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2003

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Articles 1 - 30 of 114

Full-Text Articles in Law

Progressivist Origins Of The 2003 California Gubernatorial Recall, Kira L. Klatchko Dec 2003

Progressivist Origins Of The 2003 California Gubernatorial Recall, Kira L. Klatchko

ExpressO

Progressivist Origins of the 2003 California Gubernatorial Recall, was written in Sacramento in the midst of the first statewide recall of an elected official in California. The paper explores the nature of the recall procedure and its implementation in the state, and is chiefly an inquiry into the relatedness of the current incarnation and its Progressivist root. It focuses particularly on the recall of Governor Gray Davis, and details how shifting attitudes towards public participation have altered the procedure over time.


Antitrust And Trade Regulation Bulletin Ftc Releases Report On Intellectual Property And Antitrust, James Burling, John C. Christie Jr., Michelle Miller Dec 2003

Antitrust And Trade Regulation Bulletin Ftc Releases Report On Intellectual Property And Antitrust, James Burling, John C. Christie Jr., Michelle Miller

Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr Antitrust Series

Last year the FTC and the Department of Justice jointly held hearings focused on the current balance of competition and patent law and policy. (See our December, 2001 Antitrust and Trade Regulation Bulletin at www.haledorr.com/antitrust.) The hearings spanned more than 24 days, involving more than 300 panelists and 100 separate written submissions. The first tangible by-product of those sessions came on October 28, 2003, with the release of a 266-page FTC report containing specific recommendations for changes in the existing patent system (the Patent Report)(http://www.ftc.gov/opa/2003/10/creport .htm). A second, joint ...


International Marine Environment Law: A Case Study In The Wider Caribbean Region, Benedict C. Sheehy Dec 2003

International Marine Environment Law: A Case Study In The Wider Caribbean Region, Benedict C. Sheehy

ExpressO

Abstract: This study examines the effectiveness of international marine environment law in controlling and abating contamination of the marine environment in the Wider Caribbean Region. The main international agreement covering the region is the Cartagena Convention which came into force in 1983. This convention, initiated by the UNEP under its Regional Seas Program, is considered one of the most successful of the programs. The study examines that claim in light of events since the adoption of the Cartagena Convention by the majority of nations bordering on the region. Mexico, because of its stature as a leading Latin American nation, is ...


Arthritic Flexibilities: Analysis Of Wto Action Regarding Paragraph 6 Of The Doha Declaration On The Trips Agreement And Public Health, Brook K. Baker Dec 2003

Arthritic Flexibilities: Analysis Of Wto Action Regarding Paragraph 6 Of The Doha Declaration On The Trips Agreement And Public Health, Brook K. Baker

ExpressO

This paper explores the tortured history of developing countries’ pursuit of access to affordable generic medicines that they are unable to produce efficiently on their own. Having lost rights to treat medicines as essential commodities and as generalized exceptions to patent protections in the WTO TRIPS Agreement, developing countries and public health activists temporarily reasserted the primacy of health over profits in the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health in November of 2001. However, since most developing countries lack meaningful pharmaceutical capacity to manufacture medicines efficiently on their own, they needed flexibility to import medicines from countries ...


Book Review: The Many Faces Of Power: An International Law Response To Robert Kagan’S “Of Paradise And Power”, Jason G. Morgan-Foster Dec 2003

Book Review: The Many Faces Of Power: An International Law Response To Robert Kagan’S “Of Paradise And Power”, Jason G. Morgan-Foster

ExpressO

After summarizing the main points of Kagan’s book, the review responds to Kagan’s perception of power using the assumptions of international law, contrasting his definition of power to that of several international legal scholars. It then places Kagan’s realist approach in a broader context of international relations and international legal theory, beginning with a discussion of challenges to realism, and concluding with an examination of the growing body of “integrationist” literature which posits that the fields of international law and international relations are merging. The review then returns to the question of power, examining ways in which ...


The Dogmatic And Practical Implications Of Article 78 Of The United Nations Convention On Contracts For The International Sale Of Goods (Cisg) On Claims For Interest Under International Sales Contracts. , Friso Garbers Dec 2003

The Dogmatic And Practical Implications Of Article 78 Of The United Nations Convention On Contracts For The International Sale Of Goods (Cisg) On Claims For Interest Under International Sales Contracts. , Friso Garbers

ExpressO

The paper deals with the current controversy in regard to the interpretation of article 78 Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG). In particular, the determination of the interest rate is discussed in detail.


