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Affirmative action

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Full-Text Articles in Law

"All (Poor) Lives Matter": How Class-Not-Race Logic Reinscribes Race And Class Privilege, Jonathan P. Feingold Oct 2020

"All (Poor) Lives Matter": How Class-Not-Race Logic Reinscribes Race And Class Privilege, Jonathan P. Feingold

Faculty Scholarship

In An Intersectional Critique of Tiers of Scrutiny, Professors Devon Carbado and Kimberlé Crenshaw infuse affirmative action with an overdue dose of intersectionality theory. Their intervention, which highlights the disfavored remedial status of Black women, exposes equality law as an unmarked intersectional project that “privileges the intersectional identities of white antidiscrimination claimants.”

This latent racial privilege rests on two doctrinal pillars. First, single-axis tiers of scrutiny, which force claimants and courts to view discrimination in either/or terms (that is, race-based or gender-based or class-based), contravene intersectionality’s core insight that “people live their lives co-constitutively as ‘both/and,’ rather ...


The Limits Of Affirmative Action And The Illusion Of Whiteness As Property, Gino Townsend Jan 2020

The Limits Of Affirmative Action And The Illusion Of Whiteness As Property, Gino Townsend

CMC Senior Theses

In 1993 Cheryl Harris delivers a scathing review of the effects of American slavery on the socioeconomic status of black Americans in Whiteness as Property. In her criticisms of the rulings of Brown v. Board of Education and Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, Harris uses these cases and others to show how affirmative action is meant to equalize the socioeconomic status of white and black Americans and does not conflict with the Constitution, which Harris observes through the lens of whiteness as property. Harris’ goal is to show that affirmative action is the only means to dismantle ...


Reframing Affirmative Action: From Diversity To Mobility And Full Participation, Susan P. Sturm Jan 2020

Reframing Affirmative Action: From Diversity To Mobility And Full Participation, Susan P. Sturm

Faculty Scholarship

Legality and efficacy call for reframing the affirmative-action debate within a broader institutional effort to address structural inequality in higher education. Although defending affirmative action as we know it continues to be important and necessary, it is crucial to identify and address the disconnect between affirmative action and higher education's practices that contribute to enduring racial and economic inequality and waning social mobility. There is a persistent and growing gap between higher education’s rhetoric of diversity, opportunity, and mobility and the reality of underparticipation, polarization, and stratification. That gap has racial, gender, and socioeconomic dimensions. The path to ...


Affirming The Purpose Of Affirmative Action: Understanding A Policy Of The Past To Move Toward A More Informed Future, Meagan Schantz Oct 2019

Affirming The Purpose Of Affirmative Action: Understanding A Policy Of The Past To Move Toward A More Informed Future, Meagan Schantz

Sacred Heart University Scholar

The application of affirmative action policies to university admissions is a topic of ongoing controversy. This article (ex)amines the debate through an interdisciplinary lens, drawing on the fields of history, law, and ethics. The first section provides historical background on affirmative action policies, tracing how they expanded from the employment sector into higher education. Next examined are legal challenges to affirmative action in admissions, with a focus on the pivotal 1978 Bakke case. The ethical implications of affirmative action are next considered, in particular the question of how affirmative action can be applied in a way that supports disenfranchised ...


The Constitutionality Of Affirmative Action: Views From The Supreme Court, Jesse H. Choper Aug 2019

The Constitutionality Of Affirmative Action: Views From The Supreme Court, Jesse H. Choper

Jesse H Choper

No abstract provided.


Thinking About The Supreme Court's Successes And Failures, Erwin Chemerinsky Aug 2019

Thinking About The Supreme Court's Successes And Failures, Erwin Chemerinsky

Erwin Chemerinsky

The Supreme Court often has failed at its most important tasks and at the most important times. I set out this thesis at the beginning the book:

To be clear, I am not saying that the Supreme Court has failed at these crucial tasks every time. Making a case against the Supreme Court does not require taking such an extreme position. I also will talk about areas where the Court has succeeded in protecting minorities and in enforcing the limits of the Constitution. My claim is that the Court has often failed where and when it has been most needed ...


