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2009

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Articles 1 - 30 of 114

Full-Text Articles in Law

The Sound Of Silence: Eligibility Qualifications And Article Iii, James F. Ianelli Dec 2009

The Sound Of Silence: Eligibility Qualifications And Article Iii, James F. Ianelli

James Ianelli

The Constitution’s eligibility qualifications in Articles I and II have drawn increased scrutiny in recent national elections. No scholarship to date, however, has examined why the Framers omitted any comparable qualifications from Article III. This paper presents the question of what made the judiciary unique relative to the other branches such that any nominated and confirmed candidate could sit on the federal bench.

The answer to this question sheds new light on the wisdom of eligibility qualifications in Articles I and II. Although no direct historical record details the basis for the omission, a number of factors appear relevant ...


An Escape Route From The Medellin Maze, Anthony S. Winer Nov 2009

An Escape Route From The Medellin Maze, Anthony S. Winer

Anthony S. Winer

The recent Supreme Court decision in Medellín v. Texas created a veritable “maze” for foreign prisoners in the U.S., and their countries of nationality, who might wish to enforce their rights under the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (the “VCCR”). This decision, and other Supreme Court and lower federal court opinions, have erected “dead ends” for prisoners and their countries of nationality that block their “escape” from this maze. These opinions, among other implications, cast substantial doubt on the availability of judicial relief for individuals under the VCCR, foreclose executive enforcement, and exclude the possibility of corrective injunctions for ...


Protect The Children: Challenges That Result In, And Consequences Resulting From, Inconsistent Prosecution Of Child Pornography Cases In A Technological World, Francis S. Monterosso Nov 2009

Protect The Children: Challenges That Result In, And Consequences Resulting From, Inconsistent Prosecution Of Child Pornography Cases In A Technological World, Francis S. Monterosso

Francis S Monterosso

This Note untangles courts’ problems with the prosecution of child pornography defendants and aims to redirect attention to the social impact associated with these crimes. First, Part I provides an introduction to the Note and discusses the background of the Child Pornography Prevention Act. Secondly, Part II sets forth the evolution of the CPPA and its goals and shortcomings. Next, Part III further explains the development of child pornography prosecutions in the United States through two cases that illustrate the government’s desire to prosecute child pornography defendants.

Moreover, Part IV explains the difficulties courts have encountered in the prosecution ...


The Head-On Collision Of Gasperini And The Derailment Of Erie: Exposing The Futility Of The Accommodation Doctrine, Armando Gustavo Hernandez Nov 2009

The Head-On Collision Of Gasperini And The Derailment Of Erie: Exposing The Futility Of The Accommodation Doctrine, Armando Gustavo Hernandez

Armando G. Hernandez

A simple truism we all learned in our childhood was that the square pegs did not fit into the circular shaped cut-outs. Greek philosophers often struggled with this very same conundrum of squaring the circle. In 1996, the Supreme Court decided Gasperini v. Center for Humanities, Inc., 518 U.S. 415 (1996). The case required application of the Court's Erie jurisprudence. Many commentators hailed the case as the ideal moment to clarify the Court's esoteric body of law. However, writing for a six vote majority, Justice Ginsburg held that state law (the square) and federal law (the circle ...


Constitutional Solipsism: Toward A Thick Doctrine Of Article Iii Duty; Or Why The Federal Circuits’ Nonprecedential Status Rules Are (Profoundly) Unconstitutional, Penelope J. Pether Oct 2009

Constitutional Solipsism: Toward A Thick Doctrine Of Article Iii Duty; Or Why The Federal Circuits’ Nonprecedential Status Rules Are (Profoundly) Unconstitutional, Penelope J. Pether

