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2006

Human Rights Law

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Articles 1 - 30 of 113

Full-Text Articles in Law

The Un: A Situation Report, Benjamin Zawacki Dec 2006

The Un: A Situation Report, Benjamin Zawacki

ExpressO

The UN: A Situation Report is a review of two recent books on the past, present, and future of the UN; in short, of its relevance in a changing and uni-polar world at the end of Kofi Annan’s two terms as Secretary-General. The books’ focus is both on the organization’s successes and failures, and its efforts at self-reform in the face of near-constant criticism. They are reviewed as individually divergent in quality but as a formidable “situation report” when read in tandem. Paul Kennedy’s The Parliament of Man, save for its first of three parts, is generally ...


Mnc Liability For International Human Rights Violations Under The Alien Tort Claims Act., Frank Christian Olah Dec 2006

Mnc Liability For International Human Rights Violations Under The Alien Tort Claims Act., Frank Christian Olah

ExpressO

This paper seeks to elucidate the fundamental sources of ATCA jurisprudence that have modernized the act into the weapon it has become for foreign human rights plaintiffs. It also attempts to describe some of the forms of liability asserted against MNCs, paying special attention to the competing forms of aiding & abetting liability as conceptualized in the Unocal case. Part II of this paper will provide a brief and concise review of the three cases every ATCA corporate defendant should know: Filartiga, Kadic and Sosa. These cases lay the groundwork for human rights litigation against MNCs under the ATCA’s modern ...


Taking Judicial Notice Of Genocide? The Problematic Law And Policy Of The Karemera Decision, Ralph Mamiya Dec 2006

Taking Judicial Notice Of Genocide? The Problematic Law And Policy Of The Karemera Decision, Ralph Mamiya

ExpressO

On June 16, 2006, the Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda issued a decision in Prosecutor v. Karemera taking judicial notice of the fact that genocide occurred in Rwanda in 1994. This decision startled many court observers. While no internationally respected commentator would today question whether the Rwanda genocide took place, should such an event be judicially noticed without evidence? This paper examines that question, arguing that the ICTR Appeals Chamber’s expansive use of judicial notice in Karemera was both illogical and unwise. Genocide, whether as an historical fact or legal charge, fails to meet the ...


Child Laundering: How The Intercountry Adoption System Legitimizes And Incentivizes The Practices Of Buying, Trafficking, Kidnapping, And Stealing Children, David M. Smolin Dec 2006

Child Laundering: How The Intercountry Adoption System Legitimizes And Incentivizes The Practices Of Buying, Trafficking, Kidnapping, And Stealing Children, David M. Smolin

David M. Smolin

This article documents and analyzes a substantial incidence of "child laundering" within the intercountry adoption system. Child laundering occurs when children are taken illegally from birth families through child buying or kidnapping, and then "laundered" through the adoption system as "orphans" and then "adoptees." The article then proposes reforms to the intercountry adoption system that could substantially reduce the incidence of child laundering.


Torture As A Problem In Ordinary Legal Interpretation, Alan Hyde Nov 2006

Torture As A Problem In Ordinary Legal Interpretation, Alan Hyde

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

American legal discourse on torture takes for granted some, usually all, of the following propositions, that make discussion of torture more difficult than it should be. Torture is assumed to present unusually difficult problems of definition, full of vague concepts, fine lines, gray areas, murky moral dilemmas, "dirty hands." This vagueness is thought to be even more of a problem for the attendant concept of "cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment." The legal sources of either prohibition are assumed to be dubious under American law. Prohibiting torture is, perhaps for these reasons, thought to require moral justification not necessarily required of ...


Compensation For Property Under The European Convention On Human Rights, Tom Allen Nov 2006

Compensation For Property Under The European Convention On Human Rights, Tom Allen

ExpressO

This Article investigates the nature of the right to property guaranteed under the First Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights ('P1-1'). It argues that the European Court of Human Rights has been torn between two theories of the right to property. The first is the "integrated theory", and it holds that the right to property shares common values and purposes with other Convention rights. Hence, the interpretation of P1-1 should reflect principles developed in the interpretation of other Convention rights. It is argued that the application of the integrated theory should support a "social model" of property. The ...


