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2003

International Law

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Articles 1 - 30 of 109

Full-Text Articles in Law

International Marine Environment Law: A Case Study In The Wider Caribbean Region, Benedict C. Sheehy Dec 2003

International Marine Environment Law: A Case Study In The Wider Caribbean Region, Benedict C. Sheehy

ExpressO

Abstract: This study examines the effectiveness of international marine environment law in controlling and abating contamination of the marine environment in the Wider Caribbean Region. The main international agreement covering the region is the Cartagena Convention which came into force in 1983. This convention, initiated by the UNEP under its Regional Seas Program, is considered one of the most successful of the programs. The study examines that claim in light of events since the adoption of the Cartagena Convention by the majority of nations bordering on the region. Mexico, because of its stature as a leading Latin American nation, is ...


Arthritic Flexibilities: Analysis Of Wto Action Regarding Paragraph 6 Of The Doha Declaration On The Trips Agreement And Public Health, Brook K. Baker Dec 2003

Arthritic Flexibilities: Analysis Of Wto Action Regarding Paragraph 6 Of The Doha Declaration On The Trips Agreement And Public Health, Brook K. Baker

ExpressO

This paper explores the tortured history of developing countries’ pursuit of access to affordable generic medicines that they are unable to produce efficiently on their own. Having lost rights to treat medicines as essential commodities and as generalized exceptions to patent protections in the WTO TRIPS Agreement, developing countries and public health activists temporarily reasserted the primacy of health over profits in the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health in November of 2001. However, since most developing countries lack meaningful pharmaceutical capacity to manufacture medicines efficiently on their own, they needed flexibility to import medicines from countries ...


Book Review: The Many Faces Of Power: An International Law Response To Robert Kagan’S “Of Paradise And Power”, Jason G. Morgan-Foster Dec 2003

Book Review: The Many Faces Of Power: An International Law Response To Robert Kagan’S “Of Paradise And Power”, Jason G. Morgan-Foster

ExpressO

After summarizing the main points of Kagan’s book, the review responds to Kagan’s perception of power using the assumptions of international law, contrasting his definition of power to that of several international legal scholars. It then places Kagan’s realist approach in a broader context of international relations and international legal theory, beginning with a discussion of challenges to realism, and concluding with an examination of the growing body of “integrationist” literature which posits that the fields of international law and international relations are merging. The review then returns to the question of power, examining ways in which ...


Employment Market Institutions And Japanese Working Hours, Mark West Dec 2003

Employment Market Institutions And Japanese Working Hours, Mark West

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

Why do Japanese workers work such long hours? Beginning with a series of cases in the 1950s, Japanese courts drastically curtailed firms’ abilities to dismiss workers. As a consequence of the inability to dismiss workers legally, large Japanese firms hired a smaller number of workers than were necessary to fulfill capacity without overtime. Employers rely on the working hours of this undersized cadre of workers, carefully screened to rule out the slothful, as a buffer. In bad times, the size of the work force makes dismissal unnecessary. In good times, workers are forced to work long hours. While these court ...


The Political Economy Of International Antitrust Harmonization, John O. Mcginnis Dec 2003

The Political Economy Of International Antitrust Harmonization, John O. Mcginnis

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


United States Citizens Detained As "Enemy Combatants": The Right To Counsel As A Matter Of Ethics, Jesselyn A. Radack Dec 2003

United States Citizens Detained As "Enemy Combatants": The Right To Counsel As A Matter Of Ethics, Jesselyn A. Radack

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

The Supreme Court will decide as a matter of law whether an American citizen detained as an enemy combatant has the right to counsel. The author argues that as a matter of ethics, the answer is clear - there is a right to counsel. In this Article, the author analyzes the cases regarding Jose Padilla and Yaser Esam Hamdi discusses ABA Model Rule 4.2, and its application, and proposes an amendment to Rule 4.2's Comment.


Developing Internationally Uniform Liability Principles For Harms From Genetically Modified Organisms , Ryan C. Hansen Nov 2003

Developing Internationally Uniform Liability Principles For Harms From Genetically Modified Organisms , Ryan C. Hansen

ExpressO

This paper analyzes the current legal principles regarding liabillity for harms from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the U.S. and E.U., as well as the various international policies and mechanisms affecting GMOs


Benin’S Constitutional Court: An Institutional Model For Enforcing Human Rights, Anna Rotman Nov 2003

Benin’S Constitutional Court: An Institutional Model For Enforcing Human Rights, Anna Rotman

ExpressO

This piece is based on field research the author conducted in Benin, West Africa during January 2003. The paper explores how the Court operates as a hybrid institution, by combining the competences traditionally associated with a constitutional court with the mandate of a national human rights commission. The paper argues that the Beninese Constitutional Court could provide an institutional model for guaranteeing human rights through a state-sponsored institution.