Working Paper Series

Constitutional Solipsism is the fourth in a series of articles on aspects of the private judging practices which have come to characterize the U.S. state and federal courts since the late 1950s. The first, Inequitable Injunctions: The Scandal of Private Judging in the U.S. Courts, 56 STAN. L. REV. 1435 (2004) gave a critical historical account of the development of the “practices of private judging” in U.S. Courts. Take a Letter, Your Honor: Outing the Judicial Epistemology of Hart v. Massanari, 62 WASH. & LEE L. REV. 1553 (2005), analyzed the development of a distinctive U.S. theory of precedent. Sorcerers, Not Apprentices: How Judicial Clerks and Staff Attorneys Impoverish U.S. Law, 39 ARIZ. ST. L.J. 1 (2007), documented the de facto delegation of the majority of Article III judicial power to inadequately supervised non-judicial actors, and the origins of nonprecedential status rules in the federal bench’s mistrust of the accuracy of the judging done in its name.

Constitutional Solipsism takes up the repeated suggestions by federal courts and organs of the Federal Judicial Conference that the circuits’ ubiquitous nonprecedential status rules are unconstitutional. Mapping, analyzing, and substantially supplementing scattered, thin, and inconclusive scholarly analyses, largely published in the wake of the decision in Anastasoff v. United States, 223 F.3d 898 (8th Cir. 2000), vacated en banc as moot, 235 F.3d 1054 (8th Cir. 2000), it is the first comprehensive analysis of the constitutionality question. In addition to considering previously unexplored yet salient constitutional doctrine, including the “fundamental interests” jurisprudence articulating the constitutional right of access to the courts, and non-delegation doctrine, the Article departs from predecessor scholarship by considering the rules in the contexts that they justify and enable: the delegation of Article III power to inadequately supervised adjuncts, and the abbreviated adjudicatory processes that arguably deny plenary appeals to the majority of federal appellants, substituting an unsafe certiorari process for appeals as of right.

Relying principally on a critical reading of the leading inherent Article III power cases and authority on the powers “essential to the administration of justice,” and the constitutional logic of bodies of doctrine including fundamental interests and non-delegation doctrine, as well as on the limits on the circuits’ formal rulemaking power, Constitutional Solipsism concludes that the rules and the practices that underpin them are profoundly unconstitutional, because ultra vires Article III power. It goes on to argue both that the constitutional solipsism that characterizes the courts’ inherent power jurisprudence and their judging practices calls for a thick constitutionalist doctrine of judicial duty, and not just of power; and that the most recent developments in “post-9/11 constitutional” jurisprudence suggest the ripeness ...


Using Activism Appropriately, Alan E. Garfield Oct 2009

Using Activism Appropriately, Alan E. Garfield

Alan E Garfield

No abstract provided.


Performing Discretion Or Performing Discrimination: An Analysis Of Race And Ritual In Batson Decisions In Capital Jury Selection, Melynda J. Price Oct 2009

Performing Discretion Or Performing Discrimination: An Analysis Of Race And Ritual In Batson Decisions In Capital Jury Selection, Melynda J. Price

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Research shows the mere presence of Blacks on capital juries--on the rare occasions they are seated--can mean the difference between life and death. Peremptory challenges are the primary method to remove these pivotal participants. Batson v. Kentucky developed hearings as an immediate remedy for the unconstitutional removal of jurors through racially motivated peremptory challenges. These proceedings have become rituals that sanction continued bias in the jury selection process and ultimately affect the outcome of capital trials. This Article deconstructs the role of the Batson ritual in legitimating the removal of African American jurors. These perfunctory hearings fail to meaningfully interrogate ...


An Overview Of Tolls To Statutes Of Limitations On Account Of War: Are They Current And Relevant In The Post-September 11th Era?, Hon. Mark Dillon Sep 2009

An Overview Of Tolls To Statutes Of Limitations On Account Of War: Are They Current And Relevant In The Post-September 11th Era?, Hon. Mark Dillon

Hon. Mark C. Dillon

The devastation of the attacks that occurred at the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001 included costly disruption to the operation of courts in the City and State of New York. A court facility at Five World Trade Center was destroyed. Attorneys were among the 2,752 persons killed in the event. Law offices were destroyed. Key litigation witnesses and documents were lost forever. Thousands of attorneys were unable to access their work for days. State courts in Manhattan did not reopen for business until September 17, 2001. Amidst the turmoil and confusion, there was a defined set of ...


