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2006

Environmental Law

James R. May

Articles 1 - 5 of 5

Full-Text Articles in Law

Trends In Constitutional Environmental Law, James R. May Feb 2006

Trends In Constitutional Environmental Law, James R. May

James R. May

This article is about the growing field at the intersection of environmental and constitutional law. Thirty years ago, constitutional issues rarely arose in environmental law. Nowadays, nearly two in three federal environmental, energy and land use cases are decided on constitutional grounds invoking no fewer than 18 issues. These include the extent to which Congress can regulate activities that are either traditionally intrastate or not inherently economic in nature (the Commerce Clause), preempt state causes of action (Supremacy Clause), and prescribe state functions (10th Amendment) or subject them to federal actions (11th Amendment). Other issues include whether states can burden ...


Clean Water Act Developments: The Aftermath Of Tmdl Litigation: Consent Decrees And Settlement Agreements, James R. May Dec 2005

Clean Water Act Developments: The Aftermath Of Tmdl Litigation: Consent Decrees And Settlement Agreements, James R. May

James R. May

This article provides the latest developments about TMDL lawsuits nationally. It concludes that the results of TMDL settlements are mixed, least so where it matters most. The glory is that EPA has reviewed anew, or had the states review, readily existing and available water quality related data and information for 40,000 waters, finding 20,000 more ones impaired, bringing the national total to 60,000. EPA has agreed to "backstop" TMDL development for about 20,000 of these, and set or approved TMDLs for 10,000 impaired waters. EPA has for the first time reviewed and evaluated CPPs in ...


Clean Water Act Npdes Developments In The Courts, James R. May Dec 2005

Clean Water Act Npdes Developments In The Courts, James R. May

James R. May

Although the Clean Water Act has been in effect for over thirty-three years, many aspects of the Act remain for the Supreme Court to define. In fact, the Court is still called upon to determine certain threshold questions about the Act’s scope and jurisdiction, permits, water quality standards and enforcement. One central question has been the definition of “navigable waters” as it relates to wetlands. The purpose of the Act is to protect the nation’s waters, and a logical question that the Court must address is “to what extent can wetlands be included as navigable waters?” Two cases ...


Constituting Fundamental Environmental Rights Worldwide, James R. May Dec 2005

Constituting Fundamental Environmental Rights Worldwide, James R. May

James R. May

This article discusses the extent to which nations worldwide have constituted such “fundamental environmental rights” (FERs). Constitutions provide a framework for social order. They also reflect a paradox. While constitutions are usually the product of a convulsive event of majoritarian democracy, most contain antimajoritarian features designed to protect so-called fundamental rights against the tyranny of the majority. Traditional fundamental rights, such as those found in the Bill of Rights to the Constitution of the United States, include protecting for its citizens free speech, religious exercise and voting rights. Does a fundamental, enforceable, individual right to a clean and healthy environment ...


“Addition,” “Pollutant,” “Point Source”: Recent Case Developments Affecting The Scope Of Activities Covered By The Cwa, James R. May Dec 2005

“Addition,” “Pollutant,” “Point Source”: Recent Case Developments Affecting The Scope Of Activities Covered By The Cwa, James R. May

James R. May

This article examines recent developments in the interpretation of the words “addition,” “pollutant,” and “point source,” as used in the Clean Water Act. These words have been the subject of much controversy and many interpretations as the CWA leaves them undefined. The Supreme Court has concluded most notably that the transfer of polluted water within the same body of water does not constitute “addition,” however the transfer of pollutants from one body of water into another is addition. Similarly, much controversy has surrounded the possibility of pesticides, lead shot and erosion as additions. Most recently courts have found that pesticides ...