Wto Plus: Creating Liberal Investment Through Regulating Tax Incentives, Jeremiah Johnson Nov 2003

Wto Plus: Creating Liberal Investment Through Regulating Tax Incentives, Jeremiah Johnson

ExpressO

The World Trade Organization’s (WTO) narrow reading of the Agreement on Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMs) should be expanded to prohibit specific and targeted tax incentives aimed at attracting foreign investment. These tax incentives restrict investment and trade liberalization. This paper proposes that trade and investment are intrinsically linked, and as such, the WTO is the proper forum to regulate investment measures. This paper argues the case against specific foreign investment attracting tax incentives. These incentives do little to actually attract investment, and are harmful to development. Individual tax incentives also limit the collective global benefits of investment. This ...


Who Holds The Real Veto: Use Of Force And The Trusteeship Analogy, Paul Tan Nov 2003

Who Holds The Real Veto: Use Of Force And The Trusteeship Analogy, Paul Tan

ExpressO

It is a well-known fact that except when a country is defending herself from an armed attack, all recourse to force must be authorized by the Security Council. In early 2003, when President Bush became frustrated at the reluctance of the UN Security Council to authorize the use of force against Iraq for stalling on the weapons inspections regime, he told the world in no uncertain terms that America would attack Iraq alone if necessary. What I want to explore in this article is the question of whether countries retain a residual right to act outside of such authorization on ...


Trial Of The Accused Taliban And Al Qaeda Operatives Captured In Afghanistan And Detained On A U.S. Military Base In Cuba, Jaime Jackson Oct 2003

Trial Of The Accused Taliban And Al Qaeda Operatives Captured In Afghanistan And Detained On A U.S. Military Base In Cuba, Jaime Jackson

ExpressO

A timely piece proposing solutions for issues certain to be raised in the upcoming trials of the accused Taliban and Al Qaeda operatives captured in Afghanistan and detained on a U.S. military base in Cuba. In the article, I begin by examining the history and jurisdiction of Article I and Article III courts and then address the history and structure of the Al Qaeda and Taliban regimes. After considering the Constitution, federal statutes, politics, and geographical limitations, I conclude that Al Qaeda detainees should be tried in Article III courts under terrorism statutes and Taliban detainees, as military combatants ...


“All Aboard!” An Overview Of The Continuing Debate Regarding The Enforceability Of Dispute Resolution Provisions Of Filipino Seamen Employment Contracts, Richard V. Blystone Oct 2003

“All Aboard!” An Overview Of The Continuing Debate Regarding The Enforceability Of Dispute Resolution Provisions Of Filipino Seamen Employment Contracts, Richard V. Blystone

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


A Gradual Shift In U.S. Privacy Laws Towards A Comprehensive Regime , Kamaal R. Zaidi Oct 2003

A Gradual Shift In U.S. Privacy Laws Towards A Comprehensive Regime , Kamaal R. Zaidi

ExpressO

This paper examines the current trends in a predominantly sectoral U.S. privacy regime that appears to be becoming more comprehensive in nature with respect to data privacy protection. This trend has been greatly attributed to the European Union's comprehensive position on data privacy protection. This paper investigates the growth in U.S. data privacy protection in relation to federal and state legislative history, federal administrative procedures, and private industry efforts. This shift from sectoral to comprehensive regimes is significant in the backdrop of U.S-EU trade relations.


The Israeli Lust For Peace: Illusion, Tragedy And Prospect, Lloyd R. Cohen Oct 2003

The Israeli Lust For Peace: Illusion, Tragedy And Prospect, Lloyd R. Cohen

ExpressO

The wishful thinking of Israelis and Americans has led to a pursuit of peace through negotiation and concilliation. This process has led more nearly to war, terrorism and great human suffering than to peace.


Current Maritime Labour Law Issues: An Internationally Uniform Identity Document For Seafarers, Cleopatra Doumbia-Henry Sep 2003

Current Maritime Labour Law Issues: An Internationally Uniform Identity Document For Seafarers, Cleopatra Doumbia-Henry

Cleopatra Doumbia-Henry

No abstract provided.


A Broader View Of Corporate Inversions: The Interplay Of Tax, Corporate And Economic Implications, Orsolya Kun Sep 2003

A Broader View Of Corporate Inversions: The Interplay Of Tax, Corporate And Economic Implications, Orsolya Kun

ExpressO

Multinational corporations have, in substantial numbers, moved their corporate residence from the U.S. to Bermuda, for the purpuse of minimizing U.S. taxation on their worldwide income. This study reviews the forms of these "corporate inversion transactions," and explores their tax implications, as well as their corporate governance implications and motivations. It is the first scholarly study to examine the corporate governance implications of inversions, and it concludes that previously unexplored aspects of the change of corporate domicile result in substantial reduction of accountability of directors and officers and significant impediments to enforcement of shareholder rights.