Childhood Immunizations: Paralysis On Parental Rights, Demand On Taxpayer Dollars, Rena L. Holmes Jones Sep 2009

Childhood Immunizations: Paralysis On Parental Rights, Demand On Taxpayer Dollars, Rena L. Holmes Jones

Rena L Holmes Jones

The rise in the incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is one of the most serious public health issues in recent years. The current statistics suggests that roughly one child out of every 150 has autism or an autistic-like disorder, compared to earlier estimates placing the rate at four or five children out of every 10,000. Autism is a condition that typically reveals itself within the first 0-4 years of life. The wide continuum of associated cognitive and neurobehavioral disorders have three core-defining features: impairments in socialization, impairments in verbal and nonverbal communication, and restricted and repetitive patterns of ...


A Free Speech Right To Impugn Judicial Integrity In Court Proceedings, Margaret C. Tarkington Sep 2009

A Free Speech Right To Impugn Judicial Integrity In Court Proceedings, Margaret C. Tarkington

Margaret C Tarkington

Throughout the United States, state and federal courts discipline and sanction attorneys who make disparaging remarks about the judiciary and thereby impugn judicial integrity. In so doing, courts have almost universally rejected the constitutional standard established in New York Times v. Sullivan for punishing speech regarding government officials. While courts have imposed severe sanctions regardless of the forum where the speech has occurred, many of the cases involve speech made by attorneys in court proceedings. The existing scholarly literature generally supports the denial of First Amendment protection in such cases, indicating that attorney speech when made in court proceedings is ...


Impeach Brent Benjamin Now!? Giving Adequate Attention To Failings Of Judicial Impartiality, Jeffrey W. Stempel Sep 2009

Impeach Brent Benjamin Now!? Giving Adequate Attention To Failings Of Judicial Impartiality, Jeffrey W. Stempel

Jeffrey W Stempel

In Caperton v. A.T. Massey Coal Co., Inc., 129 S. Ct. 2252 (2009), the Supreme Court by a 5-4 vote vacated and remanded a decision of the West Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals in which Justice Brent Benjamin cast the deciding vote in favor of Massey, a company run by Don Blankenship, who had provided $3 million in support to Benjamin during his 2004 election campaign.

Despite the unsavory taste of the entire episode, the Court was excessively careful not to criticize Justice Benjamin. Overlooked because of this undue judicial civility and controversy about the constitutional aspects of the ...


Administrative Law In The Roberts Court: The First Four Years, Robin K. Craig Sep 2009

Administrative Law In The Roberts Court: The First Four Years, Robin K. Craig

Robin K. Craig

Given Justice David Souter’s retirement in the summer of 2009, the four U.S. Supreme Court terms that began in October 2005 and ended in June 2009 constitute a first distinct phase of the Roberts Court. During those first four terms, moreover, the Court decided a number of cases relevant to the practice and structure of administrative law.

This Article provides a comprehensive survey and summary of the Supreme Court’s administrative-law-related decisions issued during this first phase of the Roberts Court. It organizes those decisions into three categories. Part I of this Article discusses the Supreme Court decisions ...


Structure And Precedent, Jeffrey C. Dobbins Sep 2009

Structure And Precedent, Jeffrey C. Dobbins

Jeffrey C. Dobbins

The standard model of vertical precedent is part of the deep structure of our legal system. The rules governing that model are largely intuitive, often taught only in passing at law school, and rarely addressed by positive law. While the application of these rules of precedent can be difficult in practice, we rarely struggle with whether a given decision of a court within a particular hierarchy is potentially binding at all. A Ninth Circuit opinion, for instance, is binding on district courts within the Ninth Circuit and on subsequent Ninth Circuit panels; it is not binding on Second Circuit panels ...


