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2006

Environmental Law

International Law

Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Law

Splitting Genes: The Future Of Gmo's In The Wake Of The Wto/Cartagena Standoff, Sam A. Blaustein Oct 2006

Splitting Genes: The Future Of Gmo's In The Wake Of The Wto/Cartagena Standoff, Sam A. Blaustein

ExpressO

This article examines the conflict surrounding GMO's (Genetically Modified Organisms) between the WTO and the UN. The respective positions of the United States and the European Union are discussed. The article argues that both international and domestic laws conflict with the rigid "precautionary principle" and straight to market approach adhered to by the European Union and the United States respectively. It ultimately suggests that common GMO specific laws are necessary for both sides to meet their respective goals and obligations.


A Complete Property Right Amendment, John H. Ryskamp Oct 2006

A Complete Property Right Amendment, John H. Ryskamp

ExpressO

The trend of the eminent domain reform and "Kelo plus" initiatives is toward a comprehensive Constitutional property right incorporating the elements of level of review, nature of government action, and extent of compensation. This article contains a draft amendment which reflects these concerns.


Transnational Shipments Of Nuclear Materials By Sea: Do Current Safeguards Provide Coastal States A Right To Deny Innocent Passage?, David B. Dixon Sep 2006

Transnational Shipments Of Nuclear Materials By Sea: Do Current Safeguards Provide Coastal States A Right To Deny Innocent Passage?, David B. Dixon

ExpressO

The maritime transport of nuclear materials has created a conflict between two international law regimes: the United Nations International Law of the Sea, and the developing customary law of the 'precautionary principle' in international environmental law. This conflict became apparent in recent years when several coastal states denied passage to ships transporting nuclear materials arguing the shipments posed an environmental threat. This conflict has raised an issue which is currently unresolved: Do coastal states have a right to prohibit innocent passage to ships carrying nuclear materials if these ships fail to fulfill the requirements of the precautionary principle? This review ...


The African Bushmeat Crisis: A Case For Global Partnership, Andrew Elliott Kohn, Heather E. Eves Sep 2006

The African Bushmeat Crisis: A Case For Global Partnership, Andrew Elliott Kohn, Heather E. Eves

ExpressO

Across Central Africa a commercial, unsustainable, and largely illegal hunting and trade in wildlife for meat has expanded in recent years causing immediate threat to countless wildlife populations and species. Currently, multi-national agreements and government initiatives created to address the bushmeat crisis in the region are unable to halt the extensive destruction to the area’s unique biodiversity . Although many of these agreements strongly support addressing the bushmeat crisis, they lack the resources and capacity to be fully implemented. Strong U.S. engagement in a global partnership, arising from intensive, complete, and wide-ranging bipartisan commitment would greatly enhance existing international ...


China-Australia Free Trade Agreement New Icing On An Old Cake-An Opportunity For Fair Trade?, Benedict Sheehy, Jackson N. Maogoto Sep 2006

China-Australia Free Trade Agreement New Icing On An Old Cake-An Opportunity For Fair Trade?, Benedict Sheehy, Jackson N. Maogoto

ExpressO

The on-going challenge in economic development and globalization, particularly for developing countries, is the issue of development and equality in society. The issue becomes particularly problematic when confronted in matters of international trade. Often misnamed anti-globalization activists and pro-globalization activists fail to take note of the underlying assumptions that lead them to conflict—namely, the actual costs and benefits to society that result from their particular positions. In essence, both activists are searching for ways to improve the lives of people in the domestic context and to minimize the damage to their society and environment. China’s impressive economic record ...


Un-Fair Trade As Friendly Fire: The Australia-Usa Free Trade Agreement, Benedict Sheehy Sep 2006

Un-Fair Trade As Friendly Fire: The Australia-Usa Free Trade Agreement, Benedict Sheehy

ExpressO

Trade, economists and trade theorists advise, is a mutually beneficial exercise. Among this group, a particular set of advocates, claim that “Free Trade” is in the interest of all parties. As will be demonstrated, Free Trade is not truly “free” but an exercise of foreign policy and the implementation of policies favouring wealthy corporate interest groups. Free Trade is controlled by wealthy nations who have stacked the rules in favour of themselves, and in particular their corporate interests, and against the poor producers in poor nations. This control is used contrary to fairness, economic and ecological logic. Fair trade, by ...


Enforcing Foreign Summary/Default Judgments: The Damoclean Sword Hanging Over Pro Se Canadian Corporate Defendants? Case Comment On U.S.A. V. Shield Development, Antonin I. Pribetic Sep 2006

Enforcing Foreign Summary/Default Judgments: The Damoclean Sword Hanging Over Pro Se Canadian Corporate Defendants? Case Comment On U.S.A. V. Shield Development, Antonin I. Pribetic

ExpressO

Following the 2003 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Beals v. Saldanha, where the “real and substantial connection” test is otherwise met (i.e. consent-based jurisdiction, presence-based jurisdiction or assumed jurisdiction) the only available defences to a domestic defendant seeking to have a Canadian court refuse enforcement of a foreign judgment are fraud, public policy and natural justice. The 2005 Ontario decision in United States of America v. Shield Development Co., presents an opportunity to critically analyze the defence of natural justice through a juxtaposition of American and Canadian procedural law. The thesis is that procedural justice mandates that “form ...


