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2016

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Articles 1 - 30 of 14743

Full-Text Articles in Law

Análisis Económico De La Prueba De Oficio, Sebastian Gabriel Arruiz Dec 2016

Análisis Económico De La Prueba De Oficio, Sebastian Gabriel Arruiz

The Latin American and Iberian Journal of Law and Economics

The aim of this article is to analyze the consequences of proof ordered by the judge on his own, without any party request, in an adversarial trial.

I will demonstrate that proof ordered by the court on its own is against an adversarial system because it violates the principle of judicial impartiality. I will also conclude that this kind of proof is inefficient because it replaces activity that might be fulfilled by the parties with lower costs; it reduces the incentives for the parties to prove; it introduces distortions in legal professional services; and it increases the probability of making ...


Justice Scalia, The Establishment Clause, And Christian Privilege, Caroline Mala Corbin Dec 2016

Justice Scalia, The Establishment Clause, And Christian Privilege, Caroline Mala Corbin

Articles

No abstract provided.


Corpus Linguistics As A Tool In Legal Interpretation, Lawrence Solan, Tammy Gales Dec 2016

Corpus Linguistics As A Tool In Legal Interpretation, Lawrence Solan, Tammy Gales

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Contributions Of Louis Brandeis To The Law Of Lawyering, John S. Dzienkowski Dec 2016

The Contributions Of Louis Brandeis To The Law Of Lawyering, John S. Dzienkowski

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Understanding The Aggregate Effects Of Criminal Prevention Policy: The Role Of Relative Safety In Argentina, Pablo Schiaffino, Sora Marcos, Martín Tetaz Dec 2016

Understanding The Aggregate Effects Of Criminal Prevention Policy: The Role Of Relative Safety In Argentina, Pablo Schiaffino, Sora Marcos, Martín Tetaz

The Latin American and Iberian Journal of Law and Economics

Criminal prevention policies necessarily affect safety in all neighborhoods at the same time, given the existing spillovers these policies entail. Thus they affect not only absolute but also relative safety in each neighborhood. This analysis studies how the perceived relative safety of one’s own neighborhood affects neighborhood satisfaction, which is one of the determinants of life satisfaction, and finds there is a diminishing marginal utility of relative safety.

Resumen

Dado que las políticas adoptadas para prevenir el crimen en un vecindario particular determinan los incentivos de los potenciales delincuentes, éstas afectan la seguridad de todos los vecindarios a nivel ...


De Jure And De Facto Institutions – Disentangling The Interrelationships, Jacek Lewkowicz, Katarzyna Metelska-Szaniawska Dec 2016

De Jure And De Facto Institutions – Disentangling The Interrelationships, Jacek Lewkowicz, Katarzyna Metelska-Szaniawska

The Latin American and Iberian Journal of Law and Economics

In this paper we contribute to the debate on the nature of institutions and their economic effects by extending the focus to the de jure de facto institutional distinction. Firstly, we define and conceptualize de facto institutions, as well as elaborate on their place in the broad institutional system and identification. Then we investigate the possible interrelationships between de facto and de jure institutions. Finally, we make a link between these interrelationships and economic outcomes. In this way the paper fills an underexploited niche in institutional research, which is a major background for law and economics.

Resumen

En este trabajo ...


Quintavalle: The Quandary In Bioethics, Lisa Cherkassky Dec 2016

Quintavalle: The Quandary In Bioethics, Lisa Cherkassky

Journal of Law and Health

The case of R. (Quintavalle) v. Human Fertilisation Embryology Authority (and Secretary of State for Health) presents a handful of legal problems. The biggest legal query to arise from the case is the inevitable harvest of babies, toddlers and very young children for their bone marrow. This article unpacks the judicial story behind Quintavalle to reveal how the strict provisions of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 - namely ‘suitable condition’ under schedule 2 paragraph 1(1)(a) and ‘treatment services’ and ‘assisting’ under section 2(1) - were widely misinterpreted to introduce the social selection of embryos into law. The ...


Save Thousands Of Lives Every Year: Resuscitate The Peer Review Privilege, Alan G. Williams Dec 2016

Save Thousands Of Lives Every Year: Resuscitate The Peer Review Privilege, Alan G. Williams

Journal of Law and Health

Doctors make mistakes—preventable medical mistakes—that kill or seriously injure patients. The best way to reduce these preventable errors is through a medical peer review process typically referred to as a "morbidity and mortality conference." However, over the past twenty years, federal and state courts, state legislatures, and state voters have effectively gutted the morbidity and mortality conference (M&M) as a remedial and preventative tool, resulting in tens of thousands of unnecessary deaths every year. Doctors need our help restoring the effectiveness of M&Ms. Congress has created the means to do so; now, all the courts need do is use it. Otherwise, what has been happening over the last two decades will continue—physicians will fear the M&M, will either not participate in M&Ms or not participate fully, medical errors ...


