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Full-Text Articles in Law

No Time Like The Present: The Eighteenth Century Judicial Power Meets The Twenty-First Century Problem In Massachusetts V. Epa, Jamison E. Colburn Nov 2006

No Time Like The Present: The Eighteenth Century Judicial Power Meets The Twenty-First Century Problem In Massachusetts V. Epa, Jamison E. Colburn

Jamison E. Colburn

In this short commentary, I consider the nature of our judicial power and the Court's standing doctrine in light of the oral argument in Massachusetts et al. v. EPA. My critique is that the Court has invented any number of ways to find that the rule of law can play no role in our climate change debates.


Trends In Constitutional Environmental Law, James R. May Feb 2006

Trends In Constitutional Environmental Law, James R. May

James R. May

This article is about the growing field at the intersection of environmental and constitutional law. Thirty years ago, constitutional issues rarely arose in environmental law. Nowadays, nearly two in three federal environmental, energy and land use cases are decided on constitutional grounds invoking no fewer than 18 issues. These include the extent to which Congress can regulate activities that are either traditionally intrastate or not inherently economic in nature (the Commerce Clause), preempt state causes of action (Supremacy Clause), and prescribe state functions (10th Amendment) or subject them to federal actions (11th Amendment). Other issues include whether states can burden ...


Western Growth And Sustainable Water Use: If There Are No "Natural Limits" Should We Worry About Water Supplies? (With S. Van De Wetering), A. Dan Tarlock Feb 2006

Western Growth And Sustainable Water Use: If There Are No "Natural Limits" Should We Worry About Water Supplies? (With S. Van De Wetering), A. Dan Tarlock

Dan Tarlock

No abstract provided.


Five Views Of The Great Lakes And Why They Might Matter, A. Dan Tarlock Feb 2006

Five Views Of The Great Lakes And Why They Might Matter, A. Dan Tarlock

Dan Tarlock

No abstract provided.


Sharing Potential And The Potential For Sharing: Open Source Licensing As A Legal And Economic Modality For The Dissemination Of Renewable Energy Technology, Jason Wiener Dec 2005

Sharing Potential And The Potential For Sharing: Open Source Licensing As A Legal And Economic Modality For The Dissemination Of Renewable Energy Technology, Jason Wiener

Jason Wiener

No abstract provided.


Committee On Climate Change And Sustainable Development: 2005 Annual Report, John Dernbach Dec 2005

Committee On Climate Change And Sustainable Development: 2005 Annual Report, John Dernbach

John C. Dernbach

No abstract provided.


Climate Change And Land Use In Africa, David Hodas Dec 2005

Climate Change And Land Use In Africa, David Hodas

David R. Hodas

Sub-Saharan Africa faces a major development crisis due to the global climate crisis and rising prices for fossil fuels. By 2030, the world’s energy needs will be 30 percent greater than they are now. This will frustrate Africa’s plans for rapid economic and technological expansion, which are based on the dominant low-cost fossil fuel model. Climate change is also become pressing policy issues. Although Sub-saharan nations emit very little carbon dioxide, their reliance on livestock and agriculture as commercial resources, results in relatively high level of methane and nitrous oxide emission rate. The IPCC has predicted that climate ...


Encouraging Conservation On Private Lands: A Behavioral Analysis Of Financial Incentives, Stephanie Stern Dec 2005

Encouraging Conservation On Private Lands: A Behavioral Analysis Of Financial Incentives, Stephanie Stern

Stephanie M. Stern

No abstract provided.


Clean Water Act Developments: The Aftermath Of Tmdl Litigation: Consent Decrees And Settlement Agreements, James R. May Dec 2005

Clean Water Act Developments: The Aftermath Of Tmdl Litigation: Consent Decrees And Settlement Agreements, James R. May

James R. May

This article provides the latest developments about TMDL lawsuits nationally. It concludes that the results of TMDL settlements are mixed, least so where it matters most. The glory is that EPA has reviewed anew, or had the states review, readily existing and available water quality related data and information for 40,000 waters, finding 20,000 more ones impaired, bringing the national total to 60,000. EPA has agreed to "backstop" TMDL development for about 20,000 of these, and set or approved TMDLs for 10,000 impaired waters. EPA has for the first time reviewed and evaluated CPPs in ...


Runoff And Reality: Externalities, Economics, And Traceability Issues In Urban Runoff Regulation, Donald J. Kochan Dec 2005

Runoff And Reality: Externalities, Economics, And Traceability Issues In Urban Runoff Regulation, Donald J. Kochan

Donald J. Kochan

It has long eluded regulators and private enforcers how to control the imposition of negative externalities. This paper will examine: (1) Whether existing authorities (like the Clean Water Act) are capable of providing regulation of urban runoff; (2) Whether, in light of economic controls, regulation of these activities are necessary; (3) A summary of recent runoff litigation; and (4) What is next; what should be next? Although each of these questions form background, the primary emphasis currently anticipated for this presentation is on traceability, collective action, and free rider problems that motivate regulation in this area. Often runoff is described ...