Atca, Doe V. Unocal: A Paquete Habana Approach To The Rescue, John Haberstroh Sep 2003

Atca, Doe V. Unocal: A Paquete Habana Approach To The Rescue, John Haberstroh

ExpressO

The article's centerpiece is the Ninth Circuit litigation (Doe v. Unocal) charging Unocal Corp. with complicity in the Burma’s government’s use of forced labor. The article first examines the Alien Tort Claims Act, under which the action is brought, through an exploration of that statute’s original purpose and historical context. The article then looks at the modern revival of ATCA in international human rights claims, and finally closely considers the Unocal litigation, in particular the September 18, 2002 decision favoring the plaintiffs. (The 2002 decision is undergoing review by an en banc panel of the Ninth ...


The Immunity Of Foreign Subsidiaries Under The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act, Melissa M. Lang Sep 2003

The Immunity Of Foreign Subsidiaries Under The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act, Melissa M. Lang

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


In The Name Of National Security Or Insecurity?: The Potential Indefinite Detention Of Non-Citizen Certified Terrorists In The United States And The United Kingdom In The Aftermath Of September 11, 2001, Dana L. Keith Sep 2003

In The Name Of National Security Or Insecurity?: The Potential Indefinite Detention Of Non-Citizen Certified Terrorists In The United States And The United Kingdom In The Aftermath Of September 11, 2001, Dana L. Keith

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


Universal Jurisdiction And Drug Trafficking: A Tool For Fighting One Of The World's Most Pervasive Problems , Anne H. Geraghty Sep 2003

Universal Jurisdiction And Drug Trafficking: A Tool For Fighting One Of The World's Most Pervasive Problems , Anne H. Geraghty

ExpressO

Universal jurisdiction allows any state to exercise jurisdiction to prosecute a suspect wherever he is found, regardless of the location of his crimes, his nationality, or any other contacts with the prosecuting state. This article proposes that the United States and the international community should take two major steps toward embracing universal jurisdiction as a possible means of combatting drug trafficking. First, states should adopt an additional protocol to the 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances clearly establishing universal jurisdiction for drug trafficking and thereby filling jurisdictional gaps in existing treaty law. Second ...


Barbarians At The Gates: A Post-September 11th Proposal To Rationalize The Laws Of War, William C. Bradford Sep 2003

Barbarians At The Gates: A Post-September 11th Proposal To Rationalize The Laws Of War, William C. Bradford

ExpressO

My article, Barbarians at the Gates: A Proposal to Rationalize the Laws of War. The piece proposes that in the War on Terror a new approach to the laws of war is necessary to harmonize the functional purpose of the law of war with the nature of the threat presented by terrorism to civilization.


Freedom From Fear: Prosecuting The Iraqi Regime For The Use Of Chemical Weapons, Margaret A. Sewell Sep 2003

Freedom From Fear: Prosecuting The Iraqi Regime For The Use Of Chemical Weapons, Margaret A. Sewell

ExpressO

Since the recent war with Iraq, there is a lingering question as to how to prosecute Saddam Hussein (if captured) and the Iraqi regime for their past atrocities, particularly, the use of chemcial weapons against Iran during the Iran-Iraq War and the Kurds. This article provides a background of the crimes committed by the Iraqi regime, a discussion and recommendation of the various proseution fora, as well as a presentation of the evidence that can be used in a prosecution.


The Guise Of Justice: Jurisdiction & Extradition Of Osama Bin Laden & Al Qaeda Terrorists, Matthew Greenwell Sep 2003

The Guise Of Justice: Jurisdiction & Extradition Of Osama Bin Laden & Al Qaeda Terrorists, Matthew Greenwell

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


The Military -Judicial Nexus In Response To Terrorism: Kkk And Alqaeda, Wayne Mccormack Sep 2003

The Military -Judicial Nexus In Response To Terrorism: Kkk And Alqaeda, Wayne Mccormack

ExpressO

In considering the validity of "enemy combatant" status and military detention for alleged terrorists, several additional propositions emerge. Indefinite military detention of a US citizen arrested on US soil for a domestic crime is far beyond the pale of basic constitutional underpinnings. With respect to noncitizens and citizens captured overseas, military power is arguable but far from solid. In that event, why not take the route that does the least disruption to our system? Second, because the law abhors incoherence, we should be able to make coherent distinctions among alleged terrorists for the purpose of deciding who is tried in ...