A Review Of Procedural And Jurisdictional Challenges In Enforcing International Human Rights Law Under The African Charter Regime, Morris K. Mbondenyi, Nixon Wanyama Sifuna Nov 2006

A Review Of Procedural And Jurisdictional Challenges In Enforcing International Human Rights Law Under The African Charter Regime, Morris K. Mbondenyi, Nixon Wanyama Sifuna

ExpressO

The interpretation and enforcement of international human rights law has tremendously evolved since the adoption of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights. The Charter introduced procedural and jurisdictional paradigms that have moulded this branch of law to resonate Africa’s context and values, by for instance, evolving concepts and approaches distinct from those of the other regions. While striving to achieve this, the Charter has also had to grapple with an avalanche of procedural and jurisdictional challenges. This Article highlights these challenges and proposes ways in which they can be surmounted. It proceeds on the premise that contrary ...


Human Rights, Clif Bennette Nov 2006

Human Rights, Clif Bennette

ExpressO

American authorities believe torture is necessary to keep America safe from terrorists, but want to avoid being accused of war crimes. So, longstanding US law and the Geneva Conventions were reinterpreted to provide legal cover. Further, policy memos saying most torture is legal were written, and activities associated with torture are shielded from Congressional oversight.


European And German Security Policy And International Terrorism, Torsten Stein Oct 2006

European And German Security Policy And International Terrorism, Torsten Stein

International Law Studies

No abstract provided.


Comparative Approaches To Security And Maritime Border Control, Dale Stephens Oct 2006

Comparative Approaches To Security And Maritime Border Control, Dale Stephens

International Law Studies

No abstract provided.


Limits On The Use Of Force In Maritime Operations In Support Of Wmd Counter-Proliferation Initiatives, Craig H. Allen Oct 2006

Limits On The Use Of Force In Maritime Operations In Support Of Wmd Counter-Proliferation Initiatives, Craig H. Allen

International Law Studies

No abstract provided.


Treatment And Interrogation Of Detained Persons, David E. Graham Oct 2006

Treatment And Interrogation Of Detained Persons, David E. Graham

International Law Studies

No abstract provided.


Military Commissions - Kangaroo Courts?, Charles H.B. Garraway Oct 2006

Military Commissions - Kangaroo Courts?, Charles H.B. Garraway

International Law Studies

No abstract provided.


Full Volume 81: International Law Challenges: Homeland Security And Combating Terrorism Oct 2006

Full Volume 81: International Law Challenges: Homeland Security And Combating Terrorism

International Law Studies

No abstract provided.


Military Commissions: Constitutional, Jurisdictional, And Due Process Requirements, Jordan J. Paust Oct 2006

Military Commissions: Constitutional, Jurisdictional, And Due Process Requirements, Jordan J. Paust

International Law Studies

No abstract provided.


The Proliferation Security Initiative: Security Vs. Freedom Of Navigation?, Wolff Heintschel Von Heinegg Oct 2006

The Proliferation Security Initiative: Security Vs. Freedom Of Navigation?, Wolff Heintschel Von Heinegg

International Law Studies

No abstract provided.


Debating The Issues, Kenneth Roth, Robert F. Turner Oct 2006

Debating The Issues, Kenneth Roth, Robert F. Turner

International Law Studies

No abstract provided.


Shooting The Messenger, Richard Delgado Oct 2006

Shooting The Messenger, Richard Delgado

University of Pittsburgh School of Law Working Paper Series

This essay reviews Ward Churchill’s "On the Justice of Roosting Chickens: Reflections on the Consequences of U.S. Imperial Arrogance and Criminality" (2003).

One of the most talked about — but least read — books of recent years, "On the Justice of Roosting Chickens" documents a long history of U.S. wars, invasions, and violations of international law on the way to concluding that when the terrible events of 9/11 took place, the U.S. deserved and should have expected retribution. In popular language, we "had it coming."

As the reader may recall, when Hamilton College rescinded Churchill’s invitation ...


