Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 77

Full-Text Articles in Law

Judicial Review Of Administrative Acts In The European Union And In France: A Comparison., Natasha Buontempo Nov 2010

Judicial Review Of Administrative Acts In The European Union And In France: A Comparison., Natasha Buontempo

Natasha Buontempo

No abstract provided.


Can The Federal Reserve Adopt An Inflation Targeting Regime Under The Current Statutory Arrangements?, Hong Kyoon Cho Oct 2010

Can The Federal Reserve Adopt An Inflation Targeting Regime Under The Current Statutory Arrangements?, Hong Kyoon Cho

Hong Kyoon Cho

This paper discussed legal perspectives in institutional framework of central banking, keyed to monetary policy framework. The statutory objectives of monetary policy provide an environment under which the central bank can design its monetary policy framework, in that the choice of the monetary policy framework could lie within the scope of the spirits embodied in the statutory objectives of monetary policy. Monetary policy framework could illuminate legal aspects of debate, as specifically seen in the Federal Reserve’s case that has adopted not an explicit but an implicit monetary policy framework, namely the Just-Do-It approach. Under the current legal mandate ...


Banking On Allowances: The Epa’S Mixed Record In Managing Emissions-Market Transitions, Nathan D. Richardson, Arthur G. Fraas Oct 2010

Banking On Allowances: The Epa’S Mixed Record In Managing Emissions-Market Transitions, Nathan D. Richardson, Arthur G. Fraas

Nathan D Richardson

The history of emissions-trading markets in the United States is marked by change. Since cap-and-trade programs were first implemented on a large scale after the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has repeatedly revised and replaced emissionstrading markets for nitrous oxides and sulfur dioxide. In each transition, the agency has had to decide what to do with emissions allowances banked in the earlier program. These banked allowances represent early reductions in emissions, with corresponding environmental benefits, but also the expectation on the part of regulated entities that they will continue to hold ...


Is The Public Utility Holding Company Act A Model For Breaking Up The Banks That Are Too-Big-To-Fail?, Roberta S. Karmel Sep 2010

Is The Public Utility Holding Company Act A Model For Breaking Up The Banks That Are Too-Big-To-Fail?, Roberta S. Karmel

Roberta S. Karmel

ABSTRACT FOR “IS THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT A MODEL FOR BREAKING UP THE BANKS THAT ARE TO-BIG-TO-FAIL?”

BY ROBERTA S. KARMEL

During the financial crisis of 2007-08 and the debates on regulatory reform that followed, there was general agreement that the “too-big-to-fail” principle creates unacceptable moral hazard. Policy makers divided, however, on the solutions to this problem. Some argued that the banking behemoths in the United States should be broken up. Others argued that dismantling the big banks would be bad policy because these banks would not be able to compete with universal banks in the global capital ...


Tax Lawyers, Tax Defiance, And The Ethics Of Casual Conversation, Michael Hatfield Sep 2010

Tax Lawyers, Tax Defiance, And The Ethics Of Casual Conversation, Michael Hatfield

Michael Hatfield

Tax Lawyers, Tax Defiance, and the Ethics of Casual Conversation ABSTRACT Tax lawyers routinely navigate politically-charged waters when a tax topic is dropped into conversation. Increasingly, however, tax lawyers are confronted with comments that undermine the authority of the federal tax system itself. These comments may take several forms, including arguments that the income tax is unconstitutional. Regardless of form, this rhetoric differs from legitimate criticisms of the tax system because it encourages non-compliance as either a moral right or a political good. In the current environment, the tax bar should take up the call to be public educators with ...


The Emergence Of Global Administrative Law And The Evolution Of General Administrative Law, Karl-Heinz Ladeur Sep 2010

The Emergence Of Global Administrative Law And The Evolution Of General Administrative Law, Karl-Heinz Ladeur

Karl-Heinz Ladeur

Abstract: The discussion on the emergence of global administrative law is centered around the question: “Is it law?” and problems of accountability. This is a narrow perspective which ignores the autonomy of the administrative “internal law” generated by administrative agencies themselves. This is shown for the evolution of domestic administrative law in the 19th century and its transformations in the 20th century. Domestic administrative law is only to a much lesser extent a product of courts or legislators than hitherto taken for granted. This is why it should not come as a surprise that the instruments and forms of global ...


