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Full-Text Articles in Law

Void Agreements, Knocked-Out Terms, And Blue Pencils: Judicial And Legislative Handling Of Unreasonable Terms In Noncompete Agreements, Kenneth R. Swift Dec 2006

Void Agreements, Knocked-Out Terms, And Blue Pencils: Judicial And Legislative Handling Of Unreasonable Terms In Noncompete Agreements, Kenneth R. Swift

ExpressO

This article adresses the divergent approaches currently taken by courts after finding an unreasonable term in an employer-employee noncompete agreement. The article begins by reviewing basic standards used to determine if the terms of a noncompete agreement are reasonable. The article then addresses and analyzes the three approaches used by courts after finding an unreasonable term: finding the agreement void in its entirety, using the "Blue Pencil" doctrine to eliminate unreasonable terms and enforce the remaining terms, and using the court's equitable powers to not only remove unreasonable terms, but to rewrite those terms to make them reasonable. The ...


The Development, Interpretation And Scope Of The Word "Sex" Within Title Vii: With Particular Reference To "Sexual Orientation.", Abbas Kazerounian Nov 2006

The Development, Interpretation And Scope Of The Word "Sex" Within Title Vii: With Particular Reference To "Sexual Orientation.", Abbas Kazerounian

ExpressO

This is a paper demonstrating the shortcomings of the current jurisprudence in the U.S. with regards to the readings of Title VII's construction of the word "sex." Currently sexual minorities are not considered within Title VII and therefore sexual minorities are not offered the same protections under this Congressional Act. This paper shows how this is a misreading of the statute and how it should include protection for sexual minorities.


“Statistical Dueling” With Unconventional Weapons: What Courts Should Know About Experts In Employment Discrimination Class Actions, William T. Bielby, Pamela Coukos Oct 2006

“Statistical Dueling” With Unconventional Weapons: What Courts Should Know About Experts In Employment Discrimination Class Actions, William T. Bielby, Pamela Coukos

ExpressO

When statistical evidence is offered in a litigation context, the result can be bad law and bad statistics. In recent high profile, high-stakes employment discrimination class actions against large multinationals like UPS, Wal-Mart, and Marriott, plaintiffs have claimed that decentralized and highly discretionary management practices result in systematic gender or racial disparities in pay and promotion. At class certification, plaintiffs have relied in part on statistical analyses of the company’s workforce showing companywide inequality. Defendants have responded with statistical presentations of their own, which frequently demonstrate widely varying outcomes for members of protected groups in different geographic areas of ...


A Complete Property Right Amendment, John H. Ryskamp Oct 2006

A Complete Property Right Amendment, John H. Ryskamp

ExpressO

The trend of the eminent domain reform and "Kelo plus" initiatives is toward a comprehensive Constitutional property right incorporating the elements of level of review, nature of government action, and extent of compensation. This article contains a draft amendment which reflects these concerns.


A Satire Of Law Firm Employment Practices (Book Review Of Anonymous Lawyer, By Jeremy Blachman), Miriam A. Cherry Oct 2006

A Satire Of Law Firm Employment Practices (Book Review Of Anonymous Lawyer, By Jeremy Blachman), Miriam A. Cherry

ExpressO

My essay is a review of Jeremy Blachman’s new book, Anonymous Lawyer. The book is a black-humorous stab at the hearts and souls of large elite law firms everywhere (if firms had such things as hearts and souls). In this review essay, I discuss why the blog struck a chord with so many readers, and why the novel Anonymous Lawyer contains a serious message about employment at law firms. First, I place Anonymous Lawyer within the tradition of satire surrounding the legal profession. Specifically, I compare Blachman’s novel to John Jay Osborne Jr.’s earlier novel The Associates ...


Through The Looking Glass: Runaway Productions And "Hollywood Economics", Adrian H. Mcdonald Oct 2006

Through The Looking Glass: Runaway Productions And "Hollywood Economics", Adrian H. Mcdonald

ExpressO

This paper uses the issue of runaway production as a looking glass into the complex world of Hollywood economics and politics. As such, a broad overview of Hollywood's business practices, history, and technology are discussed so the reader can understand how runaway production (a major issue itself) is one piece of the Hollywood puzzle. Specifically, this paper attempts to study runaway productions from the Law and Economics approach described in Judge Richard Posner's text on the subject. Events in 2006 illustrate the continuing importance of runaway productions and CEIDR's August 2006 report is discussed in this paper ...


