit courts. To achieve this comparison, this paper looks at political appointments and classified judges as “liberal” or “conservative,” based on political appointment by a Democratic or Republican president. Further, this article delineates the current percentage of “liberal” versus “conservative” judges in each circuit, comparing the average circuit court ...


Economic Evolution, Jurisdictional Revolution, Dustin Buehler Aug 2011

Economic Evolution, Jurisdictional Revolution, Dustin Buehler

Dustin Buehler

In June 2011, the Supreme Court issued its first personal jurisdiction decision in two decades. In J. McIntyre Machinery, Ltd. v. Nicastro, the Court considered whether the placement of a product in the “stream of commerce” subjects a nonresident manufacturer to personal jurisdiction in states where the product is distributed. The Court issued a fractured opinion with no majority rule, with some justices expressing reluctance to “refashion basic jurisdictional rules” without additional information on “modern-day consequences.” This Article explores the consequences of these rules by providing the first law-and-economics analysis of personal jurisdiction. A descriptive analysis initially demonstrates that jurisdictional ...


Applying Constitutional Decision Rules Versus Invalidating Statutes In Toto: An Alternative To Rosenkranz’S Approach To Facial, As-Applied, And Overbreadth Adjudication, Misha Tseytlin, Scott Keller Aug 2011

Applying Constitutional Decision Rules Versus Invalidating Statutes In Toto: An Alternative To Rosenkranz’S Approach To Facial, As-Applied, And Overbreadth Adjudication, Misha Tseytlin, Scott Keller

Misha Tseytlin

Nicholas Rosenkranz has recently proposed a model of judicial review for dealing with facial and as-applied challenges. This model argues that “facial” challenges necessarily apply to suits against legislative actions and, where successful, lead to total invalidation of the statutory provision at issue; whereas “as-applied” challenges are as-executed challenges to executive conduct and can only lead to vindication of the litigant’s rights in the case at issue. This Article explains that there is a fundamental flaw in Rosenkranz’s approach—a flaw often repeated by other scholars and that has caused serious confusion among judges: the failure to differentiate ...


The More Things Change, The More They Stay The Same: A Comparison Of Medical Mal;Practice Trials In Virginia And North Carolina, Ralph Peeples Aug 2011

The More Things Change, The More They Stay The Same: A Comparison Of Medical Mal;Practice Trials In Virginia And North Carolina, Ralph Peeples

Ralph Peeples

This paper examines ten years (2000-2010) of medical malpractice trials conducted in Virginia and North Carolina. The primary source of our data are closed insurance records made available by an insurance company that provides malpractice coverage for physicians in both states. We are thus able to report on these trials in detail. We identify a number of the attributes of these trials, including demographic data, injury severity, outcomes at trial, physician specialty, medical allegations and insurer assessment of the cases. Plaintiffs were consistently more successful at trial in Virginia than in North Carolina. We discuss possible explanations for this difference ...


A Farewell To Harms: Presuming Irreparable Injury In Constitutional Litigation, Anthony Disarro Aug 2011

A Farewell To Harms: Presuming Irreparable Injury In Constitutional Litigation, Anthony Disarro

Anthony DiSarro

Although it is an essential element to obtaining injunctive relief, most federal circuit courts have held that irreparable injury can be presumed in constitutional cases. The Supreme Court has not addressed a presumption of irreparable harm in the constitutional context but it has disapproved of the practice for federal statutory claims. This article argues that the presumption is improper. The history of the injunctive remedy in this country suggests that irreparable injury is an essential element of proof that should be applied in all cases. Indeed, although constitutional rights are of paramount importance in our legal system, the fact that ...