The Summary Judgment Standard And Pleading Requirements For Conspiracy Claims Relying On The Doctrine Of Conscious Parallelism, Robert Bell, Lee Greenfield, Veronica Kanye, William Kolasky, Jim Lowe, Doug Melamed, Thomas Mueller, Ali Stoeppelwerth Dec 2003

The Summary Judgment Standard And Pleading Requirements For Conspiracy Claims Relying On The Doctrine Of Conscious Parallelism, Robert Bell, Lee Greenfield, Veronica Kanye, William Kolasky, Jim Lowe, Doug Melamed, Thomas Mueller, Ali Stoeppelwerth

Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr Antitrust Series

Last spring there was growing concern in the wake of the Seventh Circuit’s decision in In re High Fruc-tose Corn Syrup1 that the courts might be adopting a more receptive attitude toward antitrust claims based on allegations of consciously parallel pricing and other behavior in highly concentrated industries. Three decisions in the last few months suggest that High Fructose Corn Syrup may remain an aberration and that most courts remain deeply skeptical of claims that seek to infer agreement from consciously parallel conduct without any hard evidence of conspiracy. Two of these three decisions, Williamson Oil Co., Inc. v ...


Valuation Averaging: A New Procedure For Resolving Valuation Disputes, Keith Sharfman Dec 2003

Valuation Averaging: A New Procedure For Resolving Valuation Disputes, Keith Sharfman

Rutgers Law School (Newark) Faculty Papers

In this Article, Professor Sharfman addresses the problem of "discretionary valuation": that courts resolve valuation disputes arbitrarily and unpredictably, thus harming litigants and society. As a solution, he proposes the enactment of "valuation averaging," a new procedure for resolving valuation disputes modeled on the algorithmic valuation processes often agreed to by sophisticated private firms in advance of any dispute. He argues that by replacing the discretion of judges and juries with a mechanical valuation process, valuation averaging would cause litigants to introduce more plausible and conciliatory valuations into evidence and thereby reduce the cost of valuation litigation and increase the ...


It's Personal But Is It Mine? Toward Property Rights In Personal Information, Vera Bergelson Nov 2003

It's Personal But Is It Mine? Toward Property Rights In Personal Information, Vera Bergelson

Rutgers Law School (Newark) Faculty Papers

"It's Personal But Is It Mine? Toward Property Rights in Personal Information" discusses the disturbing erosion of privacy suffered by the American society in recent years due to citizens' loss of control over their personal information. This information, collected and traded by commercial enterprises, receives almost no protection under current law. I argue that, in order to protect privacy, individuals need to secure control over their information by becoming its legal owners. In this article, I confront two fundamental questions that have not been specifically addressed in the privacy literature before: why property is the most appropriate regime for ...


Developing Internationally Uniform Liability Principles For Harms From Genetically Modified Organisms , Ryan C. Hansen Nov 2003

Developing Internationally Uniform Liability Principles For Harms From Genetically Modified Organisms , Ryan C. Hansen

ExpressO

This paper analyzes the current legal principles regarding liabillity for harms from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the U.S. and E.U., as well as the various international policies and mechanisms affecting GMOs


Benin’S Constitutional Court: An Institutional Model For Enforcing Human Rights, Anna Rotman Nov 2003

Benin’S Constitutional Court: An Institutional Model For Enforcing Human Rights, Anna Rotman

ExpressO

This piece is based on field research the author conducted in Benin, West Africa during January 2003. The paper explores how the Court operates as a hybrid institution, by combining the competences traditionally associated with a constitutional court with the mandate of a national human rights commission. The paper argues that the Beninese Constitutional Court could provide an institutional model for guaranteeing human rights through a state-sponsored institution.


Wto Plus: Creating Liberal Investment Through Regulating Tax Incentives, Jeremiah Johnson Nov 2003

Wto Plus: Creating Liberal Investment Through Regulating Tax Incentives, Jeremiah Johnson

ExpressO

The World Trade Organization’s (WTO) narrow reading of the Agreement on Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMs) should be expanded to prohibit specific and targeted tax incentives aimed at attracting foreign investment. These tax incentives restrict investment and trade liberalization. This paper proposes that trade and investment are intrinsically linked, and as such, the WTO is the proper forum to regulate investment measures. This paper argues the case against specific foreign investment attracting tax incentives. These incentives do little to actually attract investment, and are harmful to development. Individual tax incentives also limit the collective global benefits of investment. This ...


Who Holds The Real Veto: Use Of Force And The Trusteeship Analogy, Paul Tan Nov 2003

Who Holds The Real Veto: Use Of Force And The Trusteeship Analogy, Paul Tan

ExpressO

It is a well-known fact that except when a country is defending herself from an armed attack, all recourse to force must be authorized by the Security Council. In early 2003, when President Bush became frustrated at the reluctance of the UN Security Council to authorize the use of force against Iraq for stalling on the weapons inspections regime, he told the world in no uncertain terms that America would attack Iraq alone if necessary. What I want to explore in this article is the question of whether countries retain a residual right to act outside of such authorization on ...