The Deserving Poor, The Undeserving Poor, And Class-Based Affirmative Action, Khiara M. Bridges Jul 2019

The Deserving Poor, The Undeserving Poor, And Class-Based Affirmative Action, Khiara M. Bridges

Khiara M Bridges

This Article is a critique of class-based affirmative action. It begins by observing that many professed politically conservative individuals have championed class-based affirmative action. However, it observes that political conservatism is not typically identified as an ideology that generally approves of improving the poor’s well-being through the means that class-based affirmative action employs — that is, through redistributing wealth by taking wealth from a wealthy individual and giving it directly to a poor person. This is precisely what class-based affirmative action does: it takes a seat in an incoming class (a species of wealth) from a wealthy individual and gives ...


Class-Based Affirmative Action, Or The Lies That We Tell About The Insignificance Of Race, Khiara Bridges Jul 2019

Class-Based Affirmative Action, Or The Lies That We Tell About The Insignificance Of Race, Khiara Bridges

Khiara M Bridges

This Article conducts a critique of class-based affirmative action, identifying and problematizing the narrative that it tells about racial progress. The Article argues that class-based affirmative action denies that race is a significant feature of American life. It denies that individuals - and groups - continue to be advantaged and disadvantaged on account of race. It denies that there is such a thing called race privilege that materially impacts people’s worlds. Moreover, this Article suggests that at least part of the reason why class-based affirmative action has been embraced by those who oppose race-based affirmative action is precisely because it denies ...


More Than Just The Numbers: Fisher V. Texas And The Practical Impact Of Texas’S Top Ten Percent Law, Shakira D. Pleasant Jun 2019

More Than Just The Numbers: Fisher V. Texas And The Practical Impact Of Texas’S Top Ten Percent Law, Shakira D. Pleasant

Shakira D. Pleasant

No abstract provided.


Sffa V. Harvard: How Affirmative Action Myths Mask White Bonus, Jonathan P. Feingold Apr 2019

Sffa V. Harvard: How Affirmative Action Myths Mask White Bonus, Jonathan P. Feingold

Faculty Scholarship

In the ongoing litigation of Students for Fair Admissions v. Harvard College, Harvard faces allegations that its once-heralded admissions process discriminates against Asian Americans. Public discourse has revealed a dominant narrative: affirmative action is viewed as the presumptive cause of Harvard’s alleged “Asian penalty.” Yet this narrative misrepresents the plaintiff’s own theory of discrimination. Rather than implicating affirmative action, the underlying allegations portray the phenomenon of “negative action” — that is, an admissions regime in which White applicants take the seats of their more qualified Asian-American counterparts. Nonetheless, we are witnessing a broad failure to see this case for ...


Second Redemption, Third Reconstruction, Richard A. Primus Jan 2019

Second Redemption, Third Reconstruction, Richard A. Primus

Articles

In The Accumulation of Advantages, the picture that Professor Owen Fiss paints about equality during and since the Second Reconstruction is largely a picture in black and white. That makes some sense. The black/white experience is probably the most important throughline in the story of equal protection. It was the central theme of both the First and Second Reconstructions. In keeping with that orientation, the picture of disadvantage described by Fiss’s theory of cumulative responsibility is largely drawn from the black/white experience. Important as it is, however, the black/white experience does not exhaust the subject of ...


Radical Reconstruction: (Re) Embracing Affirmative Action In Private Employment, Hina B. Shah Jan 2019

Radical Reconstruction: (Re) Embracing Affirmative Action In Private Employment, Hina B. Shah

University of Baltimore Law Review

No abstract provided.


Radical Reconstruction: (Re) Embracing Affirmative Action In Private Employment, Hina B. Shah Jan 2019

Radical Reconstruction: (Re) Embracing Affirmative Action In Private Employment, Hina B. Shah

Publications

The history of employment in this country is the history of racism. Using public and private mechanisms as well as violence to devise and enforce segregation and preferential treatment, the white male institutionalized an unprecedented advantage in the labor market. Yet this is rarely acknowledged as a factor in the current widening economic disparity between whites and blacks. Today, many white Americans, cloaked in the myth of colorblindness and meritocracy, refuse to see the persistence of racial prejudice, disadvantage and discrimination in the labor market.

This article is a call for a radical reconstruction of the private labor market through ...