The Coalescence Of United States Immigration Law And International Criminal Law: An Exploration Of Elias Zacarias In The Context Of Female Genital Mutilation, George S. Yacoubian Oct 2006

The Coalescence Of United States Immigration Law And International Criminal Law: An Exploration Of Elias Zacarias In The Context Of Female Genital Mutilation, George S. Yacoubian

ExpressO

In INS v. Elias Zacarias, the Supreme Court (SC) affirmed that nongovernmental actors (e.g., guerilla groups) can commit “persecution” as defined by § 101(a)(42) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). Human rights violations by any international actor, governmental or otherwise, can thus, according to Elias Zacarias, trigger asylum protection in the United States (US). In contrast, the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT), to which the US is a party, requires the victimizer to be a “public official or other person acting in an official capacity.”

The CAT thus imposes ...


A Complete Property Right Amendment, John H. Ryskamp Oct 2006

A Complete Property Right Amendment, John H. Ryskamp

ExpressO

The trend of the eminent domain reform and "Kelo plus" initiatives is toward a comprehensive Constitutional property right incorporating the elements of level of review, nature of government action, and extent of compensation. This article contains a draft amendment which reflects these concerns.


Combating Terrorism In Bosnia-Herzegovina: Explaining And Assessing Article 201 Of The Bosnian Criminal Code, Henry M. Lovat Oct 2006

Combating Terrorism In Bosnia-Herzegovina: Explaining And Assessing Article 201 Of The Bosnian Criminal Code, Henry M. Lovat

ExpressO

This paper explores the legal measures that have been enacted in Bosnia-Herzegovina (BiH) to counter the threat of terrorism, focusing particularly on the international and domestic political context in which the reform of the Bosnian criminal code was carried out, on the apparent origins of Article 201 of the BiH criminal code in the European Union Framework Decision on Combating Terrorism of June 2002 and on the strengths and weaknesses of this definition in the Bosnian context. The paper argues firstly that the events of 9/11, while certainly of significance, were less salient to the definition of terrorism adopted ...


Of Politics And Policy: Can The U.S. Maintain Its Credibility Abroad While Ignoring The Needs Of Its Children At Home?—Revisiting The U.N. Convention On The Rights Of The Child As A Transnational Framework For Local Governing, Cleveland Ferguson Oct 2006

Of Politics And Policy: Can The U.S. Maintain Its Credibility Abroad While Ignoring The Needs Of Its Children At Home?—Revisiting The U.N. Convention On The Rights Of The Child As A Transnational Framework For Local Governing, Cleveland Ferguson

ExpressO

The article uses the lens of the Convention on the Rights of the Child as a framework for developing solutions. It compares the world’s approach of using the underpinnings of the Convention to create the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This process represents a positive evolution in international human rights law. Use of the MDGs has met with some success. As a result, the article compares the U.S. go-it-alone approach with that of the collaborative model of the MDGs. Pointing out that child law is primarily state law, the article then discusses the ways in which local governments (cities ...


Off To Elba: The Legitimacy Of Sex Offender Residence And Employment Restrictions, Joseph L. Lester Oct 2006

Off To Elba: The Legitimacy Of Sex Offender Residence And Employment Restrictions, Joseph L. Lester

ExpressO

Overborne by a mob mentality for justice, officials at every level of government are enacting laws that effectively exile convicted sex offenders from their midst with little contemplation as to the appropriateness or constitutionality of their actions. These laws fundamentally alter the liberties and freedom of convicted sex offenders to satisfy the ignorant fear of the masses. As a result, residence and employment restrictions which in theory are to protect society, in practice only exacerbate the perceived recidivism problem. When such laws are passed and the political process is broken, it is necessary for the judicial branch to step forward ...


One Step Forward, Two Step Backwards: Addressing Objections To The Icc’S Prescriptive And Adjudicative Powers , Nema Milaninia Oct 2006

One Step Forward, Two Step Backwards: Addressing Objections To The Icc’S Prescriptive And Adjudicative Powers , Nema Milaninia

ExpressO

The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC) permits the ICC to exercise subject-matter jurisdiction over individuals who engage in war crimes, genocide, crimes against humanity, and crimes of aggression. However, under Article 13, the ICC may only exercise personal jurisdiction over persons referred by the Security Council under Chapter VII, or over nationals of a state party, or persons whose alleged criminal conduct occurred on the territory of a state party

This article evaluates the interplay between principles of public international law and international criminal law in determining whether the ICC’s grant of jurisdiction under the Rome ...