Clean Water Act Npdes Developments In The Courts, James R. May Dec 2005

Clean Water Act Npdes Developments In The Courts, James R. May

James R. May

Although the Clean Water Act has been in effect for over thirty-three years, many aspects of the Act remain for the Supreme Court to define. In fact, the Court is still called upon to determine certain threshold questions about the Act’s scope and jurisdiction, permits, water quality standards and enforcement. One central question has been the definition of “navigable waters” as it relates to wetlands. The purpose of the Act is to protect the nation’s waters, and a logical question that the Court must address is “to what extent can wetlands be included as navigable waters?” Two cases ...


Palazzolo, The Public Trust, And The Property Owner’S Reasonable Expectations: Takings And The South Carolina Marsh Island Bridge Debate, Erin Ryan Dec 2005

Palazzolo, The Public Trust, And The Property Owner’S Reasonable Expectations: Takings And The South Carolina Marsh Island Bridge Debate, Erin Ryan

Erin Ryan

South Carolina recently promulgated new guidelines regulating the State’s consideration of requests by private marsh island owners to build bridges for vehicular access through publicly owned marsh and tidelands. Many thousands of these islands hug the South Carolina coast, but they are surrounded by tidelands subject to South Carolina’s formidable public trust doctrine, which obligates the State to manage submerged lands and waterways for the benefit of the public. This piece evaluates the relationship between the public trust doctrine and the takings subtext to the debate over the new guidelines – a relationship that has become particularly interesting in ...


Constituting Fundamental Environmental Rights Worldwide, James R. May Dec 2005

Constituting Fundamental Environmental Rights Worldwide, James R. May

James R. May

This article discusses the extent to which nations worldwide have constituted such “fundamental environmental rights” (FERs). Constitutions provide a framework for social order. They also reflect a paradox. While constitutions are usually the product of a convulsive event of majoritarian democracy, most contain antimajoritarian features designed to protect so-called fundamental rights against the tyranny of the majority. Traditional fundamental rights, such as those found in the Bill of Rights to the Constitution of the United States, include protecting for its citizens free speech, religious exercise and voting rights. Does a fundamental, enforceable, individual right to a clean and healthy environment ...


Ethical Emissions Trading And The Law, Kirk W. Junker Dec 2005

Ethical Emissions Trading And The Law, Kirk W. Junker

Kirk W Junker

The idea of permit trading in the United States can be traced as far back as the 1970s, but emissions trading has really only became a popular and exportable idea with the more recent demands that environmental protection acknowledge economic pressures through such ideas as sustainable development. Now the idea of emissions trading has caught on in South America, China and Europe as well. Yet in the eagerness of governments and industry to work out the technical details and legal mechanics of the emissions trading tool, insufficient attention has been paid to its underlying legal and ethical assumptions. In this ...


Markets, Monocultures, And Malnurition: Agricultural Trade Policy Through An Environmental Justice Lens, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2005

Markets, Monocultures, And Malnurition: Agricultural Trade Policy Through An Environmental Justice Lens, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez

Much of the literature on environmental justice struggles in the United States and in the Global South has highlighted the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in poor communities and communities of color. However, it is equally important to evaluate how human societies distribute access to environmental necessities , such as food and water. Food is a quintessential environmental necessity that is critical human survival, and the right to food is recognized under under a vareity of international human rights law instruments. This article examines the complex ways in which the rules governing international trade in agricultural products affect the fundamental human ...


Deconstructing The Mythology Of Free Trade: Critical Reflections On Comparative Advantage, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2005

Deconstructing The Mythology Of Free Trade: Critical Reflections On Comparative Advantage, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez

The theory of comparative advantage serves as the theoretical justification for the neoliberal economic reforms promoted by the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and multilateral and regional free trade agreements. This article employs insights from both neoclassical and heterodox economics in order to critique the theory of comparative advantage as applied to the agricultural sector. In particular, the article takes aim at the illusory notion that eliminating distortions in international agricultural trade caused by the lavish agricultural subsidies of wealthy nations will be sufficient to “level the playing field” and promote prosperity in both developed and developing countries. The ...


“Addition,” “Pollutant,” “Point Source”: Recent Case Developments Affecting The Scope Of Activities Covered By The Cwa, James R. May Dec 2005

“Addition,” “Pollutant,” “Point Source”: Recent Case Developments Affecting The Scope Of Activities Covered By The Cwa, James R. May

James R. May

This article examines recent developments in the interpretation of the words “addition,” “pollutant,” and “point source,” as used in the Clean Water Act. These words have been the subject of much controversy and many interpretations as the CWA leaves them undefined. The Supreme Court has concluded most notably that the transfer of polluted water within the same body of water does not constitute “addition,” however the transfer of pollutants from one body of water into another is addition. Similarly, much controversy has surrounded the possibility of pesticides, lead shot and erosion as additions. Most recently courts have found that pesticides ...