Getting Away With Murder (Most Of The Time): A Sesquicentennial Analysis Of Civil War Era Homicide Cases In Boone County, Missouri, Frank O. Bowman Iii Aug 2011

Getting Away With Murder (Most Of The Time): A Sesquicentennial Analysis Of Civil War Era Homicide Cases In Boone County, Missouri, Frank O. Bowman Iii

Frank O. Bowman III

In the quarter century centered on the Civil War, 1850-1875, fifty-three homicide cases came before the courts of Boone County, Missouri, of which Columbia, home of the University of Missouri, is the county seat. To remarkable degree, the story of these killings, told in this article, is a chronicle of the place and period.

The article’s method might be described as “murder as social history.” Its narrative thread is an effort to explain the remarkable fact that only twelve of the fifty-three defendants charged with murder were ever convicted of any form of criminal homicide. The explanation requires an ...


The Reality Of Eu-Conformity Review In France, Juscelino Colares Aug 2011

The Reality Of Eu-Conformity Review In France, Juscelino Colares

Juscelino F. Colares

French High Courts embraced review of national legislation for conformity with EU law in different stages and following distinct approaches to EU law supremacy. This article tests whether adherence to different views on EU law supremacy has resulted in different levels of EU directive enforcement by the French High Courts. After introducing the complex French systems of statutory, treaty and constitutional review, this study explains how EU-conformity review emerged among these systems and provides an empirical analysis refuting the anecdotal view that different EU supremacy theories produce substantial differences in conformity adjudication outcomes. These Courts' uniformly high rates of EU ...


When A Jury Can’T Say No: Presumed Damages For Constitutional Torts, Anthony Disarro Aug 2011

When A Jury Can’T Say No: Presumed Damages For Constitutional Torts, Anthony Disarro

Anthony DiSarro

Although the Supreme Court has twice rejected presumed damages as a remedy for constitutional violations, the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit has endorsed the remedy at least for certain constitutional torts that result in a “loss of liberty”. Presumed damages for constitutional wrongs is difficult to reconcile with much of our present remedial jurisprudence. The remedy seems contrary to Supreme Court pronouncements that compensatory damages are be the primary means to obtain a monetary remedy for injuries sustained from constitutional violations, and that nominal damages should be awarded when no such damages are proved. Presuming damages represents an ...


Graham On The Ground, Cara H. Drinan Aug 2011

Graham On The Ground, Cara H. Drinan

Cara H. Drinan

In Graham v. Florida, the Supreme Court held that it is unconstitutional to sentence a non-homicide juvenile offender to life in prison without parole. While states need not guarantee release to these juvenile offenders, they cannot foreclose such an outcome at the sentencing phase. Scholars have identified several long-term ramifications of Graham, including its likely influence on juvenile sentencing practices and on retributive justice theory. What has yet to be examined are the thorny legal issues raised by Graham that judges and lawmakers need to address in the very short term. To whom does the Graham decision apply? What is ...


The Selection Of Thirteenth-Century Disputes For Litigation, Daniel M. Klerman Jul 2011

The Selection Of Thirteenth-Century Disputes For Litigation, Daniel M. Klerman

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

Priest and Klein's seminal 1984 article argued that litigated cases differ systematically and predictably from settled cases. This article tests the Priest-Klein selection model using a data set of thirteenth-century English cases. These cases are especially informative because juries rendered verdicts even in settled cases, so one can directly compare verdicts in settled and litigated cases. The results are consistent with the predictions of the Priest-Klein article, as well as with the asymmetric-information selection models developed by Hylton and Shavell.


Lay Judgments Of Judicial Decision-Making, Dan Simon, Nicholas Scurich Jul 2011

Lay Judgments Of Judicial Decision-Making, Dan Simon, Nicholas Scurich

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

This exploratory study examined lay people's evaluations of judicial decision-making, specifically of the judicial decision-making process and the judiciary's legitimacy. Seven hundred participants were presented with three judicial decisions, which were portrayed as following on the heels of solid and appropriate legal procedure. Each decision was accompanied by one of four types of reasoning. Participants were asked to evaluate the acceptability of the decisions, focusing on the manner in which they were made and the legitimacy of the decision-maker, regardless of their outcomes. The study yielded four findings. First, lay people’s judgments were highly contingent on the ...


