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Full-Text Articles in Law

A Class Action Lawsuit For The Right To A Minimum Education In Detroit, Carter G. Phillips Jan 2020

A Class Action Lawsuit For The Right To A Minimum Education In Detroit, Carter G. Phillips

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

No abstract provided.


Equal Protection Supreme Court Appellate Division Third Department Jul 2019

Equal Protection Supreme Court Appellate Division Third Department

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Education Reform And Detroit’S Right To Literacy Litigation, Kristine L. Bowman Dec 2018

Education Reform And Detroit’S Right To Literacy Litigation, Kristine L. Bowman

Washington and Lee Law Review Online

Ongoing education reform litigation arising out of Detroit, Michigan presents an innovative claim: Children have an unenumerated federal constitutional right of access to literacy. On June 29, 2018, the district court granted defendants’ motion to dismiss. The case is now on appeal to the Sixth Circuit and is expected to be argued in the first half of 2019. This litigation has already broken new ground and, regardless of the ultimate outcome, it is valuable because it invites us to revisit fundamental questions about rights, remedies, and the role of courts in education reform.


The Fortification Of Inequality: Constitutional Doctrine And The Political Economy, Kate Andrias Mar 2018

The Fortification Of Inequality: Constitutional Doctrine And The Political Economy, Kate Andrias

Articles

As Parts I and II of this Essay elaborate, the examination yields three observations of relevance to constitutional law more generally: First, judge-made constitutional doctrine, though by no means the primary cause of rising inequality, has played an important role in reinforcing and exacerbating it. Judges have acquiesced to legislatively structured economic inequality, while also restricting the ability of legislatures to remedy it. Second, while economic inequality has become a cause célèbre only in the last few years, much of the constitutional doctrine that has contributed to its flourishing is longstanding. Moreover, for several decades, even the Court’s more ...


Ensuring The Constitution Remains Color Blind Vs. Turning A Blind Eye To Justice: Equal Protection And Affirmative Action In University Admissions, Attashin Safari Jan 2017

Ensuring The Constitution Remains Color Blind Vs. Turning A Blind Eye To Justice: Equal Protection And Affirmative Action In University Admissions, Attashin Safari

Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review

No abstract provided.


A Federal Role In Education: Encouragement As A Guiding Philosophy For The Advancement Of Learning In America, Gerard Robinson Mar 2016

A Federal Role In Education: Encouragement As A Guiding Philosophy For The Advancement Of Learning In America, Gerard Robinson

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Legal Precedent And The Opportunity For Educational Equity: Where To Now, Colorado?, Molly A. Hunter, Kathleen J. Gebhardt Mar 2016

Legal Precedent And The Opportunity For Educational Equity: Where To Now, Colorado?, Molly A. Hunter, Kathleen J. Gebhardt

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Why A Fundamental Right To A Quality Education Is Not Enough, James Wilson Jul 2015

Why A Fundamental Right To A Quality Education Is Not Enough, James Wilson

Akron Law Review

This article relies upon the political and economic analysis of such great thinkers as Aristotle and Rousseau to understand and normatively evaluate constitutional caselaw in general and education cases in particular. The article’s title contains its conclusion: a judicially created right to a quality education is a laudable, but possibly counterproductive and definitely insufficient condition, for creating a humane constitutional system. The rest of society needs to do far more to protect the average citizen and worker from the ever-ravenous ruling class. All the edification in the world will not mean much if there are only a few decent ...


Citizenship Education And The Free Exercise Of Religion, Tyll Van Geel Jul 2015

Citizenship Education And The Free Exercise Of Religion, Tyll Van Geel

Akron Law Review

Part One of this article provides a broad-brush overview of constitutional doctrine as it bears on citizenship education in the public schools. The remaining parts of the article focus on a Free Exercise challenge to the introduction of a Callaneseque program of citizenship education in a public school. Part Two thus explicates Callan’s theory. Part Three outlines my approach to the Free Exercise Clause. Part Four applies that approach to a challenge brought against a Callanesque program of citizenship education. Part Five takes up other possible rights-based limits on the education power and offers a suggestion regarding how citizenship ...


Thinking About The Constitution At The Cusp, Mark Tushnet Jul 2015

Thinking About The Constitution At The Cusp, Mark Tushnet

Akron Law Review

Marshall’s understanding that schools have an implicit curriculum might be a better guide to thinking about what we should teach about the Constitution in this century than any substantive points I might make. One controversial example may illustrate Marshall’s understanding: just as he asked what lesson would be taught by delaying desegregation, so we might ask, “What lesson will be taught about the nature of our constitutional community if we adopt a large-scale system of vouchers that parents can use to assist them in sending their children to non-public schools?” Such a system would demonstrate B and would ...