Protecting Pocahontas's World: The Mattaponi Tribe's Struggle Against Virginia's King William Reservoir Project, Allison M. Dussias Sep 2010

Protecting Pocahontas's World: The Mattaponi Tribe's Struggle Against Virginia's King William Reservoir Project, Allison M. Dussias

Allison M Dussias

This article examines the efforts of the Mattaponi Tribe of Virginia to combat an environmentally destructive reservoir project that threatened sacred and archaeological sites and implicated tribal treaty rights, including fishing rights. The Tribe opposed the project through both the federal and state administrative approval process and litigation. The dispute over the reservoir highlights the difficulties that tribes have faced historically, and continue to face today, as they try to protect their rights to land, water, and subsistence resources.


Deferring To The Assertion Of National Security: The Creation Of A National Security Exemption Under The National Environmental Policy Act Of 1969, Emily Donovan Sep 2010

Deferring To The Assertion Of National Security: The Creation Of A National Security Exemption Under The National Environmental Policy Act Of 1969, Emily Donovan

Emily Donovan

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) aims to ensure that agencies consider the potential environmental impacts of their actions before engaging in them. In contrast to other major environmental legislation, Congress did not include a national security exemption under NEPA, meaning that, in theory, agencies in the business of national security must comply with NEPA just as any other agency, by considering mitigation measures and alternatives, and preparing environmental impact statements when necessary. The courts, however, in deciding NEPA noncompliance cases, have created a national security exemption that the legislature never intended. They have done so by failing ...


Deference To Administrative Agencies In Interpreting Treaties: Chevron, Charming Betsy, And Global Decisionmaking, Catherine E. Sweetser Sep 2010

Deference To Administrative Agencies In Interpreting Treaties: Chevron, Charming Betsy, And Global Decisionmaking, Catherine E. Sweetser

Catherine E Sweetser

This Article examines how national courts in the United States should deal with domestic agency interpretations of international treaties. Under Chevron deference, a court defers to an agency interpretation where it believes that Congress when passing a statute intended to delegate lawmaking power to the agency. The Charming Betsy canon assumes that Congress also has an interest in complying with international norms and in binding the United States to follow international rules. In both these canons, Congressional intent becomes the touchstone. I first examine whether international law itself, as a rule of treaty interpretation, suggests that domestic agencies should receive ...


Engaging Law Students In Leadership, Faith Rivers James Sep 2010

Engaging Law Students In Leadership, Faith Rivers James

Faith R Rivers James

The new challenge of legal education is preparing civic-minded lawyers to assume leadership roles in their communities, law firms, the legal profession, and in the public square. Defined as the process of influencing and persuading others to achieve a common purpose, leadership describes the lawyers’ task with individual and organizational clients; considered as a characteristic of people in positions of power, lawyers often assume the mantle of leading organizations. Whether defined as process or position, lawyering involves leadership in the private sector or in the public realm. This article considers the progressive structure of a comprehensive law & leadership program, and ...


Legislative And Regulatory Strategies For Providing Consumer Safeguards In A Convergent Information And Communications Marketplace, Rob M. Frieden Aug 2010

Legislative And Regulatory Strategies For Providing Consumer Safeguards In A Convergent Information And Communications Marketplace, Rob M. Frieden

Rob Frieden

Many ventures involved in information, communications and entertainment (“ICE”) industries have begun to expand their array of offered services. Technological convergence, digitization and the ability of the Internet to handle many different service types within a single bitstream make it possible for companies to offer “quadruple play” bundles of wireless and wireline telephony, video, and Internet access services. Financial and efficiency gains from vertical integration, and the search for new revenues to replace declining margins from maturing and newly competitive services, combine to create robust incentives for carriers to diversify. Diversification by ventures typically results in a single company providing ...


Was Selden Right? The Expansion Of Closed Seas And Its Consequences, Scott Shackelford Aug 2010

Was Selden Right? The Expansion Of Closed Seas And Its Consequences, Scott Shackelford

Scott Shackelford

This Article focuses on the relationship between the legal regimes governing offshore resources in the continental shelves and the deep seabed, particularly in reference to the extent to which continental shelf claims are encroaching on the deep seabed. The question of how well these respective legal regimes regulate resource exploitation will also be considered, along with an analysis of the underlying reasons driving change in these governance structures. I argue that the primary issue is one of whether vague rules, particularly UNCLOS Article 76, are working in terms of incentivizing sustainable, peaceful development of offshore resources.


