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Unpacking Patent Assertion Entities (Paes), Christopher A. Cotropia Dec 2014

Unpacking Patent Assertion Entities (Paes), Christopher A. Cotropia

Law Faculty Publications

In Part I, we explain several theories on why PAEs are beneficial or detrimental to the patent system. These theories outline distinct categories of patent holders who enforce their patents. Transforming the distinct categories into a coding scheme, we detail in Part II the methodology we used to generate the dataset. Part III provides descriptive statistics of 2010 and 2012 patent litigation. We discuss implications of the data, including points of disagreement between our data and the data of others, in Part IV. We also describe some areas of future study, many of which we are presently undertaking. Finally, we ...


Nondiscrimination In Insurance: The Next Chapter, Mary L. Heen Oct 2014

Nondiscrimination In Insurance: The Next Chapter, Mary L. Heen

Law Faculty Publications

Modern federal civil rights legislation prohibits race and gender discrimination in many important sectors of the American economy, including employment, education, public accommodations, housing, and credit. No comparable comprehensive federal civil rights legislation bans race and gender discrimination in the business of insurance-a business at the core of legal and social organization, culture, and finance. Why not?


Education & Practice (Newsletter Of The Section On Education Of Lawyer, Virginia State Bar) - V. 23, No. 1 (Fall 2014), Dale Margolin Cecka Oct 2014

Education & Practice (Newsletter Of The Section On Education Of Lawyer, Virginia State Bar) - V. 23, No. 1 (Fall 2014), Dale Margolin Cecka

Law Faculty Publications

Contents

Learning Styles and Problem-Solving: What Difference Does Our Teaching Make?, by Eric DeGroff, Professor of Law at Regent University

Chair’s Column, by Professor Jim Moliterno

Section’s Website Update

Law Faculty News

News and Events Around the Commonwealth

CALL FOR NOMINATIONS William R. Rakes Leadership in Education Award

2014-2015 Board of Governors


Email, Metadata, And Clouds, Oh My! Recent Changes To The Model Rules Of Professional Conduct, Joyce Manna Janto Aug 2014

Email, Metadata, And Clouds, Oh My! Recent Changes To The Model Rules Of Professional Conduct, Joyce Manna Janto

Law Faculty Publications

A discussion of how the 2012 revisions to the Model Rules of Professional Conduct affect the attorney's duties in handling email: encryption, storage, metadata, and confidentiality.


An Open Access Distribution Tariff: Removing Barriers To Innovation On The Smart Grid, Joel B. Eisen Aug 2014

An Open Access Distribution Tariff: Removing Barriers To Innovation On The Smart Grid, Joel B. Eisen

Law Faculty Publications

This Article proposes that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) consider promulgating an Open Access Distribution Tariff (OADT) to open the nation's electric grid to new products and services at the consumer (distribution) level. Design of the OADT would be comparable to the Open Access Transmission Tariff that the FERC has used previously to open the nation's transmission wires. This Article argues that an OADT is necessary to create a smart electricity network that would be national, multimodal, and interactive. There is no smart electricity network at present, and there are numerous barriers to the development of open ...


Tackling Climate Change: Don't Forget Energy Efficency, Joel B. Eisen Jul 2014

Tackling Climate Change: Don't Forget Energy Efficency, Joel B. Eisen

Law Faculty Publications

Todd S. Aagaard and Joel B. Eisen write that one option available for states under the EPA's high-profile Clean Power Plan is relying on greater efficiency in energy usage and other demand-side strategies such as "demand response," which involves programs to reduce consumption at specific times of high electricity demand. However, a federal court recently cast a cloud over demand response's future.


Garbage Everywhere What Refuse In India's Streets Reveals About America's Hidden Trash Problem, Noah M. Sachs Jun 2014

Garbage Everywhere What Refuse In India's Streets Reveals About America's Hidden Trash Problem, Noah M. Sachs

Law Faculty Publications

In early 2014, I arrived in the southern Indian city of Bangalore, which just two years before had been paralyzed by a garbage-worker strike and a severe shortage of landfill space. The municipal government had responded to public anger over uncollected trash with decrees on waste segregation and composting that went unenforced, and by the time I showed up, not much had changed. In the city that bills itself as India’s Silicon Valley, there are still putrid piles of garbage all around town. Bangaloreans accept open dumps in their neighborhoods as a fixture of the landscape, to be seen ...