Education And The Constitution: Shaping Each Other & The Next Century, Elizabeth Reilly Jul 2015

Education And The Constitution: Shaping Each Other & The Next Century, Elizabeth Reilly

Akron Law Review

In evaluating patients’ potential legal remedies, this Comment explores 1) the emergence of managed care organizations in the United States; 2) the creation of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (“ERISA”) and how it impacts patients’ claims against their MCOs; 3) the question of “quantity” versus “quality” in evaluating whether ERISA preemption exists; 4) three theories (direct liability, breach of fiduciary duty, and vicarious liability) used to hold MCOs liable for injuries resulting from malpractice or the wrongful denial of benefits; 5) state legislative attempts to circumvent ERISA’s inequitable preemption of claims; and 6) why, given ERISA ...


The Wicked Smaht Kids: Seeking An Adequate Public Education For Gifted Elementary And Secondary Students In Massachusetts, Brenna Ferrick Jun 2015

The Wicked Smaht Kids: Seeking An Adequate Public Education For Gifted Elementary And Secondary Students In Massachusetts, Brenna Ferrick

University of Massachusetts Law Review

This Note argues that the Massachusetts legislature underserves highly intellectually gifted students by neither identifying nor supporting the unique needs of such a population. The legislature is both enabled by the state constitution and charged by the Education Reform Act to provide an adequate education to all elementary and secondary students. The stated intent of the Commonwealth’s education directive purports to provide every child “the opportunity to reach their full potential,” when in reality there are only statutory entitlements and procedural safeguards for those who qualify for federal mandates due to qualifying disabilities. This issue is ripe for judicial ...


Constitutional Issues Surrounding Student Possession And Use Of Cell Phones In Schools, Ralph Mawdsley, Charles Russo Feb 2015

Constitutional Issues Surrounding Student Possession And Use Of Cell Phones In Schools, Ralph Mawdsley, Charles Russo

Charles J. Russo

Constitutional challenges to limits on the possession and/ or use of cell phones in schools present potential claims involving the Fourth Amendment rights of students to privacy and to be free from unreasonable searchesalong with parental Fourteenth Amendment Liberty Clauserights to direct the education and upbringing of their children. However, as reflected in this article, as long as educational officials enact policies in line with state laws that are explicitly designed to enhance school safety, challenges filed by students and their parents are probably destined to fail because constitutional claims are likely to be outweighed by concerns for the greater ...


A Common Law Constitutionalism For The Right To Education, Scott R. Bauries Jul 2014

A Common Law Constitutionalism For The Right To Education, Scott R. Bauries

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This Article makes two claims, one descriptive and the other normative. The descriptive claim is that individual rights to education have not been realized under state constitutions because the currently dominant structure of education reform litigation prevents such realization. In state constitutional education clause claims, both pleadings and adjudication generally focus on the equality or adequacy of the system as a whole, rather than on any particular student's educational resources or attainment. The Article traces the roots of the currently dominant systemic approach, and finds these roots in federal institutional reform litigation. This systemic focus leads to a systemic ...


Nevada Public Policy And Higher Education: The Roles Of The Legislature And The Board Of Regents Under The Nevada Constitution, Thomas B. Mcaffee, Justin James Mcaffee Jun 2014

Nevada Public Policy And Higher Education: The Roles Of The Legislature And The Board Of Regents Under The Nevada Constitution, Thomas B. Mcaffee, Justin James Mcaffee

Nevada Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Social Networking And Student Safety: Balancing Student First Amendment Rights And Disciplining Threatening Speech, John L. Hughes Iii Mar 2014

Social Networking And Student Safety: Balancing Student First Amendment Rights And Disciplining Threatening Speech, John L. Hughes Iii

University of Massachusetts Law Review

As the use of social media increases and becomes an integral part of nearly every student's life, problems arise when student expression on these sites turns into threats against the school or other students, implicating both student safety and the speaker's right to free speech. Facing a lack of Supreme Court precedent, school officials need guidance on whether and how to take action when a student makes threats on social network - how to prevent any danger at school while respecting the student's right to free speech. This note develops an approach that combines the Supreme Court's ...


Individual Academic Freedom: An Ordinary Concern Of The First Amendment, Scott R. Bauries Jan 2014

Individual Academic Freedom: An Ordinary Concern Of The First Amendment, Scott R. Bauries

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Our Nation is deeply committed to safeguarding academic freedom, which is of transcendent value to all of us, and not merely to the teachers concerned. That freedom is therefore a special concern of the First Amendment, which does not tolerate laws that cast a pall of orthodoxy over the classroom.

There is some argument that expression related to academic scholarship or classroom instruction implicates additional constitutional interests that are not fully accounted for by this Court's customary employee-speech jurisprudence. We need not, and for that reason do not, decide whether the analysis we conduct today would apply in the ...