Healer, Witness, Or Double Agent? Reexamining The Ethics Of Forensic Psychiatry, Matthew U. Scherer Dec 2016

Healer, Witness, Or Double Agent? Reexamining The Ethics Of Forensic Psychiatry, Matthew U. Scherer

Journal of Law and Health

In recent years, psychiatrists have become ever more prevalent in American courtrooms. Consequently, the issue of when the usual rules of medical ethics should apply to forensic psychiatric encounters has taken on increased importance and is a continuing topic of discussion among both legal and medical scholars. A number of approaches to the problem of forensic psychiatric ethics have been proposed, but none adequately addresses the issues that arise when a forensic encounter develops therapeutic characteristics. This article looks to the rules governing the lawyer-client relationship as a model for a new approach to forensic psychiatric ethics. This new model ...


Expansion Of Employee Wellness Programs Under Ppaca Creates Additional Barriers To Healthcare Insurance For Individuals With Disabilities, Amy B. Cheng Dec 2016

Expansion Of Employee Wellness Programs Under Ppaca Creates Additional Barriers To Healthcare Insurance For Individuals With Disabilities, Amy B. Cheng

Journal of Law and Health

There are many barriers to healthcare for the general population that has been documented throughout the years, with one particularly affected group being individuals with disabilities. One identified healthcare barrier for individuals with disabilities is the inability to gain access to the healthcare system through health insurance. While many attempts have been made to resolve this issue, serious problems have yet to be resolved. The Patient Protection Affordable Care Act (PPACA) attempted to solve the issue by expanding Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996’s (HIPAA) current regulations on employee wellness programs. The relevant regulations govern employee wellness ...


Mending Invisible Wounds: The Efficacy And Legality Of Mdma-Assisted Psychotherapy In United States' Veterans Suffering With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Jonathan Perry Dec 2016

Mending Invisible Wounds: The Efficacy And Legality Of Mdma-Assisted Psychotherapy In United States' Veterans Suffering With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Jonathan Perry

Journal of Law and Health

Though Veteran Affairs has provided crucial life sustaining—and often lifesaving—treatments to returning soldiers, the substantial and ever-increasing rates of veteran suicides, drug addictions, and criminal behavior indicate a need for broader options in treatment. One of the most profound discoveries uncovered through MDMA-assisted psychotherapy research is MDMA’s facilitation of the alleviation of addictive behavior in subjects, and, as a result, an alleviation of addictions in general. Addiction is one of the key symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and drug abuse plays a large role in the other afflictions suffered by veterans, namely criminal activity and a ...


Funding Long-Term Services And Supports (Ltss) For Working Aged Disabled Americans, Helen L. Rapp Dec 2016

Funding Long-Term Services And Supports (Ltss) For Working Aged Disabled Americans, Helen L. Rapp

Journal of Law and Health

There are a multitude of dilemmas faced today by over 3 million significantly disabled Americans, many of whom depend on Medicaid for Long-Term Services and Supports (LTSS) in obtaining the services they need to simply live. While the landmark 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has done a lot to improve the lives of people with disabilities, the reality is that using Medicaid as the vehicle for funding LTSS places unreasonable restrictions on disabled people who want to live independent lives and be as successful as possible.

The Federal Government must change funding for LTSS in order to provide disabled ...


The Future Of Law And Economics And The Calabresian External Moral Costs, Ariel Porat Dec 2016

The Future Of Law And Economics And The Calabresian External Moral Costs, Ariel Porat

Public Law and Legal Theory Working Papers

No abstract provided.


The Future Of Law And Economics And The Calabresian External Moral Costs, Ariel Porat Dec 2016

The Future Of Law And Economics And The Calabresian External Moral Costs, Ariel Porat

Coase-Sandor Working Paper Series in Law and Economics

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Md5 File Hash Collisions On Digital Forensic Imaging, Gary C. Kessler Dec 2016

The Impact Of Md5 File Hash Collisions On Digital Forensic Imaging, Gary C. Kessler

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

The Message Digest 5 (MD5) hash is commonly used as for integrity verification in the forensic imaging process. The ability to force MD5 hash collisions has been a reality for more than a decade, although there is a general consensus that hash collisions are of minimal impact to the practice of computer forensics. This paper describes an experiment to determine the results of imaging two disks that are identical except for one file, the two versions of which have different content but otherwise occupy the same byte positions on the disk, are the same size, and have the same hash ...