Education & Practice (Newsletter Of The Section On Education Of Lawyer, Virginia State Bar) - V. 22, No. 2 (Spring 2014), Dale Margolin Cecka Apr 2014

Education & Practice (Newsletter Of The Section On Education Of Lawyer, Virginia State Bar) - V. 22, No. 2 (Spring 2014), Dale Margolin Cecka

Law Faculty Publications

Contents

The Richmond Legal Development Center: Virginia’s First Legal Incubator, by Eppa Hunton VI, the Managing Director of the Richmond Legal Development Center

From Crisis to Innovation, by Jeffrey Brauch, the Dean of Regent University School of Law

Chair’s Column, by Professor A. Benjamin Spencer of Washington and Lee School of Law

Section’s Website Update

Virginia Supreme Court Senior Justice Elizabeth B. Lacy Receives Leadership in Education Award

Law Faculty News

News and Events Around the Commonwealth

2013-2014 Board of Governors


Copyright's Topography: An Empirical Study Of Copyright Litigation, Christopher A. Cotropia, James Gibson Jan 2014

Copyright's Topography: An Empirical Study Of Copyright Litigation, Christopher A. Cotropia, James Gibson

Law Faculty Publications

One of the most important ways to measure the impact of copyright law is through empirical examination of actual copyright infringement cases. Yet scholars have universally overlooked this rich source of data. This study fills that gap through a comprehensive empirical analysis of copyright infringement litigation, examining the pleadings, motions, and dockets from more than nine hundred copyright lawsuits filed from 2005 through 2008. The data we collect allow us to examine a wide variety of copyright issues, such as the rate of settlements versus judgments; the incidence of litigation between major media companies, small firms, and individuals; the kinds ...


Formerly Manufacturing Entities: Piercing The Patent Troll Rhetoric, Kristen Jakobsen Osenga Jan 2014

Formerly Manufacturing Entities: Piercing The Patent Troll Rhetoric, Kristen Jakobsen Osenga

Law Faculty Publications

Everyone hates patent trolls-those companies that "hijack somebody else's idea" and use the patents to "extort some money" from companies that actually make things. But, despite the rhetoric, not all patent trolls are created equal. This Article is the first to focus on one type of patent troll the formerly manufacturing entity. These patent trolls used to make or do something in commerce, but now derive all or a significant portion of their income through licensing their intellectual property. Using case study analysis, this Article demonstrates that formerly manufacturing entities do not impose the harms associated with patent trolls ...


The Cost Of Judicial Error: Stare Decisis And The Role Of Normative Theory, Kurt T. Lash Jan 2014

The Cost Of Judicial Error: Stare Decisis And The Role Of Normative Theory, Kurt T. Lash

Law Faculty Publications

The Supreme Court of the United States has long embraced the doctrine of stare decisis as an appropriate consideration any time the Court considers overruling past precedent. However, because the Court's actual application of the doctrine has been both sporadic and seemingly inconsistent, some scholars (and Justices) have accused the Court of methodological hypocrisy and bad faith. Much of this criticism assumes that, if members of the Supreme Court find certain rule of law values dispositive in one case, they should find those same considerations dispositive in all cases. Failure to do so suggests either incompetence or insincerity. This ...


The Compensation Myth And U.C.C. Section 2-713, David Frisch Jan 2014

The Compensation Myth And U.C.C. Section 2-713, David Frisch

Law Faculty Publications

This article seeks to bring greater discipline to the analysis of market damages by probing two basic assumptions that are routinely made in discussions of section 2-713: (1) that overcompensation concerns justify judicial interference with the buyer's choice of remedy; and (2) that the relevant market price, in all cases, is the market price that the aggrieved buyer would be required to pay if she wished to make a substitute purchase of goods elsewhere.