Rationing Justice?: The Effect Of Caseload Pressures On The U.S. Courts Of Appeals In Immigration Cases, Anna O. Law Aug 2010

Rationing Justice?: The Effect Of Caseload Pressures On The U.S. Courts Of Appeals In Immigration Cases, Anna O. Law

Anna O. Law

Beginning in late 2003, the U.S. Courts of Appeals for the Second and Ninth Circuits experienced a deluge of immigration cases caused by changes in another part of the immigration bureaucracy. How did these two circuits, especially the Ninth circuit and its personnel, which handle more than 50% of all immigration appeals nationwide, respond to the "immigration surge" as it came to be called? Using interview data from 25% of the active judges on the court and some central staff, the article examines the series of internal experiments in case management that the Ninth Circuit was forced to undertake ...


War Courts: Terror's Distorting Effects On Federal Courts, Collin P. Wedel Aug 2010

War Courts: Terror's Distorting Effects On Federal Courts, Collin P. Wedel

Collin P Wedel

In recent years, federal courts have tried an increasing number of suspected terrorists. In fact, since 2001, federal courts have convicted over 403 people for terrorism-related crimes. Although much has been written about the normative question of where terrorists should be tried, scant research exists about the impact these recent trials have had upon the Article III court system. The debate, rather, has focused almost exclusively upon the proper venue for these trials and the hypothetical problems and advantages that might inhere in each venue. The war in Afghanistan, presenting a host of thorny legal issues, is now the longest ...


Insulating Agencies: Avoiding Capture Through Institutional Design, Rachel E. Barkow Aug 2010

Insulating Agencies: Avoiding Capture Through Institutional Design, Rachel E. Barkow

Rachel E Barkow

So-called independent agencies are created for a reason, and often that reason is a concern with agency capture. Agency designers hope that a more insulated agency will better protect the general public interest against interest group pressure. But the conventional approach to independent agencies in administrative law largely ignores why agencies are insulated. Instead, discussions about independent agencies in administrative law have focused on three features that have defined independent agencies: whether their heads are removable at will or for cause by the President, whether they must submit regulations to the President’s Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs for ...


Perpetuating Ageism Via Adoption Standards And Practices, Sara C. Mills Aug 2010

Perpetuating Ageism Via Adoption Standards And Practices, Sara C. Mills

Sara C Mills

More than a quarter of Americans consider adoption at some point in their lives. During the adoption process, courts strive to promote and foster the children’s best interests, but this often involves discriminatory decisions that deprive older adoptive parents of the same opportunities as younger adoptive parents. Discrimination in adoption proceedings is nothing new, and legislators, courts, and scholars have explored how it impacts minorities, same-sex couples, single parents, and divorcees. However, age discrimination in adoption also exists, and courts condone it by approving placements that are dictated by private agencies’ discriminatory ideologies. This article thus provides the first ...


Relational Integrity Regulation: Nudging Consumers Toward Products Bearing Valid Environmental Marketing Claims, Jeffrey J. Minneti Aug 2010

Relational Integrity Regulation: Nudging Consumers Toward Products Bearing Valid Environmental Marketing Claims, Jeffrey J. Minneti

Jeffrey J Minneti

Over the last two decades scholars have addressed attributes of effective environmental regulation and advocated a wide spectrum of regulatory approaches, from the traditional command-and-control model to a libertarian-paternalism approach. Some writers have used those approaches to advocate for modifications to the Green Guides. This article joins that conversation and accomplishes two goals. First, it harmonizes environmental regulation scholarship, resulting in the creation of a new form of regulation that it terms “Relational Integrity” regulation. Second, in light of the Relational Integrity approach to regulation, the article examines public and private environmental claim regulatory schemes and suggests how those schemes ...


Good Deficits: Protecting The Public Interest From Deficit Hysteria, Neil H. Buchanan Aug 2010

Good Deficits: Protecting The Public Interest From Deficit Hysteria, Neil H. Buchanan

Neil H. Buchanan

President Obama has come under increasingly fierce criticism for the size of the federal budget deficit, as both Democratic and Republican politicians loudly proclaim that federal spending should be cut. This article explains why such anti-deficit fervor is misguided and simplistic, and why, perhaps counter-intuitively, cutting government spending can hurt the country, rather than help it, in both the short run and the long run.

In the short run, cutting deficit spending can be disastrous to the economy, especially if the economy is already in decline. In addition, because the federal budget fails to separate spending that provides long-term benefits ...