Beps And The New International Tax Order, Allison Christians Dec 2016

Beps And The New International Tax Order, Allison Christians

BYU Law Review

Nations across the world are currently engaged in a coordinated international effort, ostensibly to curb excessive tax avoidance by the world’s biggest multinational companies. This Article contends, however, that the most likely impact will be to entrench a monopoly held by a small number of rich countries over the policymaking processes that created the tax avoidance problem to begin with. To examine this contention and probe possible solutions to it, the Article considers the legal and institutional components of the coordination project, by situating them historically and analyzing their multi-functionality as both norm diffusion and institutional reinforcement mechanisms. The ...


Competitiveness, Tax Base Erosion, And The Essential Dilemma Of Corporate Tax Reform, Kimberly A. Clausing Dec 2016

Competitiveness, Tax Base Erosion, And The Essential Dilemma Of Corporate Tax Reform, Kimberly A. Clausing

BYU Law Review

Label contradicts reality for the U.S. international corporate tax system. The U.S. system is typically labeled as a worldwide tax system with a statutory rate of 35%, both uncommon features among our trading partners. Yet these markers of the U.S. tax system do not accurately describe reality, where multinational firms routinely face far lower effective tax rates and little, if any, tax is collected on foreign income. Understanding this discrepancy between label and reality is essential to evaluate recent policy debates surrounding corporate inversions and the competitiveness of the U.S. international tax system. Although there is ...


Defending Worldwide Taxation With A Shareholder-Based Definition Of Corporate Residence, J. Clifton Fleming Jr., Robert J. Peroni, Stephen E. Shay Dec 2016

Defending Worldwide Taxation With A Shareholder-Based Definition Of Corporate Residence, J. Clifton Fleming Jr., Robert J. Peroni, Stephen E. Shay

BYU Law Review

This Article argues that a principled, efficient, and practical definition of corporate residence is necessary even if some form of corporate integration is adopted, and that such a definition is a key element in designing either a real worldwide or a territorial income tax system as well as a potential restraint on the inversion phenomenon. The Article proposes that the United States adopt a shareholder-based definition of corporate residence that is structured as follows: 1. A foreign corporation is a U.S. tax resident for any year if fifty percent or more of its shares, determined by vote or value ...


Developing Countries In An Age Of Transparency And Disclosure, Diane Ring Dec 2016

Developing Countries In An Age Of Transparency And Disclosure, Diane Ring

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Inversions, Related Party Expenditures, And Source Taxation: Changing The Paradigm For The Taxation Of Foreign And Foreign-Owned Businesses, Julie A. Roin Dec 2016

Inversions, Related Party Expenditures, And Source Taxation: Changing The Paradigm For The Taxation Of Foreign And Foreign-Owned Businesses, Julie A. Roin

BYU Law Review

The disconnect between the rules for the taxation of domestic businesses and foreign and foreign-owned businesses operating in the United States both diminishes the federal treasury and distorts taxpayer and business behavior. Yet bringing the sets of rules into closer coordination is no simple task. This Article examines many of the solutions proffered in the academic literature and details the difficulties and trade-offs that each entails.


The Foreign Tax Credit War, Bret Wells Dec 2016

The Foreign Tax Credit War, Bret Wells

BYU Law Review

The government has been involved in a sustained war against objectionable foreign tax credit transactions. This war has caused the U.S. foreign tax credit regime to be riddled with complexity that spawns incoherent outcomes. The complexity contained in section 901 was created due to a legitimate concern: the threats posed by objectionable transactions that artificially generate excess foreign tax credits represent real policy problems. Since at least 1975, Congress and the Treasury Department have been convinced that the cross-crediting of excess foreign tax credits arising from “objectionable transactions” required a response in addition to simply relying on section 904 ...


A New Distributed Chinese Wall Security Policy Model, Saad Fehis, Omar Nouali, Mohand-Tahar Kechadi Dec 2016

A New Distributed Chinese Wall Security Policy Model, Saad Fehis, Omar Nouali, Mohand-Tahar Kechadi

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

The application of the Chinese wall security policy model (CWSPM) to control the information flows between two or more competing and/or conflicting companies in cloud computing (Multi-tenancy) or in the social network, is a very interesting solution. The main goal of the Chinese Wall Security Policy is to build a wall between the datasets of competing companies, and among the system subjects. This is done by the applying to the subjects mandatory rules, in order to control the information flow caused between them. This problem is one of the hottest topics in the area of cloud computing (as a ...