International Law Happens: Executive Power, American Exceptionalism, And Bottom-Up Lawmaking, Janet K. Levit Sep 2006

International Law Happens: Executive Power, American Exceptionalism, And Bottom-Up Lawmaking, Janet K. Levit

ExpressO

This essay introduces “bottom-up transnational lawmaking” in the context of contemporary ideological and theoretical debates regarding the breadth and depth of executive power vis-à-vis international law. In an era of globalization, with a proliferation of transnational actors and regulatory instruments, the international lawmaking universe is disaggregating into multiple, sometimes overlapping, lawmaking communities. Neither the President nor others in the “political leadership” sits at the center of many of these communities. Thus, the nationalist critique of international law, rooted in an all-powerful executive who controls international law, creating it and using it instrumentally, in furtherance of the “national interest,” ignores a ...


Sustainable Development And Market Liberalism's Shotgun Wedding: Emissions Trading Under The Kyoto Protocol, David M. Driesen Aug 2006

Sustainable Development And Market Liberalism's Shotgun Wedding: Emissions Trading Under The Kyoto Protocol, David M. Driesen

ExpressO

This article analyzes the international emissions trading regime at the heart of the world’s effort to address global warming as a means of exploring broader international governance issues. The trading regime seeks to marry two models of global governance, market liberalism, which embraces markets as the model of global governance, and sustainable development, which seeks to change development patterns to protect future generations. This article explores emissions trading’s implications for understanding the relationship between these ideals.

This article presents new data and theory unsettling the traditional view that market mechanisms encourage innovations vital to sustainable development. Market actors ...


Light From The Trees: The Story Of Minors Oposa And The Russian Forest Cases , Oliver Austin Houck Aug 2006

Light From The Trees: The Story Of Minors Oposa And The Russian Forest Cases , Oliver Austin Houck

ExpressO

This article describes two lawsuits in the late twentieth century that changed their countries in ways from which there will be no return. One took place in the Philippines, emerging from the reign of Fernando Marcos, and the other in Russia, following a near century of communist rule. They have two things in common. They declared the rights of their citizens to challenge, and reverse, government decisions. And they were about the environment, more particularly, trees. What we learn is that notions of environmental protection, citizen enforcement and judicial review have traveled the world and that, in differing legal systems ...


The Social Obligation Of Property Ownership: A Comparison Of German And U.S. Law, Rebecca Lubens Aug 2006

The Social Obligation Of Property Ownership: A Comparison Of German And U.S. Law, Rebecca Lubens

ExpressO

Although both Germany and the United States have strong market-based economies characterized by rigorous protection of private property rights, the two countries have different conceptions of land ownership based on distinct notions of the individual’s place in society. Whereas property protection under the U.S. Constitution emphasizes individual freedom, German law explicitly considers the individual’s place in and relationship to the social order in defining ownership rights. The property clause in the German Grundgesetz (The Basic Law, the German constitution) contains an affirmative social obligation alongside its positive guarantee of ownership rights. The U.S. Constitution, on the ...


The Eastern Lowland Gorilla: Saving The Victims Of Coltan, Amy Costanzo Aug 2006

The Eastern Lowland Gorilla: Saving The Victims Of Coltan, Amy Costanzo

ExpressO

This article addresses the demand for coltan and the effects of this demand on the Eastern Lowland Gorilla, a species of great ape residing largely in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, home to greatest coltan reserves in the world. The growing demand for coltan has had a devastating effect on this animal, which includes habitat destruction, gorillas being killed for bushmeat, and baby gorillas being orphaned or sold as pets.

It addresses the international agreements, including CITES and the Convention on Biological Diversity, that have already been passed in an effort to help save the Eastern Lowland Gorilla, among ...


Tough Love: The Dramatic Birth And Looming Demise Of Unclos Property Law (And What Is To Be Done About It), Peter S. Prows Jul 2006

Tough Love: The Dramatic Birth And Looming Demise Of Unclos Property Law (And What Is To Be Done About It), Peter S. Prows

ExpressO

The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (“UNCLOS”) represents the culmination of thousands of years of international relations, conflict, and now nearly universal adherence to an enduring order for ocean space that is the most significant achievement for international law since the UN Charter. UNCLOS establishes international property law erga omnes that, by legal and political necessity, required a bargained consensus to be effective. This bargain, in essence, provided coastal States with extended but limited jurisdictions, while ensuring that the seabed and its mineral resources beyond were the “common heritage of mankind” that would peaceably and ...


The Transatlantic Gmo Dispute Against The European Communities: Some Preliminary Thoughts, David A. Wirth Jul 2006

The Transatlantic Gmo Dispute Against The European Communities: Some Preliminary Thoughts, David A. Wirth

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Any day now, a World Trade Organization panel is expected to rule in a dispute between the U.S. and the EU concerning market access for genetically-engineered foods and crops. This piece, written before the release of the WTO panel's report, analyzes novel systemic issues concerning the impact of WTO law on regulatory design, at both the national and international levels, that are raised by this dispute. These include (1) the application of WTO disciplines to regulatory schemes that require prior governmental approval to protect the environment and public health from newly-introduced products and substances; (2) the role of ...


Bond Repudiation, Tax Codes, The Appropriations Process And Restitution Post-Eminent Domain Reform, John H. Ryskamp Jun 2006

Bond Repudiation, Tax Codes, The Appropriations Process And Restitution Post-Eminent Domain Reform, John H. Ryskamp

ExpressO

This brief comment suggests where the anti-eminent domain movement might be heading next.