Considering Patricia Millett For The D.C. Circuit, Carl W. Tobias Jan 2014

Considering Patricia Millett For The D.C. Circuit, Carl W. Tobias

Law Faculty Publications

On June 4, Obama nominated three individuals: Patricia Millett, who has argued 32 Supreme Court appeals, Cornelia Pillard, who has won landmark High Court victories, and Robert Wilkins, who had served as a D.C. District Court judge for three years. The court’s allegedly smaller caseloads prompted Republicans to halt yes or no votes for all the nominees. But because well-qualified, moderate nominees warrant thorough consideration and final ballots, their Senate review deserves analysis, which this paper conducts by emphasizing Millett. It first surveys the nominee’s process and then shows how her evaluation concluded.


Administrative Law, John Paul Jones Jan 2014

Administrative Law, John Paul Jones

Law Faculty Publications

This article is a report of certain developments during the last two years relating to the Virginia Administrative Process Act ("the VAPA"), which governs rulemaking and adjudication of cases by state agencies as well as judicial review of both.


The Categorical Lucas Rule And The Nuisance And Background Principles Exception, Carol N. Brown Jan 2014

The Categorical Lucas Rule And The Nuisance And Background Principles Exception, Carol N. Brown

Law Faculty Publications

This article examines the seminal 1992 United States Supreme Court decision, Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council, 1 specifically focusing on the Lucas nuisance exception. I surveyed approximately 1,600 reported regulatory takings cases decided since the Lucas decision involving Lucas takings challenges. I identified the statutory nuisance cases in which state and local governments unsuccessfully asserted the Lucas nuisance exception as a defense to the courts' findings of a Lucas taking. This article examines the prospective potential of these cases for assisting private property owners in enhancing private property rights protections within the area of regulatory takings.


Observations On Macdonald V. Moose, Kevin C. Walsh Jan 2014

Observations On Macdonald V. Moose, Kevin C. Walsh

Law Faculty Publications

In MacDonald v. Moose, a split panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit granted a petition for a writ of habeas corpus to undo the state criminal conviction of an adult for soliciting oral sex from a minor. Based on Lawrence v. Texas, the court held a longstanding Virginia prohibition of bestiality and sodomy to be partially facially unconstitutional. Its decision left the bestiality prohibition untouched while holding the sodomy prohibition completely unenforceable, even as applied in cases involving minors.

The panel majority misapplied the deferential standard of review required by Congress for federal ...


Trademark Law And Consumer Centrality - Part I, James Gibson Jan 2014

Trademark Law And Consumer Centrality - Part I, James Gibson

Law Faculty Publications

The conventional wisdom provides two traditional justifications for trademark law. The first is the “consumer protection” rationale. If there were no trademark law, an unknown soft drink manufacturer could freely use Coca-Cola’s COKE trademark on its goods. If it did so, consumers would be defrauded; they would buy the unknown’s products thinking that they were Coca-Cola’s. Trademark law prevents this sort of fraud from occurring and thereby protects consumers from fraud.

The second justification is the “producer incentive” rationale. In the preceding COKE example, it is not just the consumer who is happy that fraud has been ...


Still Aiming At The Wrong Target: A Case For Business Method And Software Patents From A Business Perspective, Kristen Jakobsen Osenga Jan 2014

Still Aiming At The Wrong Target: A Case For Business Method And Software Patents From A Business Perspective, Kristen Jakobsen Osenga

Law Faculty Publications

In Part I, I briefly discuss the rise and recent fall of business method patents. Part II covers the scholarly literature discussing business method and software patents. In Part III, I explain the proxy argument that I have made elsewhere and show how it plays in the recent decisions surrounding the patent eligibility of business method and software inventions. I then explain why the analysis of business method and software patents in the literature uses the same proxy-type arguments to avoid more difficult questions of patentability and policy. Finally, I conclude by explaining how business method and software patents, if ...