Whistleblower Protections Under The Sarbanes-Oxley Act: A Primer And A Critique, Valerie J. Watnick Oct 2006

Whistleblower Protections Under The Sarbanes-Oxley Act: A Primer And A Critique, Valerie J. Watnick

ExpressO

In the wake of scandals involving Enron Corporation, Arthur Andersen and other corporations, Congress enacted the landmark Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, the Corporate and Criminal Fraud Accountability Act of 2002 (hereinafter the “Act” or “Sarbanes-Oxley”).This article critically examines the whistleblower protections afforded employees under Sarbanes-Oxley. Part I of the article considers the statutory language, the legislative history, and the regulations pursuant to the Act. Part II of the article examines recent decisions by the U.S. Department of Labor in Sarbanes-Oxley whistleblower cases (cases under the Act are initially adjudicated by the Department of Labor) and the overall framework ...


A Vague And Subjective Standard With Impractical Effects: The Need For Congressional Intervention After Burlington Northern & Santa Fe Railway Co. V. White, Lisa Durham Taylor Sep 2006

A Vague And Subjective Standard With Impractical Effects: The Need For Congressional Intervention After Burlington Northern & Santa Fe Railway Co. V. White, Lisa Durham Taylor

ExpressO

The anti-retaliation provision of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 protects employees who report perceived workplace discrimination or who otherwise participate in the investigative or enforcement process of alleged Title VII discrimination. The statute provides little guidance, however, as to the scope of this protection. Thus, disagreement abounded among the lower federal courts, not only as to whether the anti-retaliation provision prohibited employer acts outside the workplace as well as within, but also as to the level of severity to which an alleged retaliatory act must rise in order to support a claim. The Supreme Court sought ...


Form And Substance: Standards For Promotion And Retention Of Legal Writing Faculty On Clinical Tenure Track, Melissa H. Weresh Sep 2006

Form And Substance: Standards For Promotion And Retention Of Legal Writing Faculty On Clinical Tenure Track, Melissa H. Weresh

ExpressO

This article compares standards for promotion and retention of legal writing faculty on a clinical tenure track. The article provides a brief history of legal writing professionals and examines specific employment criteria such as teaching, service, and scholarship. The article makes recommendations regarding those criteria based upon an assessment of institutional realities and the historical development of the profession.


Corporations And Social Costs: The Wal-Mart Case Study, Benedict Sheehy Sep 2006

Corporations And Social Costs: The Wal-Mart Case Study, Benedict Sheehy

ExpressO

This article examines the role of the corporate vehicle in the creation of social costs. The article identifies some of the political commitments and philosophies behind the differing notions of corporations. Social costs are those activities which result from business activity and cause uncompensated harm to society. The founding contribution to the law and economics discussion by Ronald Coase is given a thorough treatment. The paper next, turns to the dominant explanation of corporate structure, namely the law and economics model developed expounded by Easterbrook and Fischel. It then applies the theoretical discussion in a case study of the world ...


Tough Talk From The Supreme Court On Free Speech: The Illusory Per Se Rule In Garcetti As Further Evidence Of Connick’S Unworkable Employee/Citizen Speech Partition, Sonya K. Bice Sep 2006

Tough Talk From The Supreme Court On Free Speech: The Illusory Per Se Rule In Garcetti As Further Evidence Of Connick’S Unworkable Employee/Citizen Speech Partition, Sonya K. Bice

ExpressO

Garcetti v. Ceballos was intended to clear up an area of First Amendment law so murky that it was the source not only of circuit splits but also of intra-circuit splits—panels from within the same circuit had arrived at opposite results in nearly identical cases. As it turned out, the Supreme Court itself was as splintered as the circuits. Of all the previously argued cases that remained undecided during the Court’s transition involving Justice O’Connor’s retirement and Justice Alito’s confirmation, Garcetti was the only one for which the Court ordered a second argument. This suggested ...