The Role Of International Human Rights Law In The American Decision To Abolish The Juvenile Death Penalty, William A. Feldman Oct 2006

The Role Of International Human Rights Law In The American Decision To Abolish The Juvenile Death Penalty, William A. Feldman

ExpressO

This article focuses on the recent (2005) decision of the United States Supreme Court in Roper v. Simmons, declaring the juvenile death penalty unconstitutional. The article discusses the impact of international law, particularly human rights law, on the decision of the Court, and speculates about the influence of international law on future decisions.


“Actions As Words, Words As Actions: Sexual Harassment Law, The First Amendment And Verbal Acts, John F. Wirenius Sep 2006

“Actions As Words, Words As Actions: Sexual Harassment Law, The First Amendment And Verbal Acts, John F. Wirenius

ExpressO

The article examines the tension between the hostile work environment under the civil rights laws and the First Amendment’s protection of free speech, even when such speech is offensive and even discriminatory. After discussing the tension and its limits, the author examines other rationales proposed to resolve this tension, and rejecting them as unsatisfactory. Noting that hostile work environment doctrine, as a variable standard, employs a less “bright-line” approach than is typical of the First Amendment’s rule, the author nonetheless finds that the “open texture” of all rules, and the requirement that a hostile work environment be systematically ...


Winter For Purehearts, Michael Cavendish Sep 2006

Winter For Purehearts, Michael Cavendish

ExpressO

The worst judicial opinion ever written issued from Florida on an anonymous day in 1864. The opinion discussed slavery. More accurately, it cherished slavery—lionizing the then extant practice in the way the British sing of the sea. As a legal precedent, it was a dangerous opinion because it was presented as something basic, fundamental and inexorable, something not to be questioned. It was dangerously simple when conveyed to accepting minds in the way a cold knife is dangerous in angered hands. The opinion, Miller v. Gaskins, is a vital study for researchers surveying the lines of human fallacy that ...


Losing Control: Regulating Situational Crime Prevention In Mass Private Space, Robert E. Pfeffer Sep 2006

Losing Control: Regulating Situational Crime Prevention In Mass Private Space, Robert E. Pfeffer

ExpressO

In this article the author puts forth an approach to regulating Situational Crime Prevention (SCP) (i.e. steps to preemptively eliminate or reduce crime, such as preemptive exclusion and closed circuit TV monitoring in Mass Private Space (i.e. private property that has characteristics normally associated with public spaces, such as a large shopping mall).

It has become increasingly common for owners of mass private space to employ SCP techniques such as close circuit television monitoring, exclusion of persons based upon behavior or risk factors and limits on attire, such as colors associated with gangs. While there has been a ...


Corporations And Social Costs: The Wal-Mart Case Study, Benedict Sheehy Sep 2006

Corporations And Social Costs: The Wal-Mart Case Study, Benedict Sheehy

ExpressO

This article examines the role of the corporate vehicle in the creation of social costs. The article identifies some of the political commitments and philosophies behind the differing notions of corporations. Social costs are those activities which result from business activity and cause uncompensated harm to society. The founding contribution to the law and economics discussion by Ronald Coase is given a thorough treatment. The paper next, turns to the dominant explanation of corporate structure, namely the law and economics model developed expounded by Easterbrook and Fischel. It then applies the theoretical discussion in a case study of the world ...


Public Opinion Supervision - A Case Study Of Media Freedom In China, Anne Sy Cheung Sep 2006

Public Opinion Supervision - A Case Study Of Media Freedom In China, Anne Sy Cheung

ExpressO

This paper, through the study of news coverage of a housing development and relocation scandal in Hunan province, explores the scope of freedom that media enjoy in the Mainland, focusing particularly on the phenomenon of “public opinion supervision.” The case chosen involved 1100 households and 7,000 people living in the small county of Jiahe. Though relocation projects are common in China, this project involved active and direct local government intervention, with officials bending the law and harassing the residents. Despite attempts by residents to solve the problems through administrative channels and legal means throughout the year of 2003, this ...