The Other Eighty Percent: Private Investment Funds, International Tax Avoidance, And Tax-Exempt Investors, Omri Marian Dec 2016

The Other Eighty Percent: Private Investment Funds, International Tax Avoidance, And Tax-Exempt Investors, Omri Marian

BYU Law Review

The taxation of private equity managers’ share of funds’ profits—the twenty percent “carried interest”—received much attention in academic literature and popular discourse. Much has been said and written about the fact that fund managers’ profits are taxed at preferred rates. But what about the other eighty percent of funds’ profits? This Article theorizes that the bulk of such profits are never taxed. This is a result of a combination of three factors: First, private equity, venture capital, and hedge funds (collectively, Private Investment Funds, or “PIFs”) are major actors in cross-border investment activity. This enables PIFs to take ...


Bloom Filters Optimized Wu-Manber For Intrusion Detection, Monther Aldwairi, Koloud Al-Khamaiseh, Fatima Alharbi, Babar Shah Dec 2016

Bloom Filters Optimized Wu-Manber For Intrusion Detection, Monther Aldwairi, Koloud Al-Khamaiseh, Fatima Alharbi, Babar Shah

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

With increasing number and severity of attacks, monitoring ingress and egress network traffic is becoming essential everyday task. Intrusion detection systems are the main tools for capturing and searching network traffic for potential harm. Signature-based intrusion detection systems are the most widely used, and they simply use a pattern matching algorithms to locate attack signatures in intercepted network traffic. Pattern matching algorithms are very expensive in terms of running time and memory usage, leaving intrusion detection systems unable to detect attacks in real-time. We propose a Bloom filters optimized Wu-Manber pattern matching algorithm to speed up intrusion detection. The Bloom ...


Leveraging The Windows Amcache.Hve File In Forensic Investigations, Bhupendra Singh, Upasna Singh Dec 2016

Leveraging The Windows Amcache.Hve File In Forensic Investigations, Bhupendra Singh, Upasna Singh

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

The Amcache.hve is a registry hive file that is created by Microsoft® Windows® to store the information related to execution of programs. This paper highlights the evidential potential of Amcache.hve file and its application in the area of user activity analysis. The study uncovers numerous artifacts retained in Amcache.hve file when a user performs certain actions such as running host-based applications, installation of new applications, or running portable applications from external devices. The results of experiments demonstrate that Amcache.hve file stores intriguing artifacts related to applications such as timestamps of creation and last modification of any ...


The Impact Of Sha-1 File Hash Collisions On Digital Forensic Imaging: A Follow-Up Experiment, Gary C. Kessler Dec 2016

The Impact Of Sha-1 File Hash Collisions On Digital Forensic Imaging: A Follow-Up Experiment, Gary C. Kessler

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

A previous paper described an experiment showing that Message Digest 5 (MD5) hash collisions of files have no impact on integrity verification in the forensic imaging process. This paper describes a similar experiment applied when two files have a Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1) collision.


The Hostile Poison Pill, A. Christine Hurt Dec 2016

The Hostile Poison Pill, A. Christine Hurt

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


R&D Tax Incentives--Growth Panacea Or Budget Trojan Horse?, Stephen E. Shay, J. Clifton Fleming Jr., Robert J. Peroni Dec 2016

R&D Tax Incentives--Growth Panacea Or Budget Trojan Horse?, Stephen E. Shay, J. Clifton Fleming Jr., Robert J. Peroni

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Nuclear Power: Black Sky Liability Or Black Sky Asset?, Sherrell R. Greene Dec 2016

Nuclear Power: Black Sky Liability Or Black Sky Asset?, Sherrell R. Greene

International Journal of Nuclear Security

Ready access to abundant electricity is a key enabler of modern life. During the past decade the vulnerability of Critical Infrastructure sectors in the U.S. to a variety of natural hazards and man-made threats has become increasingly apparent. The electrical infrastructure (the “Grid”) is the foundation for all other critical civil infrastructures upon which our society depends. Therefore, protection of the Grid is an energy security, homeland security, and national security issue of highest importance. Geomagnetic disturbances (GMD) induced by solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs), electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attacks, and cyber attacks are three events having the potential to ...


Student Competition Cover Dec 2016

Student Competition Cover

International Journal of Nuclear Security

No abstract provided.