The "American Rule" That Swallows The Exception, Joseph E. Slater Sep 2006

The "American Rule" That Swallows The Exception, Joseph E. Slater

ExpressO

The “American” rule of employment at-will cripples the effectiveness of the two most important exceptions to that doctrine, the National Labor Relations Act and Title VII. Scholars often cite at-will as an area in which exceptions swallow the rule but ignore the opposite effect the rule has in undermining rights widely viewed as fundamental. This article goes beyond the standard critiques of the NLRA and Title VII and uses two other areas of law to make this case. The impact of at-will on private sector labor rights under the NLRA is shown by comparing public sector employment. Public sector labor ...


Bizarro Statutory Stare Decisis, Jamie D. Prenkert Aug 2006

Bizarro Statutory Stare Decisis, Jamie D. Prenkert

ExpressO

In Smith v. City of Jackson, the Supreme Court applied to the Age Discrimination in Employment Act one of its decisions interpreting Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which Congress had overridden with the Civil Rights Act of 1991. It treated Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Atonio, dealing with disparate impact theory and burdens of proof, as a binding interpretation of the ADEA, despite that Congress expressed disapproval of Wards Cove. The Court relied on two interpretive approaches to arrive at this result: the presumption that identical language in the ADEA and Title VII should be interpreted consistently ...


Recent Defined Benefit Pension Reform: Reasons And Results, Daniel B. Klaff Aug 2006

Recent Defined Benefit Pension Reform: Reasons And Results, Daniel B. Klaff

ExpressO

In the face of corporate bankruptcies, the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (“PBGC”) assures workers that their defined benefit pensions will be protected. It is this fact which has motivated recent reform of the PBGC and the overarching defined benefit plan system by Congress. This paper explores those reforms by addressing the reasons for and results of the most recent reform which had as its primary aim restoring the fiscal solvency of the PBGC. The paper challenges popular accounts of the reform process while examining the results of such reform for important stakeholders without resorting to an overly technical discussion of ...


Judith Johnson Ada Article, Judith Johnson Aug 2006

Judith Johnson Ada Article, Judith Johnson

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


Volunteer Discrimination, Angela Onwuachi-Willig Aug 2006

Volunteer Discrimination, Angela Onwuachi-Willig

ExpressO

This Essay analyzes a debate regarding the potential racial motivations behind the new National Basketball Association (NBA) Dress Code. Specifically, this Essay examines whether the defense of the new NBA dress code by some Blacks—as pure business, free from racial discrimination—should be viewed as action negating other Blacks’ claims of improper racial motivation behind the policy. I contend that, rather than negating allegations of racism, the reactions of the policy-defending black NBA athletes and leaders only highlight the immense pressures that Blacks have in our society to perform their identity in a way that is racially palatable. In ...


Charter Schools And Collective Bargaining: Compatible Marriage Or Illegitimate Relationship, Martin H. Malin, Charles Taylor Kerchner Aug 2006

Charter Schools And Collective Bargaining: Compatible Marriage Or Illegitimate Relationship, Martin H. Malin, Charles Taylor Kerchner

ExpressO

The rapid increase in charter schools has been fueled by the view that traditional public schools have failed because of their monopoly on public education. Charter schools, freed from the bureaucratic regulation that dominates traditional public schools, are viewed as agents of change that will shock traditional public schools out of their complacency. Among the features of the failed status quo are teacher tenure, uniform salary grids and strict work rules, matters that teacher unions hold dear. Yet unions have begun organizing teacher in charter schools. This development prompts the question whether unionization and charter schools are compatible.

In contrast ...


Reasonable Burdens: Resolving The Conflict Between Disabled Employees And Their Co-Workers, Nicole Porter Aug 2006

Reasonable Burdens: Resolving The Conflict Between Disabled Employees And Their Co-Workers, Nicole Porter

ExpressO

This Article addresses one of the most difficult issues under the reasonable accommodation provision of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): how to resolve the conflict that arises when accommodating a disabled employee negatively affects or interferes with the rights of other employees. Several scholars and the Supreme Court (in US Airways v. Barnett) have weighed in on this debate but their analyses fall short of the ultimate goal of this Article—to achieve equal opportunity for individuals with disabilities without unnecessarily interfering with the rights of other employees. In order to achieve that goal, this Article proposes a statutory ...