Impeding Reentry: Agency And Judicial Obstacles To Longer Halfway House Placements, S. David Mitchell Aug 2010

Impeding Reentry: Agency And Judicial Obstacles To Longer Halfway House Placements, S. David Mitchell

S. David Mitchell

Over 700,000 prisoners were released into their communities in 2008, at least 50,000 of those from federal custody. Once an obscure cause, nearly everyone agrees that prisoner reentry – the process by which former prisoners return to their community as free citizens – is of national importance. Absent adequate attention to transitional services, ex-offenders are often homeless, unemployed, and suffer from untreated substance abuse addictions. Accordingly, President Obama and his two predecessors have devoted considerable attention to the issue. Congress passed the Second Chance in 2007, amending two federal statutes, sections 3624(c) and 3621(b) and giving inmates a ...


Self Restraint And National Security, Nathan Alexander Sales Aug 2010

Self Restraint And National Security, Nathan Alexander Sales

Nathan Alexander Sales

Why does the government sometimes tie its own hands in national security operations? This article identifies four instances in which officials believed that the applicable laws allowed them to conduct a particular military or intelligence operation but nevertheless declined to do so. For example, policymakers have barred counterterrorism interrogators from using any technique other than the fairly innocuous methods listed in the Army Field Manual. Before 9/11, officials rejected the CIA’s plans to use targeted killings against Osama bin Laden and other terrorist leaders. Judge advocates sometimes use policy considerations to restrict military strikes that would be lawful ...


The Law And Policy Of Online Privacy: Regulation, Self-Regulation Or Co-Regulation?, Dennis D. Hirsch Aug 2010

The Law And Policy Of Online Privacy: Regulation, Self-Regulation Or Co-Regulation?, Dennis D. Hirsch

Dennis D Hirsch

The Internet poses grave new threats to information privacy. Search engines collect and store our search queries; Web sites track our online activity and then sell this information to others; and Internet Search Providers read the very packets of information through which we interact with the Internet. Yet the debate over how best to address this problem has ground to a halt, stuck between those who call for a vigorous legislative response and those who advocate for market solutions and self-regulation. In 1995, the European Union member states began to build a third approach into their data protection laws, one ...


Rescuing The Strong Precautionary Principle From Its Critics, Noah Sachs Aug 2010

Rescuing The Strong Precautionary Principle From Its Critics, Noah Sachs

Noah Sachs

The Strong Precautionary Principle, a theory of risk regulation that shifts the burden of proof on safety, provides a valuable framework for preventing harm to human health and the environment. Yet Cass Sunstein and other scholars have consistently attacked it as paralyzing, inflexible, and extreme.

This Article undertakes a reassessment of the Strong Precautionary Principle, providing a counterweight to the mountain of critical scholarship. The Principle sends a clear message that firms must research the health and environmental risks of their products, before harm occurs. It does not call for the elimination of all risk, but through burden shifting, the ...


Stock Broker Standards Of Conduct – Principles, Rules And Fiduciary Duties, Thomas Lee Hazen Aug 2010

Stock Broker Standards Of Conduct – Principles, Rules And Fiduciary Duties, Thomas Lee Hazen

Thomas Lee Hazen

In recent years there has been concern as to the adequacy of broker-dealer regulation. SEC and self regulatory organization rulemaking addresses specific types of broker-dealer conduct but by and large the regulation has been based on principles and standards rather than voluminous detailed rules specifying prohibited conduct. In particular, a good deal of broker-dealer conduct is addressed under the umbrella of regulating according to fair and just principles of trade. Also, much of the SEC’s rulemaking authority is based on the ability to prohibit fraudulent, manipulative, and deceptive devices. It also has been suggested that broker-dealers should be subject ...


Stock Broker Standards Of Conduct – Principles, Rules And Fiduciary Duties, Thomas Lee Hazen Aug 2010

Stock Broker Standards Of Conduct – Principles, Rules And Fiduciary Duties, Thomas Lee Hazen

Thomas Lee Hazen

In recent years there has been concern as to the adequacy of broker-dealer regulation. SEC and self regulatory organization rulemaking addresses specific types of broker-dealer conduct but by and large the regulation has been based on principles and standards rather than voluminous detailed rules specifying prohibited conduct. In particular, a good deal of broker-dealer conduct is addressed under the umbrella of regulating according to fair and just principles of trade. Also, much of the SEC’s rulemaking authority is based on the ability to prohibit fraudulent, manipulative, and deceptive devices. It also has been suggested that broker-dealers should be subject ...


