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2010

International law

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Asean Handbook On International Legal Cooperation In Trafficking In Persons Cases, Fiona David, Pauline David, Anne Gallagher Jan 2012

Asean Handbook On International Legal Cooperation In Trafficking In Persons Cases, Fiona David, Pauline David, Anne Gallagher

Fiona David

The crime of trafficking in persons is often transnational in both commission and effect. In contrast, criminal justice responses to trafficking in persons are typically structured and generally only operate within the confines of national borders. The disjuncture between the reality of transnational crime and the limits of national systems presents a significant challenge to the ability of States to effectively respond to trafficking in persons and related crimes.

This Handbook provides criminal justice agencies within the ASEAN region with an introduction to the key tools of international legal cooperation, specifically mutual legal assistance (including for recovery of proceeds of ...


Nuevas Perspectivas Del Derecho Internacional, Realidades De Las Relaciones Diplomáticas En Un Mundo Globalizado, Andres Barreto Nov 2010

Nuevas Perspectivas Del Derecho Internacional, Realidades De Las Relaciones Diplomáticas En Un Mundo Globalizado, Andres Barreto

Andres Barreto

States being the classical subjects of International Law have begun to limit and regulate their activities in the territories of other States, as well as their own sovereignty, by achieving international instruments that contain privileges and immunities. This situation has also been translated to other international subjects due to their relevant presence nowadays, such as international organizations, military and technical missions, non governmental organizations (NGO) and cooperation agencies. Further more, the almost inexistent presence of Colombia (in diplomacy, international cooperation and international politics), as well as its apathy for International Law scenarios has caused all sorts of legal vacuums and ...


Disputes Related To Healthcare Across National Boundaries: The Potential For Arbitration, Deth Sao Nov 2010

Disputes Related To Healthcare Across National Boundaries: The Potential For Arbitration, Deth Sao

Deth Sao

Trade in international health services has the potential to play a leading role in the global economy, but its rapid growth is impeded by legal barriers. Advances in technology and cross-border movement of people and health services create legal ambiguities and uncertainties for businesses and consumers involved in transnational medical malpractice disputes. Existing legal protections and remedies afforded by traditional judicial frameworks are unable to resolve the following challenges: (1) assertion of personal jurisdiction; (2) choice of forum and law considerations; (3) appropriate theories of liability for injuries and damages arising from innovations in medical care and delivery of health ...


The Right To An Effective Remedy For Victims Of Trafficking In Persons: A Survey Of International Law And Policy, Anne T. Gallagher Oct 2010

The Right To An Effective Remedy For Victims Of Trafficking In Persons: A Survey Of International Law And Policy, Anne T. Gallagher

Anne T Gallagher

Remedies are a critical aspect of the international legal response to trafficking, confirming the status of trafficked persons as victims of crime and victims of human rights abuse. Over the past decade, States and the international community have come to better understand the true consequences of trafficking – an essential prerequisite to consensus on what constitutes ‘effective” and “appropriate’ remedies for trafficking-related harm. There have also been great improvements in the articulation and acceptance of legal obligations owed by States to prevent and respond to such harm. Unfortunately, and despite this important progress, victims of trafficking very rarely receive the justice ...


Requiring Exhaustion: An International Law Perspective Of The Alien Tort Claims Act In Sarei V. Rio Tinto, Steffanie Bevington Oct 2010

Requiring Exhaustion: An International Law Perspective Of The Alien Tort Claims Act In Sarei V. Rio Tinto, Steffanie Bevington

Golden Gate University Law Review

This Note will analyze the opinion of the three-judge panel of the Ninth Circuit regarding exhaustion of local remedies in Sarei. The panel majority concluded that the court could not read an exhaustion requirement into the ATCA "where Congress has declined to do so, and in an area of international law where the Supreme Court has called for the exercise of judicial caution rather than innovation." The Ninth Circuit has granted en banc rehearing in Sarei, and the matter remained pending as this Note went to press. However, regardless of whether the en banc panel can or should read an ...