If You Work For The Government, Then Shut Your Mouth: Garcetti V. Ceballos And The Future Of Public Employee Speech, Joseph E. Hardgrave Aug 2006

If You Work For The Government, Then Shut Your Mouth: Garcetti V. Ceballos And The Future Of Public Employee Speech, Joseph E. Hardgrave

ExpressO

This article dismantles the majority's reasoning in Garcetti v. Ceballos. A theory is proposed to why the Court broke with prior precedence and the sweeping effect of the ambigous holding is examined.


The Story Of Nlrb V. Mackay Radio & Telegraph Co.: The High Cost Of Solidarity, Thomas C. Kohler, Julius G. Getman Aug 2006

The Story Of Nlrb V. Mackay Radio & Telegraph Co.: The High Cost Of Solidarity, Thomas C. Kohler, Julius G. Getman

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

In 1938, in NLRB v. Mackay Radio & Telegraph Co., the Supreme Court offered one of its earliest interpretations of the National Labor Relations Act. Although the Court’s holding provided that employers may not discriminate against employees for their union activity when the strike is over and workers are reinstated, dicta in the opinion also provided that under the NLRA employers enjoy an unrestricted right to replace strikers. In the 70 years since the Court’s announcement, scholars remain baffled by the contradictions presented by the “Mackay doctrine”—a rule that forbids employers from discharging legally protected strikers while, at ...


Sox, Statutory Interpretation, And The Seventh Amendment: Sarbanes-Oxley Act Whistleblower Claims And Jury Trials, Jarod S. Gonzalez Jul 2006

Sox, Statutory Interpretation, And The Seventh Amendment: Sarbanes-Oxley Act Whistleblower Claims And Jury Trials, Jarod S. Gonzalez

ExpressO

Section 806 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 prohibits a publicly-traded company from retaliating against an employee whistleblower who reports suspected corporate fraud to a company supervisor or to a governmental entity. The SOX whistleblower provision is unique in employment discrimination law in that Congress adopted a two-track civil enforcement system for whistleblowers. A complainant must initially pursue a claim in a Department of Labor administrative proceeding. The administrative proceeding involves a trial-like hearing before an administrative law judge and review of the judge's decision by the Administrative Review Board. However, if the Department of Labor does not make ...


As The Enterprise Wheel Turns: New Evidence On The Finality Of Labor Arbitration Awards, Michael H. Leroy Jul 2006

As The Enterprise Wheel Turns: New Evidence On The Finality Of Labor Arbitration Awards, Michael H. Leroy

ExpressO

Our study examines 281 federal court decisions from April 2001- May 2006 that ruled on challenges to labor arbitration awards. These award appeals are regulated by the Supreme Court’s Enterprise Wheel decision. District courts confirmed 77.6% of challenged awards, an increase of about 7 percentage points compared to our earlier studies of litigated awards from 1960 - 2001. The result was very similar for appellate cases— a confirmation rate of 76.3%, and nearly the same gain in percentage points.

These results clearly suggest that the Supreme Court’s rebuke of lower courts in Eastern Associated Coal Corp. (2000 ...


Don't Mourn --- Reorganize! An Introduction To The Next Wave Organizing Symposium Issue, Seth Harris Jul 2006

Don't Mourn --- Reorganize! An Introduction To The Next Wave Organizing Symposium Issue, Seth Harris

ExpressO

On January 27 and 28, 2005, New York Law School’s Labor & Employment Law Program, in cooperation with the Justice Action Center and the Institute for Information Law & Policy, presented the Next Wave Organizing Symposium. The Symposium brought together worker organizers, trade union officials, technologists, students, and scholars in law, industrial relations, economics, public policy, and other fields to tell the story of how, despite all of the forces arrayed against them, workers are organizing.

This article is the introduction to the Next Wave Organizing Symposium issue of the New York Law School Law Review. The purpose of the Next ...


Governance Of Brazilian Pension Funds, Luciana Pires Dias Jul 2006

Governance Of Brazilian Pension Funds, Luciana Pires Dias

ExpressO

This paper analyzes theoretically and empirically the governance of pension funds in Brazil. It first demonstrates that the law allows sponsors (employers) to write contracts (by-laws) governing the relationships between the sponsors, the managers and the participants (employees) of the pension funds. It also explains that, from an agency theory perspective, this legal framework favors non-optimal governance structures, since sponsors do not bear the financial consequences of the contracts they create. As predicted, the empirical evidence reported in this thesis shows that sponsors use this authority to create contracts that minimize monitoring and maximize control over business decisions to the ...