Do Not Blame Non-Signatory Countries: Take Your Own Preventive Measures To Protect Children From Internationl Abduction, Ho Kon Yoo Aug 2010

Do Not Blame Non-Signatory Countries: Take Your Own Preventive Measures To Protect Children From Internationl Abduction, Ho Kon Yoo

Ho Kon Yoo

DO NOT BLAME NON-SINGATORY COUNTRIES: TAKE YOUR OWN PREVENTIVE MEASURES TO PROTECT CHILDREN FROM INTERNATIONAL ABDUCTION Hokon Stephen Yoo

This Note recommends a preventive legal measure to protect children from international abduction rather than the existing post-abduction remedies. The Hague Convention of International Child Abduction has limited to help the leftover parent when another spouse wrongfully removes a child because the Convention lacks enforceability. To supplement the Hague Convention’s post-abduction remedies, this Note proposes a practical pre-abduction measure, an e-Child database program that judicial, legislative, administrative, and enforcement agencies could share. This Note recommends that each country, regardless of ...


Financial Crisis And Civil Society, Claire R. Kelly Aug 2010

Financial Crisis And Civil Society, Claire R. Kelly

Claire R. Kelly

International financial law institutions struggle to confront financial crises effectively and flexibly, playing the role of both regulator and rescuer. At the same time these institutions confront demands for greater legitimacy in light of the public policy implications of their actions. Some might argue that greater participation by civil society may serve to foster greater legitimacy by improving representativeness, transparency, accountability, and reasoned decision making. But greater civil society access also has costs that can undermine both regulation and rescue efforts. I argue that we should not take it as a given that greater civil society participation lends greater legitimacy ...


Limiting Legislative Courts: Protecting Article Iii From Congressional Evisceration, Kenneth G. Coffin Aug 2010

Limiting Legislative Courts: Protecting Article Iii From Congressional Evisceration, Kenneth G. Coffin

Kenneth G. Coffin

As with the notion of a unitary executive or a limited commerce clause, hope for a single federal judiciary has fallen by the wayside. Since 1828, the Supreme Court has recognized a separate class of “legislative courts.” Judges of these legislative, or Article I, courts fall outside the guarantees of Article III. Congress may therefore provide for limited terms of office, disparate methods of appointment and reduction of salaries. Currently there are over 2,000 Article I judges, including Bankruptcy, Magistrate, and Administrative Law judges, just to name a few. In contrast, only 829 United States judges can claim Article ...


How To Improve Retail Investor Protection After The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform And Consumer Protection Act, Barbara Black Aug 2010

How To Improve Retail Investor Protection After The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform And Consumer Protection Act, Barbara Black

Barbara Black

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act gives the Securities and Exchange Commission the authority to deal with two issues especially important to retail investors. First, section 913 requires the SEC to conduct a six-month study on the effectiveness of existing standards of care for broker-dealers and investment advisers and specifically authorizes the SEC to establish a fiduciary duty for brokers and dealers. Second, section 921 grants the SEC the authority to prohibit the use of predispute arbitration agreements that would require investors to arbitrate future disputes arising under the federal securities laws and regulations or the rules ...


The Next Generation Of Administrative Law: Building The Legal Infrastructure For Collaborative Governance, Lisa Blomgren Bingham Aug 2010

The Next Generation Of Administrative Law: Building The Legal Infrastructure For Collaborative Governance, Lisa Blomgren Bingham

Lisa Blomgren Bingham

This Article describes the map of statutory administrative law through those cross-cutting statutes that apply generally to all federal agencies. It argues that each major statute represents a balance among five fundamental values in the relationship between the government and the governed, a balance struck by Congress in a particular historical context and moment in time. These values are accountability, efficiency, transparency, participation, and collaboration. Second, it surveys the current law and practice of both in-person and technology-aided public participation , including recent developments through the Open Government Initiative, Open Government Dialogue, and Open Government Directive. Third, it argues that at ...


How The Global Crime Syndicates Fuel Planet Destruction, Global Alliance Jul 2010

How The Global Crime Syndicates Fuel Planet Destruction, Global Alliance

Global Alliance

since 1945 more environmental planet destruction has been fuelled and financed with ever more leveraged debt than in the previous 60 million years - it's applied terrorism against the global life support system under the protection racket of a corrupt law profession