The International Law Of Human Trafficking, Anne Gallagher Oct 2010

The International Law Of Human Trafficking, Anne Gallagher

Anne T Gallagher

This book presents the first-ever comprehensive and in-depth analysis of the international law of human trafficking. Anne T. Gallagher calls on her direct experience working within the United Nations to chart the development of new international laws on this issue. She links these rules to the international law of State responsibility , as well as key norms of international human rights law, transnational criminal law, refugee law and international criminal law, in the process identifying and explaining the major legal obligations of States with respect to preventing trafficking, protecting and supporting victims, and prosecuting perpetrators.


Justice For Rwanda: Toward A Universal Law Of Armed Conflict, Heather Alexander Sep 2010

Justice For Rwanda: Toward A Universal Law Of Armed Conflict, Heather Alexander

Golden Gate University Law Review

Section I of this Comment provides a history of the Rwandan armed conflict and a description of the laws of armed conflict. It focuses on the basic laws of armed conflict, the Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols, and describes how these laws have been interpreted by the ICTY and ICTR. Section II addresses the classification of the Rwandan armed conflict as a non-international conflict. This section discusses Ugandan support for the invading Rwandan Patriotic Front ("hereinafter RPF") and the murder of ten Belgian U.N. peacekeepers by Rwandan troops. The Section proposes changing the definition of an international conflict, thereby ...


Unequal Treatment Of United States Citizens: Eroding The Constitutional Safeguards, Irma Alicia Cabrera Ramirez Sep 2010

Unequal Treatment Of United States Citizens: Eroding The Constitutional Safeguards, Irma Alicia Cabrera Ramirez

Golden Gate University Law Review

This comment examines the unequal treatment of United States citizens who are labeled enemy combatants by looking at the factual and procedural background of Padilla, Hamdi and Lindh. Next, this comment examines the origins of the label enemy combatant and the constitutional safeguards afforded to criminal defendants in similar situations as Padilla, Hamdi,and Lindh. The terrorist acts Padilla, Hamdi, and Lindh are accused of involve international laws. Therefore, this comment will examine the Geneva Conventions as a means to understand humanitarian protections that may cover Padilla and Hamdi. Finally, this comment will provide recommendations for some of the issues ...


Jurisdiction, Terrorism And The Rule Of International Law, Sompong Sucharitkul Sep 2010

Jurisdiction, Terrorism And The Rule Of International Law, Sompong Sucharitkul

Golden Gate University Law Review

In October 2001, approximately one month after the September 11 terrorist attacks in the United States, Golden Gate University Law Professor Sompong Sucharitkul spoke to the students of Golden Gate University and others on the topic of jurisdiction, terrorism and the rule of international law. The following is an excerpt from the speech given by Golden Gate University Law Professor Sompong Sucharitkul.


Extraterritorial Jurisdiction: A Step Towards Eradicating The Trafficking Of Women Into Greece For Forced Prostitution, Vicki Trapalis Sep 2010

Extraterritorial Jurisdiction: A Step Towards Eradicating The Trafficking Of Women Into Greece For Forced Prostitution, Vicki Trapalis

Golden Gate University Law Review

The purpose of this article is to provide a survey of the international law instruments presently in existence to combat trafficking of women for forced prostitution. This article will develop suggestions for more effective implementation of existing international obligations. Specifically, this article proposes extraterritorial jurisdiction as an opportunity for international cooperation.


International Investment, Expropriation And Environmental Protection, J. Martin Wagner Sep 2010

International Investment, Expropriation And Environmental Protection, J. Martin Wagner

Golden Gate University Law Review

After a brief description of the relationship between foreign investment and the environment in Part II, the Article will describe the protection against expropriation provided by international agreements, briefly discussing bilateral investment agreements and then detailing the protection provided by NAFTA and the MAI in Part III. Part IV will then describe the challenges to environmental laws that have been brought under NAFTA's investment chapter. Next, Part V will examine the treatment of indirect expropriation under U.S. and international law. Part VI will demonstrate that, under NAFTA and international expropriation and environmental law, environmental measures should not normally ...