Do California’S Teacher Tenure Laws Violate California’S Constitutional Right To Education, Allen W. Hubsch Feb 2013

Do California’S Teacher Tenure Laws Violate California’S Constitutional Right To Education, Allen W. Hubsch

Allen W Hubsch

The accompanying note addresses an important and topical issue. In May 2012, Ted Olson, the former Solicitor General of the United States, and Theodore Boutrous, co-chair of the appellate practice at Gibson Dunn & Crutcher, filed a complaint in Los Angeles Superior Court, entitled Vargara v. California, naming the State of California, the California Department of Education, the Los Angeles Unified School District and others as defendants.

The complaint alleges that California’s teacher tenure statutes are unconstitutional under the California constitution because such laws have the effect of preventing school districts from providing a quality education to school age children. California’s constitution is considerably more specific about education than the federal Constitution. As confirmed by the California Supreme Court in Serrano v. Priest, 5 Cal.3d 584 (1971), California’s constitution establishes a fundamental right to a quality education.

In January 2013, the California Court of Appeal summarily denied the State’s petition to review the Superior Court’s denial of the State’s motion to dismiss. The case is now poised to move forward on the merits, and is certain to make history. No case could be more important for the future of California. The case will likely set a precedent in the field for the rest of the nation.

The accompanying note discusses the merits of and challenges to the plaintiffs’ case. The primary author has written perhaps the most-cited articles on the right to education under state constitutional law. Allen Hubsch is the author of Education and Self-Government: The Right to Education under State Constitutional Law, 18 J.L. & Education (1989); and Emerging Right to Education Under State Constitutional Law, 65 Temple L. Rev. (1992). The accompanying note is certain to draw interest from the litigants, the courts and the public.


Do California’S Teacher Tenure Laws Violate California’S Constitutional Right To Education, Allen W. Hubsch Jan 2013

Do California’S Teacher Tenure Laws Violate California’S Constitutional Right To Education, Allen W. Hubsch

Allen W Hubsch

The accompanying note addresses an important and topical issue. In May 2012, Ted Olson, the former Solicitor General of the United States, and Theodore Boutrous, co-chair of the appellate practice at Gibson Dunn & Crutcher, filed a complaint in Los Angeles Superior Court, entitled Vargara v. California, naming the State of California, the California Department of Education, the Los Angeles Unified School District and others as defendants.

The complaint alleges that California’s teacher tenure statutes are unconstitutional under the California constitution because such laws have the effect of preventing school districts from providing a quality education to school age children. California’s constitution is considerably more specific about education than the federal Constitution. As confirmed by the California Supreme Court in Serrano v. Priest, 5 Cal.3d 584 (1971), California’s constitution establishes a fundamental right to a quality education.

In January 2013, the California Court of Appeal summarily denied the State’s petition to review the Superior Court’s denial of the State’s motion to dismiss. The case is now poised to move forward on the merits, and is certain to make history. No case could be more important for the future of California. The case will likely set a precedent in the field for the rest of the nation.

The accompanying note discusses the merits of and challenges to the plaintiffs’ case. The primary author has written perhaps the most-cited articles on the right to education under state constitutional law. Allen Hubsch is the author of Education and Self-Government: The Right to Education under State Constitutional Law, 18 J.L. & Education (1989); and Emerging Right to Education Under State Constitutional Law, 65 Temple L. Rev. (1992). The accompanying note is certain to draw interest from the litigants, the courts and the public.


North Carolina’S Superintendent Of Public Instruction: Defining A Constitutional Office, Andrew P. Owens Jan 2013

North Carolina’S Superintendent Of Public Instruction: Defining A Constitutional Office, Andrew P. Owens

Andrew P. Owens

In 2009 a superior court case determined the fate of the Governor’s initiative to streamline education leadership by promoting a State Board of Education member while greatly reducing the Superintendent of Public Instruction’s powers. The judge’s decision in favor of Superintendent Atkinson turned on “the inherent constitutional authority” of her office; yet no one really knows what authority is inherent to the office, where that authority derives, or how to go about analyzing the office’s constitutional role. In short: what does it mean to be the Superintendent of Public Instruction? This paper explains the origins and ...


An Analysis Of The Legal Obstacles To State Pension Reform, Jeremy Stuart Buck Dec 2012

An Analysis Of The Legal Obstacles To State Pension Reform, Jeremy Stuart Buck

Theses and Dissertations

Public pension systems are underfunded, straining state budgets. Historically, many states have presumed that they can modify pension benefits only as to newly-hired employees, and that they must leave benefit accruals untouched for current workers. More recently, though, states have begun enacting more fundamental pension reform that modifies future accruals or even reduces cost-of-living allowances for retirees. Nearly all such new reforms have been the subject of one or more lawsuits alleging that the federal and/or state constitution bars the legislature from reducing benefits or accrual patterns. This dissertation examines the legal underpinnings for arguments made against pension reform ...