The Preiser Puzzle: Continued Frustrating Conflict Between The Civil Rights And Habeas Corpus Remedies For State Prisoners, Martin A. Schwartz Jun 2011

The Preiser Puzzle: Continued Frustrating Conflict Between The Civil Rights And Habeas Corpus Remedies For State Prisoners, Martin A. Schwartz

Martin A. Schwartz

No abstract provided.


Materials For Presentation: The Disappearing Colorado River, Lawrence J. Macdonnell Jun 2011

Materials For Presentation: The Disappearing Colorado River, Lawrence J. Macdonnell

Navigating the Future of the Colorado River (Martz Summer Conference, June 8-10)

7 pages.

"Western Economics Forum, Fall 2010"


Demystifying The Determination Of Foreign Law In U.S. Courts: Opening The Door To A Greater Global Understanding, Matthew J. Wilson Jun 2011

Demystifying The Determination Of Foreign Law In U.S. Courts: Opening The Door To A Greater Global Understanding, Matthew J. Wilson

Matthew J. Wilson

With globalization and the proliferation of international commercial interaction, U.S. courts commonly encounter issues governed by the laws of other sovereigns. These encounters arise by virtue of private agreements or choice-of-law rules covering contractual relationships, cross-border conduct, tortuous acts, employment matters, intellectual property rights, and various other legal foundations. Because the substantive law applied in an international lawsuit can be outcome-determinative, it is important to accurately ascertain and determine the relevant law. In fact, the proper functioning of private international law in a domestic system is based on the appropriate application of law.

U.S. federal and state courts ...


All Your Eggs In One Basket: Why Contract Law Proves Unreliable In Frozen Embryo Adoption Cases, Austin R. Caster May 2011

All Your Eggs In One Basket: Why Contract Law Proves Unreliable In Frozen Embryo Adoption Cases, Austin R. Caster

Austin R Caster

This article will show why infertile couples cannot unequivocally rely on good faith, consensual contracts in cases of assisted reproductive technology because the law is so unsettled. Each section will show why, because of alleged public policy implications, contract doctrines or clauses such as (1) the termination of parental rights, (2) the doctrine of waste, and (3) liquidated damages still remain almost completely unreliable in a matter regarding assisted reproductive technology. Though this uncertainty affects infertile couples trying to complete their families through various methods including adoption, surrogacy, in vitro fertilization, and artificial insemination, this article will focus on cases ...


The Kennedy-Hoffa Showdown: Why Congressional Investigations Need Greater Powers And Procedural Leeway Than Prosecutions, Nicholas C. Stewart May 2011

The Kennedy-Hoffa Showdown: Why Congressional Investigations Need Greater Powers And Procedural Leeway Than Prosecutions, Nicholas C. Stewart

Nicholas C Stewart

ABSTRACT:

This 9,400-word article uses the feud between Robert Kennedy and Jimmy Hoffa as a case study to examine how and why congressional investigations differ from criminal prosecutions. It begins with a discussion of the 1950s congressional investigation into labor racketeering. Armed with this illustrative example, the article explores the relationship among (1) the purposes of congressional investigations (namely lawmaking), (2) the powers enjoyed by committees to achieve these purposes, and (3) the protections afforded committee witnesses. Highlighting the dangers inherent in congressional investigations, this article concludes that the ultimate goal of passing or amending laws presents unique challenges ...


Adoption Of English Law In Maryland, Garrett Power May 2011

Adoption Of English Law In Maryland, Garrett Power

Garrett Power

It served as an axiom of Maryland’s constitutional history that settlers carried with them the “rights of Englishmen” when they crossed the Atlantic. In 1642 the Assembly of Maryland Freemen declared Maryland’s provincial judges were to follows the law of England. Maryland’s 1776 Declaration of Independence left a legal lacuna--- what were to be the laws and public institutions of this newly created sovereign entity? This paper considers the manner in which the sovereign state of Maryland filled the void.