Introduction: International Financial Institutions And International Law, Daniel Bradlow, David Hunter Sep 2010

Introduction: International Financial Institutions And International Law, Daniel Bradlow, David Hunter

Contributions to Books

This is the introduction to an edited volume of papers on International Financial Institutions and International Law. The introduction provides an explanation of the editors motivation for undertaking this book project and an overview of the chapters in the book.


Conclusion: The Future Of International Law And International Financial Institutions, Daniel Bradlow, David Hunter Sep 2010

Conclusion: The Future Of International Law And International Financial Institutions, Daniel Bradlow, David Hunter

Contributions to Books

This is the conclusion to the edited volume, International Financial Institutions and International Law. After a brief overview of the key points made in the volume, the authors offer some observations on the role that international law plays and should play in the functioning of international financial institutions and some suggestions for future research on the topic.


The Holocaust Insurance Accountability Act Of 2010: Hearing Before The United States House Of Representatives, Committee On The Judiciary, Subcommittee On Commercial And Administrative Law. 111th Congress, 2nd Session, Michael P. Van Alstine Sep 2010

The Holocaust Insurance Accountability Act Of 2010: Hearing Before The United States House Of Representatives, Committee On The Judiciary, Subcommittee On Commercial And Administrative Law. 111th Congress, 2nd Session, Michael P. Van Alstine

Congressional Testimony

The testimony explores the essential legal issue of the extent to which executive agreements related to H.R. 4596 have any force as law in the United States. The agreements made it clear that they did not, by themselves, “provide an independent legal basis for dismissal” of claims of Holocaust victims filed in any courts of the United States. Instead, the executive branch simply agreed to file a “statement of interest” in such lawsuits to the effect “that U.S. policy interests favor dismissal on any valid legal ground.” Some lower courts have nonetheless given the statements of interest preemptive ...


International Civil Religion: Respecting Religious Diversity While Promoting International Cooperation, Amos Davis Sep 2010

International Civil Religion: Respecting Religious Diversity While Promoting International Cooperation, Amos Davis

Amos Prosser Davis

International civil religion grounds moral claims that permeate and transcend traditional religious paradigms. Given the inevitability of international interactions – interactions that cross geographic, religious, and cultural boundaries – our global society is in need of a universally endorsable framework that undergirds the United Nations international human rights regime. International civil religion provides that framework.

Numerous scholars and moral theorists have incrementally discerned the parameters of civil religion including, inter alia, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Alexis de Tocqueville, Robert Bellah, Martin Marty, and Harold Berman. The tenets of international civil religion infuse the diplomatically drafted United Nations covenants and conventions on human rights, including ...


The Nature Of A Passport At The Intersection Of Customary International Law And American Judicial Practice, Richard A.C. Alton, Jason Reed Struble Sep 2010

The Nature Of A Passport At The Intersection Of Customary International Law And American Judicial Practice, Richard A.C. Alton, Jason Reed Struble

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

In order to fully develop the argument that the DHS’s confiscation and impoundment of passports is a violation of customary international law, we begin by examining the history of a passport and its treatment in the international community. Next, we survey general principles of customary international law and analyze German case law holding that one State’s confiscation or impounding of a valid foreign passport constitutes an encroachment upon the passport jurisdiction of the foreign State issuing the documents which is impermissible under customary international law. Thereafter, we discuss case law where courts avoided addressing the international implications of ...


Lnternational Law As Law, Sompong Sucharitkul Sep 2010

Lnternational Law As Law, Sompong Sucharitkul

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Classification Of Hezbollah In Both International And Non-International Armed Conflicts, Catherine Bloom Aug 2010

The Classification Of Hezbollah In Both International And Non-International Armed Conflicts, Catherine Bloom

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

The 2006 conflict between Hezbollah and Israel questions an important, yet unclear part of international humanitarian law. Specifically, what would Hezbollah' s legal classification be if another armed conflict were to arise between Israel and Lebanon? Would Hezbollah be considered a State or non-State actor? If Hezbollah is a non-State actor, would the group be considered "guerrillas"? Would the term "mercenary" be a better fit? In attempting to answer some of these questions, we must first look at what exactly occurred between Israel and Lebanon in the summer of 2006. Second, we must understand who Hezbollah is and how the ...