Government's Denigration Of Religion: Is God The Victim Of Discrimination In Our Public Schools?, Michael R. O'Neill Nov 2012

Government's Denigration Of Religion: Is God The Victim Of Discrimination In Our Public Schools?, Michael R. O'Neill

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


State Action And The Supreme Court's Emerging Consensus On The Line Between Establishment And Private Religious Expression, Michael W. Mcconnell Oct 2012

State Action And The Supreme Court's Emerging Consensus On The Line Between Establishment And Private Religious Expression, Michael W. Mcconnell

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Cedar Rapids Community School District V. Garret F.: A High Price For Equal Education , Kristie Harding Jul 2012

Cedar Rapids Community School District V. Garret F.: A High Price For Equal Education , Kristie Harding

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


American School Finance Litigation And The Right To Education In South Africa, Scott R. Bauries Jan 2012

American School Finance Litigation And The Right To Education In South Africa, Scott R. Bauries

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This paper addresses the South African Constitution's invitation to the Constitutional Court to 'consider foreign law' when interpreting its provisions. Focusing on the education provisions found in section 29 of the Constitution, I make two claims. Firstly, contrary to the developing consensus, American state supreme court jurisprudence in school funding cases makes a poor resource to aid the interpretation of the basic South African right to education, regardless of the quantum of education that the Constitutional Court decides is encompassed by the word 'basic'. Secondly, however, certain aspects of these same American decisions, particularly the space they provide for ...


The Education Duty, Scott R. Bauries Jan 2012

The Education Duty, Scott R. Bauries

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

A constitution is an instrument of entrustment. By adopting a democratic constitution, a polity places in the hands of its elected representatives its trust that those representatives will act to pursue the ends of the polity, rather than their own ends, and that they will do so with an eye toward the effects of adopted policies. In effect, the polity entrusts lawmaking power to its legislature with the expectation that such power will be exercised with loyalty to the public and with due care for its interests. Simply put, legislatures are fiduciaries.

In this Article, I examine the nature of ...


State Constitutional Design And Education Reform: Process Specification In Louisiana, Scott R. Bauries Jan 2011

State Constitutional Design And Education Reform: Process Specification In Louisiana, Scott R. Bauries

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

As to education, the Louisiana Constitution contains the familiar general mandate for the establishment of a public school system, now ubiquitous among state constitutions. But unlike the founding documents of any of the other states, Louisiana's constitution also provides for a very specific process-based allocation of the responsibilities for determining appropriations levels in education from year to year.

It is well-known that state constitutions often treat numerous—sometimes trivial—subjects, or contain provisions that seem hyper-specific and statutory, rather than foundational and constitutional, and state constitutions have been roundly criticized (and sometimes defended) for these features. In this Article ...


State Constitutions And Individual Rights: Conceptual Convergence In School Finance Litigation, Scott R. Bauries Jan 2011

State Constitutions And Individual Rights: Conceptual Convergence In School Finance Litigation, Scott R. Bauries

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This Article begins by reviewing Wesley Newcomb Hohfeld's “fundamental conceptions” and expanding his theory to the arena of state constitutional rights, building on recent work by other scholars. From this foundation, it moves to a discussion of the sources of rights to education. The Article then examines the text of relevant state constitutional provisions, as well as the ever-changing landscape of school finance litigation, the principal vehicle through which litigants assert constitutional claims based on ostensible education rights. Next, it systematically analyzes the population of reported cases from the highest state courts to identify Hohfeldian conceptions of education rights ...


Judicial Decision-Making, Social Science Evidence, And Equal Educational Opportunity: Uneasy Relations And Uncertain Futures, Michael Heise Jan 2008

Judicial Decision-Making, Social Science Evidence, And Equal Educational Opportunity: Uneasy Relations And Uncertain Futures, Michael Heise

Seattle University Law Review

The full extent of what the Court decided in Grutter and Parents Involved remains in some dispute. What is far more certain is that both cases continue to stir deeply held passions that help frame public and legal debates about the Court and its role in affirmative action and school desegregation disputes. Amid these increasingly raucous debates, this Article expressly side steps the many questions (and controversies) about what the Court decided in those cases and seeks to escape from the frequently politically charged and volatile context of governmental uses of race. This Article instead focuses on how the Court ...


Solving The Parents Involved Paradox, Lino A. Graglia Jan 2008

Solving The Parents Involved Paradox, Lino A. Graglia

Seattle University Law Review

The Supreme Court's decision in Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 (Parents Involved) presents the seeming paradox that the Constitution can on one day require a school district to take drastic measures, including busing students across a giant school district to increase racial integration in schools, and then prohibit school districts from taking even the mildest measures, such as using race as a tie-breaker in making student assignments, on the next. How, a rational observer must wonder, can this be possible? The answer is that, as usual in the making of “constitutional law,” the ...