A Defining Faith: "True" Religion And The Establishment Clause, Jeffrey Shulman Nov 2003

A Defining Faith: "True" Religion And The Establishment Clause, Jeffrey Shulman

ExpressO

This essay examines two trends in modern church-state law. Parts I and II review the history of the Supreme Court's Establishment Clause cases. It is a history that can best be understood as a series of jurisprudential maneuvers by which the Court has sought to make room for religion in civic life. The accommodations made by the Court to religious belief and conduct have, in effect, allowed for discrimination against non-religion, and have edged the court toward a nonpreferentialist perspective on disestablishment. But the Court’s accommodating attitude amounts to more than a preference for the many varieties of ...


Booze, Drugs, And Rock & Roll: Crime During The College Years, Paul S. Gutman Oct 2003

Booze, Drugs, And Rock & Roll: Crime During The College Years, Paul S. Gutman

ExpressO

In this Article, the author examines the predilection of college and university students towards certain types of illegal behaviors. Specifically, the Article considers the widespread instances of drug use, under-age alcohol use, and "file-sharing" using Napster and its progeny. The Article's main focus is on why such illegal behaviors are rampant among college students who might otherwise be


A Room Of One's Own: Morality And Sexual Privacy After Lawrence V. Texas, Marybeth Herald Oct 2003

A Room Of One's Own: Morality And Sexual Privacy After Lawrence V. Texas, Marybeth Herald

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


Trial Of The Accused Taliban And Al Qaeda Operatives Captured In Afghanistan And Detained On A U.S. Military Base In Cuba, Jaime Jackson Oct 2003

Trial Of The Accused Taliban And Al Qaeda Operatives Captured In Afghanistan And Detained On A U.S. Military Base In Cuba, Jaime Jackson

ExpressO

A timely piece proposing solutions for issues certain to be raised in the upcoming trials of the accused Taliban and Al Qaeda operatives captured in Afghanistan and detained on a U.S. military base in Cuba. In the article, I begin by examining the history and jurisdiction of Article I and Article III courts and then address the history and structure of the Al Qaeda and Taliban regimes. After considering the Constitution, federal statutes, politics, and geographical limitations, I conclude that Al Qaeda detainees should be tried in Article III courts under terrorism statutes and Taliban detainees, as military combatants ...


All The Lizards Stand And Say “Yes Yes Yes” : The Element Of Play In Legal Actions Against Animals And Inanimate Objects, Anna Pervukhin Oct 2003

All The Lizards Stand And Say “Yes Yes Yes” : The Element Of Play In Legal Actions Against Animals And Inanimate Objects, Anna Pervukhin

ExpressO

Legal actions against non-humans (whether animals or objects) were once widespread. They were viewed seriously and undoubtedly served important social functions. This article considers the possibility that some of these actions may have been playful as well. Certain aspects of legal actions against animals and objects-- occasional moments of levity, a preoccupation with formal rules, and a strong emphasis on imaginative transformation-- suggest that these actions had elements of play. The possibility is worth considering for two reasons. First, it may shed some light on a practice that has perplexed and disturbed commentators for centuries. Second, an examination of play ...


Occupational Risk: The Outrageous Reaction To Hiv Positive Public Safety And Health Care Employees In The Workplace, Manju Gupta Oct 2003

Occupational Risk: The Outrageous Reaction To Hiv Positive Public Safety And Health Care Employees In The Workplace, Manju Gupta

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


Indianapolis V. Edmond And The Original Understanding Of The Fourth Amendment, Bruce Newman Oct 2003

Indianapolis V. Edmond And The Original Understanding Of The Fourth Amendment, Bruce Newman

ExpressO

In this article I examine to what extent Indianapolis v. Edmond is in keeping with the original understanding of the Fourth Amendment. I conclude that the Founders were much more concerned with searches of real property, often insisting, not only on suspicion, but also a on warrant when searches of real property are involved. Secondly, while the Founders did not consider warrants necessary for searches and seizures off of real property (which for the sake of simplicity I call searches in public areas) the evidence suggests suspicion was required. Indeed, the Fourth Amendment was a direct response to the British ...


When Does A Discharge Of A Bail Bond Discharge The Surety?, Jason D. Katz Oct 2003

When Does A Discharge Of A Bail Bond Discharge The Surety?, Jason D. Katz

ExpressO

This article examines the situations when a discharge of a bail bond actually discharges the liability of the surety and/ or its agent, the bail bondsman, as interpreted by the courts.