Universal Human Rights: A Generational History, Eric Engle Aug 2010

Universal Human Rights: A Generational History, Eric Engle

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

Human rights are universal. Not in the sense of being the same positive laws, at all times and places, but rather as being aspirational goals, at all times and places, and also as containing core values which are indeed universal, such as the right to life (no irrational deprivation of life). Histories of human rights usually propose that the concept has evolved through at least three separate historical waves. This historical account, while roughly accurate, must be clarified as a theoretical construction which corresponds only partially to the historical reality: the rights of women and of non-white persons, in fact ...


The International Criminal Court: Bottlenecks To Individual Criminal Liability In The Rome Statute, Remigius Oraeki Chibueze Aug 2010

The International Criminal Court: Bottlenecks To Individual Criminal Liability In The Rome Statute, Remigius Oraeki Chibueze

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

This paper highlights some of the inherent bottlenecks in the exercise of ICC jurisdiction that may diminish the Court's ability to uphold the principle of individual criminal liability. In particular, this paper will analyze the principle of complementarity between the ICC and States Parties to the ICC Statute. Additionally, the legality of the so called Article 98 Immunity Agreement will be discussed. This paper without equivocation contends that the conclusion of Article 98 immunity agreement by ICC States Parties is a clear violation of their obligation to cooperate with the Court and to arrest and surrender suspects to the ...


Legal Standards Governing Pre-Emptive Strikes And Forcible Measures Of Anticipatory Self-Defense Under The U.N. Charter And General International Law, Olumide K. Obayemi Aug 2010

Legal Standards Governing Pre-Emptive Strikes And Forcible Measures Of Anticipatory Self-Defense Under The U.N. Charter And General International Law, Olumide K. Obayemi

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

The thesis of this article argues that while the use of preemptive military strikes, now adopted by the United States against non-state actors and rogue states, appears to be justified under international law, such a military exercise must be subject to well defined and clearly stated international legal rules.


A Right To Democracy In International Law: Its Implications For Asia, Same Varayudej Aug 2010

A Right To Democracy In International Law: Its Implications For Asia, Same Varayudej

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

This paper will first look at the traditional concept of sovereignty and the undemocratic features of traditional international law. It will then discuss the development of democratic governance in the United Nations and regional international organisations, as well as the pro-democratic interventions in international law. Moreover, the paper will critically analyse the recent claims by prominent international legal scholars that a "right to democracy" is now emerging in international law and that all communities are entitled to democratic rules of governance. It will then consider whether, and to what extent, the notion of democratic entitlement has crystallised into a customary ...


Fighting The War On Terrorism With The Legal System: A Defense Of Military Commissions, Jessica Erin Tannenbaum Aug 2010

Fighting The War On Terrorism With The Legal System: A Defense Of Military Commissions, Jessica Erin Tannenbaum

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

In early 2002, the United States began transporting prisoners captured in Afghanistan to the naval base at Guantanamo Bay. Almost immediately, an uproar broke out over the detention of prisoners there. The United States was, and continues to be, almost universally criticized by the international community for its handling of the prisoners at Guantanamo Bay. The most common criticisms are of the detention of accused terrorists without charges and the indefinite detention of non-citizens certified as dangers to national security as authorized by the USA PATRIOT Act. Although all of the issues regarding the detention of prisoners in the War ...


Applicable Law In International Terrorist Threats And Attacks And The Consequences Of Error In Personam, Somcharti Sucharitkul Aug 2010

Applicable Law In International Terrorist Threats And Attacks And The Consequences Of Error In Personam, Somcharti Sucharitkul

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

The objective of this paper is neither to reiterate the diversity of definitions nor to corroborate a particular position on the concept of international terrorism but to facilitate the search for the definition of international terrorism, which seems to be of immediate and urgent priority in the context of 21 st century globalization. In my attempt to identify the contemporary core terrorist threat, I will first focus on a model of distinction based on the applicable law in Part I. I will discuss why this model is appropriate and compatible with the trends of international law dealing with international terrorism ...