Revitalizing The Meaning Of Diversity For Racial Justice In Education, Tanya K. Hernandez Jan 2019

Revitalizing The Meaning Of Diversity For Racial Justice In Education, Tanya K. Hernandez

Faculty Scholarship

The concept of diversity undermines the true spirit of any affirmative action policy, which is to remedy society's racism and promote racial justice and equality. This is because “diversity” detached from racial justice can signify any human difference unrelated to social inequality. Infusing the notion of “diversity” with the insights from implicit bias research would mean instead considering the goal of “diversity” as a device for making admissions procedures more equitable and justified amidst the continuing implicit bias that can be actually measured. Furthermore, connecting the diversity goal as a device for procedurally addressing

implicit bias in admissions decisions ...


Hidden In Plain Sight: A More Compelling Case For Diversity, Jonathan P. Feingold Jan 2019

Hidden In Plain Sight: A More Compelling Case For Diversity, Jonathan P. Feingold

Faculty Scholarship

For four decades, the diversity rationale has offered a lifeline to affirmative action in higher education. Yet even after forty years, this critical feature of equal protection doctrine remains constitutionally insecure and politically fraught. Legal challenges persist, the Justice Department has launched a new assault on race-conscious admissions, and an impending shift on the Supreme Court could usher in an era of increased hostility toward the concept of diversity itself. The future of race-conscious admissions arguably hangs in the balance.

In this Article, I argue that the diversity rationale’s present fragility rests, in part, on its defenders’ failure to ...


Principles And Consequences In A Virtue Ethics Analysis Of Affirmative Action, Caleb H A Brown Sep 2018

Principles And Consequences In A Virtue Ethics Analysis Of Affirmative Action, Caleb H A Brown

Montview Liberty University Journal of Undergraduate Research

In this paper, I evaluate affirmative action from the framework of virtue ethics. In doing so, I consider the principles behind affirmative action as well as its consequences because a perfectly virtuous person will act per just principles but will also be concerned with the consequences of her actions. An attempt to restore justice that utilizes a mechanism known to be ineffective is not truly an attempt to restore justice, and so is not virtuous. Therefore, if affirmative action is principally justified, a complete virtue ethical analysis will still ask, “Do we know if it works?” I conclude that affirmative ...


Diversity Entitlement: Does Diversity-Benefits Ideology Undermine Inclusion?, Kyneshawau Hurd, Victoria C. Plaut Jun 2018

Diversity Entitlement: Does Diversity-Benefits Ideology Undermine Inclusion?, Kyneshawau Hurd, Victoria C. Plaut

Northwestern University Law Review

Ideologies are most successful (or most dangerous) when they become common-sense—when they become widely accepted, taken-for-granted truths—because these truths subsequently provide implicit guidelines and expectations about what is moral, legitimate, and necessary in our society. In Regents of University of California v. Bakke, the Court, without a majority opinion, considered and dismissed all but one of several “common-sense” rationales for affirmative action in admissions. While eschewing rationales that focused on addressing discrimination and underrepresentation, the Court found that allowing all students to obtain the educational benefits that flow from diversity was a compelling rationale—essential, even, for a ...


The Color Of Perspective: Affirmative Action And The Constitutional Rhetoric Of White Innocence, Cecil J. Hunt Ii Feb 2018

The Color Of Perspective: Affirmative Action And The Constitutional Rhetoric Of White Innocence, Cecil J. Hunt Ii

Cecil J. Hunt II

This Article discusses the Supreme Court's use of the rhetoric of White innocence in deciding racially-inflected claims of constitutional shelter. It argues that the Court's use of this rhetoric reveals its adoption of a distinctly White-centered perspective, representing a one-sided view of racial reality that distorts the Court's ability to accurately appreciate the true nature of racial reality in contemporary America. This Article examines the Court's habit of using a White-centered perspective in constitutional race cases. Specifically, it looks at the Court's use of the rhetoric of White innocence in the context of the Court ...


Awaiting The Rebirth Of An Icon: Brown V. Board Of Education, R. Lawrence Purdy Jan 2018

Awaiting The Rebirth Of An Icon: Brown V. Board Of Education, R. Lawrence Purdy

Mitchell Hamline Law Review

No abstract provided.