Democracy's Global Quest: A Noble Crusade Wrapped In Dirty Reality?, Andrew K. Coleman, Jackson Nil Maogoto Sep 2003

Democracy's Global Quest: A Noble Crusade Wrapped In Dirty Reality?, Andrew K. Coleman, Jackson Nil Maogoto

ExpressO

The end of the Cold War and the apparent "victory" of democracy witnessed a dramatic increase in the number, diversity and proportion of states formally committed to democratic principles. Prominent international law scholars argued vigorously that representative government was now an international legal entitlement.

It is debatable that a right to pro-democratic action, that is intervention to promote democracy exist. The determined reaction of the United Nations and the Organization of American States to the September 1991 overthrow of popularly-elected Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, and the attendant discussion within the Organization of American States about the possible use of force ...


The Last Line Of Defense: The Doctrine Of Command Responsibility, Gender Crimes In Armed Conflict, And The Kahan Report (Sabra & Shatilla), Sherrie L. Russell-Brown Sep 2003

The Last Line Of Defense: The Doctrine Of Command Responsibility, Gender Crimes In Armed Conflict, And The Kahan Report (Sabra & Shatilla), Sherrie L. Russell-Brown

ExpressO

“THE LAST LINE OF DEFENSE” addresses using the doctrine of command responsibility - the doctrine according to which military and non-military leaders can be held individually criminally responsible for the crimes committed by their subordinates - before the International Criminal Court (ICC) as a way to prevent gender crimes in armed conflict. The prevention of gender crimes in armed conflict is an important issue for a variety of reasons. One extremely important reason is the connection that the United Nations has cited between the AIDS pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa and rape in armed conflict. In addition, in the August 25, 2003 issue ...


Discourse In Development: Viewing The United Nations Committee On Economic, Social And Cultural Rights Through The Post-Colonial Lens, Beth Lyon Sep 2003

Discourse In Development: Viewing The United Nations Committee On Economic, Social And Cultural Rights Through The Post-Colonial Lens, Beth Lyon

Working Paper Series

This article uses post-colonial theory to examine the cluster of international human rights known as economic, social and cultural rights. The article surveys the jurisprudence of the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, making it relevant for scholars of international human rights as well as post-colonial theory.

Traditionally, international human rights divide into two branches: 1) civil and political rights, and 2) economic, social and cultural rights (ESCRs). ESCRs were virtually ignored during the cold war era, but they now receive expanded attention at the international and regional levels. The creation of the UN Committee on Economic, Social ...


Multilateral Environmental Agreements And The Compliance Continuum, Teall E. Crossen Aug 2003

Multilateral Environmental Agreements And The Compliance Continuum, Teall E. Crossen

ExpressO

This paper responds to the observation that despite the high number of multilateral environment agreements (“MEAs”), and relatively high compliance rate, the global commons are continuing to deteriorate. I review the contemporary literature addressing the question: "why nations comply with international law," focusing specifically on MEAs. The competing schools of thought are organized along a "compliance continuum," – bordered at one end by the Chayesian approach advocating managing compliance, and the Downsian view at the other, arguing for enforcement when there are high incentives to defect.

In sum, my conclusions are (1) adequately responding to global environmental problems requires increasing the ...


Ecocide And Genocide In Iraq: International Law, The Marsh Arabs And Environmental Damage In Non-International Conflicts, Aaron Schwabach Aug 2003

Ecocide And Genocide In Iraq: International Law, The Marsh Arabs And Environmental Damage In Non-International Conflicts, Aaron Schwabach

ExpressO

In 1991, after the first Gulf War, the Marsh Arabs of southern Iraq rose up against the Hussein government, with U.S. encouragement. The rebellion failed; in retaliation the government embarked on a massive water diversion project to drain the wetlands. In 1970 the wetlands covered nearly 11,000 square kilometers; today they cover fewer than a thousand. The Marsh Arabs whose ancestors had lived in the wetlands for five thousand years were forced to flee; many died. The drainage of the wetlands was a deliberate and calculated act of genocide and ecocide. At the time, Iraq was a party ...


Bridging The “Divide” Between Feminism And Child Protection Using The Discourse Of International Human Rights , Sherrie L. Russell-Brown Aug 2003

Bridging The “Divide” Between Feminism And Child Protection Using The Discourse Of International Human Rights , Sherrie L. Russell-Brown

ExpressO

“Bridging the Divide” is an essay that addresses the perceived tension or “divide” between feminism and child protection. While, in theory, women’s and children’s rights are not necessarily antithetical, the policies that have been devised (allegedly to preserve and promote those rights) are, at times, at odds. For example, the policy of social services to remove a child from the home of the mother, rather than assist both mother and child by the creation of a better home environment, is certainly at odds with rights of the mother. To simplify the issue greatly, the right of women to ...