“All Aboard!” An Overview Of The Continuing Debate Regarding The Enforceability Of Dispute Resolution Provisions Of Filipino Seamen Employment Contracts, Richard V. Blystone Oct 2003

“All Aboard!” An Overview Of The Continuing Debate Regarding The Enforceability Of Dispute Resolution Provisions Of Filipino Seamen Employment Contracts, Richard V. Blystone

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


National Identity Cards: Fourth And Fifth Amendment Issues, Daniel J. Steinbock Oct 2003

National Identity Cards: Fourth And Fifth Amendment Issues, Daniel J. Steinbock

ExpressO

In the past two years there have been serious calls for a national identity system whose centerpiece would be some form of national identity card. Such a system is seen mainly as a tool against terrorists, but also as a useful response to illegal immigration, identity theft, and electoral fraud. Both proponents and opponents have noted the potential constitutional problems of such an identity system, but as yet there has been no published legal analysis of these questions. This article aims to fill that gap by analyzing the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues in two major features of any likely ...


The Narrow Tailoring Issue In The Affirmative Action Cases: Reconsidering The Supreme Court's Approval In Gratz And Grutter Of Race-Based Decision Making By Individualized Discretion, David Crump Oct 2003

The Narrow Tailoring Issue In The Affirmative Action Cases: Reconsidering The Supreme Court's Approval In Gratz And Grutter Of Race-Based Decision Making By Individualized Discretion, David Crump

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


The Internal Revenue Code As Sodomy Statute, Anthony C. Infanti Oct 2003

The Internal Revenue Code As Sodomy Statute, Anthony C. Infanti

ExpressO

This essay attempts to bridge the gap between gay and straight understanding of the Internal Revenue Code’s impact on gay and lesbian couples. Through a combination of personal narrative and legal analysis, I try to explain how, from a gay perspective, the Code can be viewed as discriminating against gay and lesbian couples – regardless of whether, on a net basis, they are required to pay more or less tax than similarly-situated straight couples.


Child Placement Decisions: The Relevance Of Facial Resemblance And Biological Relationships, David J. Herring Oct 2003

Child Placement Decisions: The Relevance Of Facial Resemblance And Biological Relationships, David J. Herring

University of Pittsburgh School of Law Working Paper Series

This article discusses two studies of evolution and human behavior addressing child-adult relationships and explores implications for policies and practices surrounding placement of children in foster homes. The first study indicates that men favor children whose facial features resemble their own facial features. This study may justify public child welfare decisionmakers in considering facial resemblance as they attempt to place children in safe foster homes. The second study indicates that parents are likely to invest more in children who are biologically related to them, thus enhancing their longterm well-being. Among other implications, this study may justify public child welfare decisionmakers ...


United States V. Bean: Shoveling After The Elephant?, Pannal A. Sanders Oct 2003

United States V. Bean: Shoveling After The Elephant?, Pannal A. Sanders

ExpressO

Thomas Bean’s felony conviction in Mexico implicated provisions of federal law that preclude certain persons, including specified felons, from owning or trading in firearms and ammunition which have been transported in interstate commerce. 18 USC Sec. 922. Affected persons can seek relief from the federal firearms disability by invoking procedures established in 18 USC Sec. 925(c) under the Dept of Treasury, Director of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (“ATF”). Beginning in 1992, Congress has enacted provisions annually in the ATF’s appropriations laws that ban it from investigating or acting upon Sec. 925(c) applications from individuals. Section 925 ...


The Control Of Wealth In Bankruptcy, Jay L. Westbrook Oct 2003

The Control Of Wealth In Bankruptcy, Jay L. Westbrook

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


The Merger Of Guidelines And The Integration Of Efficiencies Into Antitrust Review Of Horizontal Mergers, William Kolasky, Andrew Dick Oct 2003

The Merger Of Guidelines And The Integration Of Efficiencies Into Antitrust Review Of Horizontal Mergers, William Kolasky, Andrew Dick

Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr Antitrust Series

There is a widening consensus among jurisdictions with competition laws that “the basic objective of competition policy is to protect competition as the most appropriate means of ensuring the efficient allocation of resources—and thus efficientmarket outcomes—in free market economies.” 1 As this statement indicates, it is efficiency, not competition, that is the ultimate goal of the antitrust laws. One of the senior economists of the Justice Department’s Antitrust Division put it very well recently: “efficiency is the goal, competition is the process.”2 When the competitive process is allowed to run its course—unfettered by exclusionary practices ...


A Gradual Shift In U.S. Privacy Laws Towards A Comprehensive Regime , Kamaal R. Zaidi Oct 2003

A Gradual Shift In U.S. Privacy Laws Towards A Comprehensive Regime , Kamaal R. Zaidi

ExpressO

This paper examines the current trends in a predominantly sectoral U.S. privacy regime that appears to be becoming more comprehensive in nature with respect to data privacy protection. This trend has been greatly attributed to the European Union's comprehensive position on data privacy protection. This paper investigates the growth in U.S. data privacy protection in relation to federal and state legislative history, federal administrative procedures, and private industry efforts. This shift from sectoral to comprehensive regimes is significant in the backdrop of U.S-EU trade relations.