Debugging Software's Schemas, Kristen Osenga Jan 2014

Debugging Software's Schemas, Kristen Osenga

Law Faculty Publications

The analytical framework being used to assess the patent eligibility of software and computer-related inventions is fraught with errors, or bugs, in the system. A bug in a schema, or framework, in computer science may cause the system or software to produce unexpected results or shut down altogether. Similarly, errors in the patent eligibility framework are causing unexpected results, as well as calls to shut down patent eligibility for software and computer- related inventions. There are two general schemas that are shaping current discussions about software and computer-related invention patents-that software patents are generally bad (the bad patent schema) and ...


Predicting A Heart Attack: The Fundamental Opacity Of Extreme Liquidity Risk, William O. Fisher Jan 2014

Predicting A Heart Attack: The Fundamental Opacity Of Extreme Liquidity Risk, William O. Fisher

Law Faculty Publications

After 150 years of business, Lehman Brothers ran out of cash and credit and filed for bankruptcy on September 15, 2008. As a publicly traded company, Lehman had filed all the reports required by U.S. securities law. But the hundreds of pages of words and numbers provided no timely warning of lurking liquidity death. The risks of triparty repurchase financing and the endgame Lehman would have to play if a selfmagnifying credit drain hit were, as it turned out, inherently opaque. Disclosure, the traditional securities law “fix,” was destined to fail in this case, raising the question of whether ...


The Commercial Law Of Intellectual Property, David Frisch Jan 2014

The Commercial Law Of Intellectual Property, David Frisch

Law Faculty Publications

The Commercial Law of Intellectual Property provides comprehensive, in-depth analysis of the intersection of commercial law and intellectual property rights, including discussion of all applicable U.C.C. sections and other relevant legislation, as well as discussion of hundreds of cases in which intellectual property interests have been subject to U.C.C. provisions, with attention to such critical areas.


Small Fry In Copyright Litigation, James Gibson Jan 2014

Small Fry In Copyright Litigation, James Gibson

Law Faculty Publications

In two of my earlier entries in this series, I discussed the results of an empirical study of copyright cases that I have been doing with my colleague Chris Cotropia. One of those entries focused on how hard the parties in copyright lawsuits fightagainst each other, and the other focused on the role of major media companies in copyright litigation.

In this entry, I will continue to talk about the parties that we observed in our study, but instead of discussing major media companies, I will concentrate on the other end of the spectrum: the individual as a party. This ...


Transformation, Copyright Infringement, And Fair Use, James Gibson Jan 2014

Transformation, Copyright Infringement, And Fair Use, James Gibson

Law Faculty Publications

A small copyright decision out of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit last month has gotten a big reaction from copyright experts. The case is Kienitz v. Sconnie Nation, and it involves an entertaining set of facts.

In the 1960s, there was a young University of Wisconsin student named Paul Soglin, who had an anti-authoritarian streak. He led a number of demonstrations on issues ranging from civil rights to the Vietnam War. Indeed, one particular Vietnam protest, in May 1969, led to his arrest for failure to obey a police officer. That same protest became an ...


Originalism All The Way Down?, Kurt T. Lash Jan 2014

Originalism All The Way Down?, Kurt T. Lash

Law Faculty Publications

In their new book, Originalism and the Good Constitution, John McGinnis and Michael Rappaport attempt to vanquish what they call constructionist originalism with an approach that I call methodist originalism. Unlike constructionist theories, which allow for non-originalist construction of underdetermined texts, methodist originalism proposes filling in the historical gaps with what McGinnis and Rappaport claim were the originally accepted methods of interpretation. This is originalism all the way down.

It’s a creative effort, and one that appropriately rejects some of the more latitudinous originalist theories currently in play. Unfortunately, the same history McGinnis and Rappaport rely upon fatally undermines ...