Bond Repudiation, Tax Codes, The Appropriations Process And Restitution Post-Eminent Domain Reform, John H. Ryskamp Jun 2006

Bond Repudiation, Tax Codes, The Appropriations Process And Restitution Post-Eminent Domain Reform, John H. Ryskamp

ExpressO

This brief comment suggests where the anti-eminent domain movement might be heading next.


The New Judicial Hostility To Arbitration: Unconscionability And Agreements To Arbitrate, Steven J. Burton May 2006

The New Judicial Hostility To Arbitration: Unconscionability And Agreements To Arbitrate, Steven J. Burton

ExpressO

Many, many contract disputes are now being settled by arbitration instead of litigation. The United States Supreme Court strongly favors the enforcement of agreements to arbitrate that fall within the Federal Arbitration Act. This Article shows that many lower courts, however, are using the contract unconscionability doctrine to refuse enforcement of agreements to arbitrate. It argues (1) that many such lower court decisions should be pre-empted by the Federal Arbitration Act, and (2) that lower courts should give due weight to the federal policy favoring arbitration when deciding whether to enforce an agreement to arbitrate.


The Importance Of The Secret Ballot In Law Faculty Personnel Decisions: Promoting Candor And Collegiality In The Academy, Ira P. Robbins May 2006

The Importance Of The Secret Ballot In Law Faculty Personnel Decisions: Promoting Candor And Collegiality In The Academy, Ira P. Robbins

ExpressO

Law school faculty personnel decisions are often controversial. Debates may be heated, votes may be close, and ill will may be incurred. One way to avoid this enmity and to promote or maintain a collegial atmosphere is to vote by secret ballot on hiring, retention, promotion, and tenure questions. The use of secret ballots, however, allows for the possibility of voting for the wrong reasons (e.g., bias, discrimination). But open voting allows for the same possibility (e.g., political correctness, fear of reprisals).

This Article discusses the evolution and significance of the secret ballot and considers the arguments for ...


Final Offer Arbitration In The New Era Of Major League Baseball, Spencer B. Gordon May 2006

Final Offer Arbitration In The New Era Of Major League Baseball, Spencer B. Gordon

ExpressO

This article provides a comprehensive analysis of the economic, athletic, and social impact of final offer salary arbitration in Major League Baseball (“MLB”). The article delves into the motivations, fluctuations, and evolution of the player-owner relationship and free agency. The commentary then focuses on the distinguishing features and intricacies of final offer arbitration. Although salary arbitration in the context of Major League Baseball is a topic oft discussed in the law review setting, the analysis rarely reaches the level exhibited in this article. Moreover, most articles on the subject were written between 1996 and 2000 when the 1994 players’ strike ...


Finding New Constitutional Rights Through The Supreme Court’S Evolving “Government Purpose” Test Under Minimum Scrutiny, John H. Ryskamp May 2006

Finding New Constitutional Rights Through The Supreme Court’S Evolving “Government Purpose” Test Under Minimum Scrutiny, John H. Ryskamp

ExpressO

By now we all are familiar with the litany of cases which refused to find elevated scrutiny for so-called “affirmative” or “social” rights such as education, welfare or housing: Lindsey v. Normet, San Antonio School District v. Rodriguez, Dandridge v. Williams, DeShaney v. Winnebago County. There didn’t seem to be anything in minimum scrutiny which could protect such facts as education or housing, from government action. However, unobtrusively and over the years, the Supreme Court has clarified and articulated one aspect of minimum scrutiny which holds promise for vindicating facts. You will recall that under minimum scrutiny government’s ...


The Small Firm Exemption And The Single Employer Doctrine In Employment Discrimination Law, Richard R. Carlson May 2006

The Small Firm Exemption And The Single Employer Doctrine In Employment Discrimination Law, Richard R. Carlson

ExpressO

The small firm exemption is a provision of Title VII and the other major federal employment discrimination laws that exempts very small firms from coverage as “employers.” Under the Title VII version of the exemption, for example, an employer is exempt as long as it employs no more than fourteen employees. However, a small firm might be affiliated or integrated with other firms, which collectively employ more than the number of employees required for coverage. The single employer doctrine is a rule for treating separately organized firms as if they were one employer, for purposes of meeting the statutory threshold ...