The International Legal Standards Adopted To Stop The Participation Of Children In Armed Conflicts, Joseph N. Madubuike-Ekwe Aug 2010

The International Legal Standards Adopted To Stop The Participation Of Children In Armed Conflicts, Joseph N. Madubuike-Ekwe

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

The aim of this paper is to discuss the participation of children in armed conflicts around the world and the various international legal standards adopted to stop it. The paper will first describe the factors that contribute to the involvement of children in armed conflicts. It will examine the relevant international armed conflict (humanitarian) laws and other legal standards governing the use of children in armed conflicts and their effectiveness. The paper will also discuss the United States position on the Global efforts to ban the use of children in armed conflicts. Finally, the paper will discuss the problems of ...


Taiwan's Status In A Changing World: United Nations Representation And Membership For Taiwan, Eric Ting-Lun Huang Aug 2010

Taiwan's Status In A Changing World: United Nations Representation And Membership For Taiwan, Eric Ting-Lun Huang

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

This paper starts with an overview of basic conceptual issues about the UN and its modem function. The focus on this part will be the concepts of representation and universality membership. Once we have properly identified and understood these concepts, some discussion will follow, deal mainly with such issues as; the ROC's exclusion from the UN as inconsistent with the universal principle of representation, Taiwan's efforts to join the UN, the increasing importance to improve Taiwan's status in the UN, and, the UN's considerable benefits to access Taiwan's UN entry bid. In addition to the ...


Kosovo: To Bomb Or Not To Bomb? The Legality Is The Question, Leslie A. Burton Aug 2010

Kosovo: To Bomb Or Not To Bomb? The Legality Is The Question, Leslie A. Burton

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

In 1998 and 1999, Yugoslavia was engaged in an "ethnic cleansing," involving the systematic murder of its ethnic minorities, especially within its state of Kosovo. Although the United Nations issued Resolutions condemning Yugoslavia's actions, the U.N. stopped short of ordering any enforcement action. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization ("NATO") members agreed that action must be taken to stop the slaughter. After attempts to negotiate peace in the region proved unsuccessful, NATO determined that an aggressive response was the only altemative. On March 24, 1999, NATO-sponsored forces commenced bombing Kosovo. The bombing ended on June 10, 1999, having achieved ...


Familiar Stories: An International Suggestion For Lgb Family Military Benefits After The Repeal Of “Don’T Ask, Don’T Tell”, Maureen Brocco Aug 2010

Familiar Stories: An International Suggestion For Lgb Family Military Benefits After The Repeal Of “Don’T Ask, Don’T Tell”, Maureen Brocco

Maureen Brocco

This Article advocates for Congress to make benefits available to the families of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) servicemembers after the repeal of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell, by passing an amended version of the Domestic Partnership Benefits and Obligations Act of 2009 (DPBOA). Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell is only one element of the quandary of laws preventing LGB servicemembers from receiving military family benefits equal to those of their heterosexual peers. The federal Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) limits the federal definition of a marriage to opposite-sex couples and explicitly bars same-sex couples from receiving federal ...


A Civilized Nation: The Early American Constitution, The Law Of Nations, And The Pursuit Of International Recognition, David M. Golove, Daniel J. Hulsebosch Aug 2010

A Civilized Nation: The Early American Constitution, The Law Of Nations, And The Pursuit Of International Recognition, David M. Golove, Daniel J. Hulsebosch

New York University Public Law and Legal Theory Working Papers

This article argues, contrary to conventional accounts, that the animating purpose of the American Constitution was to facilitate the admission of the new nation into the European-centered community of “civilized states.” Achieving international recognition—which entailed legal and practical acceptance on an equal footing—was a major aspiration of the founding generation from 1776 through at least the Washington administration in the 1790s, and constitution-making was a key means of realizing that goal. Their experience under the Articles of Confederation led many Americans to conclude that adherence to treaties and the law of nations was a prerequisite to full recognition ...


International Law And United States Policy Issues Arising From The United States' Conflict With Al Qaeda, Gregory S. Mcneal Jul 2010

International Law And United States Policy Issues Arising From The United States' Conflict With Al Qaeda, Gregory S. Mcneal

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

No abstract provided.