The Sum Of All Delegated Power: A Response To Richard Primus, The Limits Of Enumeration, Kurt T. Lash Jan 2014

The Sum Of All Delegated Power: A Response To Richard Primus, The Limits Of Enumeration, Kurt T. Lash

Law Faculty Publications

In his provocative article, The Limits of Enumeration, Richard Primus rejects what he calls the “internal-limits canon” and challenges the assumption that the powers of Congress do not add up to a general police power, such that “there are things Congress cannot do, even without reference to affirmative prohibitions like those in the Bill of Rights.” Primus does not claim that federal power actually does amount to a general police power, only that it might. His principal claim is that nothing in the theoretical nature of enumerated power requires an a priori limit on the aggregate scope of delegated authority ...


Cease, Desist, And Laugh, James Gibson Jan 2014

Cease, Desist, And Laugh, James Gibson

Law Faculty Publications

Anyone who teaches intellectual property law knows how exciting the subject matter can be for students. They inundate professors not only with questions about the classroom material but also with news about emerging technologies, cutting-edge litigation, and legislative initiatives. And the attentive professor will seek to turn these exchanges into teaching moments.

One favorite of students involves a classic intellectual-property mechanism, the cease-and-desist letter. It’s a favorite, I think, because such correspondence can be over the top, and the responses can be quite funny – making this a perfect topic for this April Fool’s edition of IP Viewpoints. [...]


The Problem Of Deterring Extraterritorial White-Collar Crime, Andrew B. Spalding Jan 2014

The Problem Of Deterring Extraterritorial White-Collar Crime, Andrew B. Spalding

Law Faculty Publications

Recent reports of egregious labor practices in China and Bangladesh have called public attention to the potential harms of foreign direct investment (FDI) in developing countries. The best, or at least most obvious, tool for reducing destructive overseas business practices would seem to be the extraterritorial application of white-collar criminal law. The "holy grail" of contemporary criminal law is deterrence, and the deterrence literature is largely shaped by the paradigm of law and economics. Prominent within that literature is Polinsky and Shavell's "enforcement authority," which seeks to maximize social utility through the efficient deterrence of crime.a Guided by ...


From The 2014 World Cup To The 2016 Olympics: Brazil's Role In The Global Anti-Corruption Movement, Andrew B. Spalding Jan 2014

From The 2014 World Cup To The 2016 Olympics: Brazil's Role In The Global Anti-Corruption Movement, Andrew B. Spalding

Law Faculty Publications

This Comment is the first in a series of publications on Brazil's efforts and, we hope, its successes in reducing corruption in the 2016 Olympic Games. It is written as part of a course at the University of Richmond School of Law entitled "Brazil, Corruption, and the 2016 Summer Olympics"-the co-authors are eight students and their pro- fessor. While the ultimate product will be a comprehensive analysis of the role of Brazilian law in controlling corruption, this Comment has a more modest purpose. It will discuss the various trends and forces that have converged on Brazil's hosting ...


A Strategy To Protect Virginians From Toxic Chemicals, Noah M. Sachs Jan 2014

A Strategy To Protect Virginians From Toxic Chemicals, Noah M. Sachs

Law Faculty Publications

This report is divided into two main parts. Part I of this report details the major sources of toxic chemical releases in Virginia. Part II then discusses our recommendations in more detail, outlining a series of reforms that would help the Commonwealth police and reduce the risks from toxic chemicals.


"Why Won't My Homeowners Insurance Cover My Loss?": Reassessing Property Insurance Concurrent Causation Coverage Disputes, Peter N. Swisher Jan 2014

"Why Won't My Homeowners Insurance Cover My Loss?": Reassessing Property Insurance Concurrent Causation Coverage Disputes, Peter N. Swisher

Law Faculty Publications

Property insurance coverage disputes can be extremely complex cases when there are multiple concurrent causes in a causal chain of events and when some of these concurrent causes are covered under the policy language but other concurrent causes are excluded from coverage. To complicate matters enormously, there are no fewer than three different judicial approaches attempting to resolve this concurrent causation interpretive conundrum. Over the past two decades, a number of property insurance companies have attempted to address this interpretive problem contractually by inserting so-called anti-concurrent causation clauses into their property insurance policy language. But these anti-concurrent causation clauses have ...