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Bruce A Antkowiak

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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Pinkerton Problem, Bruce A. Antkowiak Sep 2010

The Pinkerton Problem, Bruce A. Antkowiak

Bruce A Antkowiak

Pinkerton is a longstanding principle of criminal law that holds a conspirator liable for the substantive crimes of his confederates as long as they were committed during the course of and in furtherance of the conspiracy, and as long as they were objectively and reasonably foreseeable to a defendant. This leads to liability being imposed on individuals who did not personally have the mens rea required to commit the crime for which they are sentenced. The article argues that the use of such conspirator liability rules in many jurisdictions (federal and state) violates both due process and separation of powers ...


The Rights Question, Bruce A. Antkowiak Aug 2009

The Rights Question, Bruce A. Antkowiak

Bruce A Antkowiak

The problem this article addresses will be well known to anyone who has taught or taken a course in Constitutional Law in the last three decades. When the subject turns to the related issues of selective incorporation, substantive due process and the proper interpretation of the Ninth Amendment, teachers of Constitutional Law cringe at the prospect of trying to explain sensibly what the Supreme Court itself has come to acknowledge is a most baffling conundrum: what are “rights,” where do they come from, are there more to be identified in the Constitutional universe, who is equipped to find them, and ...