Disclosure Of Juror Identities To The Press: Who Will Speak For The Jurors?, Kenneth J. Melilli Sep 2009

Disclosure Of Juror Identities To The Press: Who Will Speak For The Jurors?, Kenneth J. Melilli

Kenneth J. Melilli

In a sequence of rulings, the United States Supreme Court has determined that the public (and hence the press) enjoys a first amendment right of access to at least portions of a criminal trial. Several lower courts have read these decisions as mandating that the press be provided, upon application, with the names and addresses of jurors or even potential jurors. Once acquired, this information has been used to harass unwilling jurors in attempts to delve into jury deliberations. In almost every such case, the only real party in interest in opposition to the application of the press -- the jurors ...


Ip And Antitrust: Errands Into The Wilderness, Herbert Hovenkamp Aug 2009

Ip And Antitrust: Errands Into The Wilderness, Herbert Hovenkamp

Herbert Hovenkamp

IP AND ANTITRUST: ERRANDS INTO THE WILDERNESS

ABSTRACT

Antitrust and intellectual property law both seek to promote economic welfare by facilitating competition and investment in innovation. At various times both antitrust and IP law have wandered off this course and have become more driven by special interests. Today, antitrust and IP are on very different roads to reform. Antitrust began an Errand into the Wilderness in the late 1970s with a series of Supreme Court decisions that linked the plaintiff’s harm and right to obtain a remedy to the competition-furthering goals of antitrust policy. Today, patent law has begun ...


Judging By The Numbers: An Empirical Study Of The Power Of Story, Kenneth D. Chestek Aug 2009

Judging By The Numbers: An Empirical Study Of The Power Of Story, Kenneth D. Chestek

Kenneth D. Chestek

The recent debate about whether “empathy” is a desirable trait in Supreme Court Justices begs a more fundamental question: are appellate court judges in fact persuaded by appeals to pathos? This article attempts to answer that question by reporting the results of an empirical study the author conducted that investigates whether narrative reasoning, or “stories,” are persuasive to appellate judges. It is the first rigorous study to ever confront this issue directly. The article first describes how the author wrote four test briefs, two on each side of a hypothetical lawsuit. One brief on each side was written as a ...


Disclosure Of Juror Identities To The Press: Who Will Speak For The Jurors?, Kenneth J. Melilli Aug 2009

Disclosure Of Juror Identities To The Press: Who Will Speak For The Jurors?, Kenneth J. Melilli

Kenneth J. Melilli

In a sequence of rulings, the United States Supreme Court has determined that the public (and hence the press) enjoys a first amendment right of access to at least portions of a criminal trial. Several lower courts have read these decisions as mandating that the press be provided, upon application, with the names and addresses of jurors or even potential jurors. Once acquired, this information has been used to harass unwilling jurors in attempts to delve into jury deliberations. In almost every such case, the only real party in interest in opposition to the application of the press -- the jurors ...


The Rights Question, Bruce A. Antkowiak Aug 2009

The Rights Question, Bruce A. Antkowiak

Bruce A Antkowiak

The problem this article addresses will be well known to anyone who has taught or taken a course in Constitutional Law in the last three decades. When the subject turns to the related issues of selective incorporation, substantive due process and the proper interpretation of the Ninth Amendment, teachers of Constitutional Law cringe at the prospect of trying to explain sensibly what the Supreme Court itself has come to acknowledge is a most baffling conundrum: what are “rights,” where do they come from, are there more to be identified in the Constitutional universe, who is equipped to find them, and ...


Science, Public Bioethics, And The Problem Of Integration, Orlando Carter Snead Aug 2009

Science, Public Bioethics, And The Problem Of Integration, Orlando Carter Snead

O. Carter Snead

Public bioethics — the governance of science, medicine, and biotechnology in the name of ethical goods — is an emerging area of American law. The field uniquely combines scientific knowledge, moral reasoning, and prudential judgments about democratic decisionmaking. It has captured the attention of officials in every branch of government, as well as the American public. Public questions (such as those relating to the law of abortion, the federal funding of embryonic stem cell research, and the regulation of end-of-life decisionmaking) continue to roil the public square.