No First Amendment Shield For Homophobic Prof, Arthur S. Leonard Jan 2018

No First Amendment Shield For Homophobic Prof, Arthur S. Leonard

Other Publications

No abstract provided.


For What It's Worth: The Role Of Race- And Gender-Based Data In Civil Damages Awards, Loren D. Goodman May 2017

For What It's Worth: The Role Of Race- And Gender-Based Data In Civil Damages Awards, Loren D. Goodman

Vanderbilt Law Review

Following months of behavioral problems, hyperactivity, and intermittent complaints of headache and nausea, five-year-old Kelsey Craig's mother finally takes her to the pediatrician to determine the root of the problem. After multiple consultations, a blood test shows a surprising culprit: there is a dangerously high amount of lead present in Kelsey's blood, suggesting prolonged exposure to the irreversibly toxic substance. Upon returning to their older, prewar apartment building, Kelsey's mother passes a neighboring family in the hallway and woefully relays the tale of her diagnosis. The neighbors' eyes grow wide as they realize their own five-year-old son ...


The Racist Algorithm?, Anupam Chander Apr 2017

The Racist Algorithm?, Anupam Chander

Michigan Law Review

Review of The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information by Frank Pasquale.


Ensuring The Constitution Remains Color Blind Vs. Turning A Blind Eye To Justice: Equal Protection And Affirmative Action In University Admissions, Attashin Safari Jan 2017

Ensuring The Constitution Remains Color Blind Vs. Turning A Blind Eye To Justice: Equal Protection And Affirmative Action In University Admissions, Attashin Safari

Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Harms Of Race-Neutrality In Obama-Era Affordable Housing Policy, Richard D. Marsico Jan 2017

The Harms Of Race-Neutrality In Obama-Era Affordable Housing Policy, Richard D. Marsico

Articles & Chapters

No abstract provided.


End Of The Racial Age: Reflections On The Changing Racial And Ethnic Ancestry Of Blacks On Affirmative Action, Kevin D. Brown Jan 2017

End Of The Racial Age: Reflections On The Changing Racial And Ethnic Ancestry Of Blacks On Affirmative Action, Kevin D. Brown

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Qualitative Diversity: Affirmative Action's New Reframe, Eang L. Ngov Jan 2017

Qualitative Diversity: Affirmative Action's New Reframe, Eang L. Ngov

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Deserving Poor, The Undeserving Poor, And Class-Based Affirmative Action, Khiara M. Bridges Jan 2017

The Deserving Poor, The Undeserving Poor, And Class-Based Affirmative Action, Khiara M. Bridges

Faculty Scholarship

This Article is a critique of class-based affirmative action. It begins by observing that many professed politically conservative individuals have championed class-based affirmative action. However, it observes that political conservatism is not typically identified as an ideology that generally approves of improving the poor’s well-being through the means that class-based affirmative action employs — that is, through redistributing wealth by taking wealth from a wealthy individual and giving it directly to a poor person. This is precisely what class-based affirmative action does: it takes a seat in an incoming class (a species of wealth) from a wealthy individual and gives ...


Eight Is [Not] Enough: A Review Of The 2015-2016 U.S. Supreme Court Term, Miller W. Shealy Jr. Oct 2016

Eight Is [Not] Enough: A Review Of The 2015-2016 U.S. Supreme Court Term, Miller W. Shealy Jr.

Miller W. Shealy Jr.

No abstract provided.


Campus Racial Unrest And The Diversity Bargain, Steven W. Bender Oct 2016

Campus Racial Unrest And The Diversity Bargain, Steven W. Bender

Indiana Journal of Law and Social Equality

No abstract provided.


Campus Racial Unrest And The Diversity Bargain, Steven W. Bender Oct 2016

Campus Racial Unrest And The Diversity Bargain, Steven W. Bender

Faculty Scholarship

Campus racial unrest challenging the status quo of unwelcoming environments for students of color drew recent national attention. While achieving some short-term victories, the current protests prompted backlash that exposes the sinister and sobering foundations of racism on college campuses that connect to the seeming permanence of racism embedded in U.S. institutions and law. In this article, I suggest that despite the window dressing of diversity mission statements and policies that claim to open the campus doors to racial minorities, society fears an educated and activist minority population that sets out to change the status quo of systemic racism ...