This article examines the question of how scientific methods and principles can and should be ...


Disclosure Of Juror Identities To The Press: Who Will Speak For The Jurors?, Kenneth J. Melilli Aug 2009

Disclosure Of Juror Identities To The Press: Who Will Speak For The Jurors?, Kenneth J. Melilli

Kenneth J. Melilli

In a sequence of rulings, the United States Supreme Court has determined that the public (and hence the press) enjoys a first amendment right of access to at least portions of a criminal trial. Several lower courts have read these decisions as mandating that the press be provided, upon application, with the names and addresses of jurors or even potential jurors. Once acquired, this information has been used to harass unwilling jurors in attempts to delve into jury deliberations. In almost every such case, the only real party in interest in opposition to the application of the press -- the jurors ...


Notice Otherwise Given: Will In Absentia Trials At The Special Tribunal For Lebanon Violate Human Rights?, Chris Jenks Aug 2009

Notice Otherwise Given: Will In Absentia Trials At The Special Tribunal For Lebanon Violate Human Rights?, Chris Jenks

Chris Jenks

On March 1, 2009, the Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL) commenced operations in the Netherlands. The mandate of the STL is to try those allegedly responsible for the 2005 bombing in Beirut which killed former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri. A collaborative effort between Lebanon and the United Nations, the STL is to be of “international character based on the highest standards of justice.” However, the STL’s in absentia trial provisions are based on a far different, and lower, standard. This article posits that the STL’s in absentia trial provisions violate human rights norms, indeed the U.N ...


An Originalist Theory Of Precedent: The Epistemic And Metaphysical Attitudes Toward Originalist Precedent, Lee Strang Aug 2009

An Originalist Theory Of Precedent: The Epistemic And Metaphysical Attitudes Toward Originalist Precedent, Lee Strang

Lee J Strang

No abstract provided.


Tailoring Deference To Variety With A Wink And A Nod To Chevron: The Roberts Court And The Amorphous Judicial Framework For Review Of Agency Interpretations Of Law, J. Lyn Entrikin Goering Aug 2009

Tailoring Deference To Variety With A Wink And A Nod To Chevron: The Roberts Court And The Amorphous Judicial Framework For Review Of Agency Interpretations Of Law, J. Lyn Entrikin Goering

J. Lyn Entrikin Goering

In the 25 years since the Court issued its venerable opinion in Chevron, the Supreme Court has all but disregarded the judicial review provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA), first enacted in 1946. From 1984 to 2000, Chevron took center stage as the most-cited opinion in administrative law. Beginning in 2000, the Rehnquist Court issued a series of decisions limiting the reach of Chevron. At the same time, the Court revived common law deference frameworks that predate the APA. Yet the Rehnquist Court failed to fully reconcile Chevron with its previous common law deference doctrines and with the APA ...


Untangling The Web Spun By Title Vii's Referral & Deferral Scheme, Lisa D. Taylor Aug 2009

Untangling The Web Spun By Title Vii's Referral & Deferral Scheme, Lisa D. Taylor

Lisa D Taylor

Title VII's dual enforcement scheme creates knotty preclusion and subject-matter jurisdiction issues. The statute requires that claims of employment discrimination made in those states or localities with their own administrative enforcement bodies must first be presented locally, and may be pursued in the federal system only after affording the state administrative body time to attempt their resolution. The result of this dual enforcement scheme is that in some cases, a claim comes to federal court after it has already been adjudicated in the state system. Questions then arise as to whether the federal court has jurisdiction to hear the ...


Completing Caperton And Clarifying Common Sense Through Using The Right Standard For Constitutional Judicial Recusal, Jeffrey W. Stempel Aug 2009

Completing Caperton And Clarifying Common Sense Through Using The Right Standard For Constitutional Judicial Recusal, Jeffrey W. Stempel

Jeffrey W Stempel

In Caperton v. A.T. Massey Coal Co., Inc., the U.S. Supreme Court vacated a state supreme court decision in which a justice who had received $3 million in campaign support from a company CEO cast the deciding vote to relieve the company of a $50 million liability. The Caperton majority adopted a “probability of bias” standard for constitutional due process review of judicial disqualification decisions that differs from the ordinary “reasonable question as to impartiality” standard for recusal. Four dissenters objected to the majority’s limited supervision of state court disqualification practice, minimized the danger of biased judging ...


Debacle: How The Supreme Court Has Mangled American Sentencing Law And How Justice Sotomayor Might Help Fix It, Frank O. Bowman Jul 2009

Debacle: How The Supreme Court Has Mangled American Sentencing Law And How Justice Sotomayor Might Help Fix It, Frank O. Bowman

Frank O. Bowman III

This Article argues that the line of Supreme Court Sixth Amendment jury right cases that began with McMillan v. Pennsylvania in 1986, crescendoed in Blakely v. Washington and United States v. Booker in 2004-2005, and continues in 2009 in cases such as Oregon v. Ice, has been a colossal judicial failure. First, the Court has failed to provide a logically coherent, constitutionally based answer to the fundamental question of what limits the Constitution places on the roles played by the institutional actors in the criminal justice system. It failed to recognize that defining, adjudicating and punishing crimes implicates both the ...


How Can States Protect Their Policies In Federal Class Actions?, Lucas Watkins Jul 2009

How Can States Protect Their Policies In Federal Class Actions?, Lucas Watkins

Lucas Watkins

More than any other procedural device, class actions have substantive goals. By allowing negative-value suits and collective punishment for widespread wrongs, class actions allow plaintiffs and defendants to protect rights that would otherwise go unvindicated. States also use class actions to implement industrial and consumer protection policies. Despite their importance to state policy, however, many state class action rules do not survive the transition into the federal court system. Under the Erie doctrine, federal courts apply federal class action rules even when state rules are more permissive and even when the state rules are intended to serve important substantive policies ...


“I’M Dying To Tell You What Happened”: The Admissibility Of Testimonial Dying Declarations Post-Crawford, Peter Nicolas Jul 2009

“I’M Dying To Tell You What Happened”: The Admissibility Of Testimonial Dying Declarations Post-Crawford, Peter Nicolas

Peter Nicolas

In Crawford v. Washington and its progeny, the U.S. Supreme Court has re-theorized the relationship between hearsay evidence and the Confrontation Clause. Post-Crawford, hearsay statements that are “testimonial” in nature are, as a general rule, inadmissible when offered against the accused in a criminal case. Yet in footnote 6 of Crawford, the Supreme Court suggested that an exception to the general rule may exist for dying declarations. This manuscript builds on the dictum set forth in footnote 6 of Crawford, the meaning of which the lower courts are just beginning to explore. In the manuscript, I first demonstrate that ...


Emerging Scholars Series: Cross-Border Injunctions In U.S. Patent Cases And Their Enforcement Abroad, Marketa Trimble Jul 2009

Emerging Scholars Series: Cross-Border Injunctions In U.S. Patent Cases And Their Enforcement Abroad, Marketa Trimble

Marquette Intellectual Property Law Review

Injunctions enforcing a patentee's right to exclude provide an incentive to invent; however, injunctions are only effective if they can be enforced. Enforcing an injunction becomes problematic when other jurisdictions are involved, yet plaintiffs request such injunctions despite the potential inherent difficulties of cross-border enforcement. The author empirically analyzes the number and types of cross-border injunctions issued in the United States against foreign entities by discussing methods of enforcing injunctions abroad and the difficulties inherent in those methods. Comparing cases of cross-border injunctions issued by European courts, the author reviews the controversial pan-European injunction that covers not only the ...


The Reality Behind Supreme Court Picks, Alan E. Garfield Jun 2009

The Reality Behind Supreme Court Picks, Alan E. Garfield

Alan E Garfield

No abstract provided.