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2003

Science and Technology Law

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Full-Text Articles in Law

The “Commercial Offer For Sale” Standard After Minnesota Mining V. Chemque, Campbell Chiang Dec 2003

The “Commercial Offer For Sale” Standard After Minnesota Mining V. Chemque, Campbell Chiang

Duke Law & Technology Review

The Supreme Court established a two-part test for determining when an invention is "on sale" under 35 U.S.C. §102(b) in Pfaff v. Wells Electronics, Inc. For the on-sale bar to be triggered, the invention must be "ready for patenting" and subject of a "commercial offer for sale." In Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing v. Chemque, Inc., the Federal Circuit expounded on what constitutes a commercial offer for sale. This iBrief explores what is considered a "commercial offer for sale."


Patenting Computer Data Structures: The Ghost, The Machine And The Federal Circuit, Andrew Joseph Hollander Dec 2003

Patenting Computer Data Structures: The Ghost, The Machine And The Federal Circuit, Andrew Joseph Hollander

Duke Law & Technology Review

Courts view "data structures," the mechanism by which computers store data in meaningful relationships, differently than do computer scientists. While computer scientists recognize that data structures have aspects that are both physical (how they are stored in memory) and logical (the relationships among the stored information), the Federal Circuit, in its attempts to set clear standards of the scope of patentability of data structures, has not fully appreciated their dualistic nature. This i-brief explains what data structures are, explores how courts have wrestled with setting a limiting principle to determine their patentability, and discusses the resultant impact on claim drafting.


U.S. Infringement Liability For Foreign Sellers Of Infringing Products, Troy Petersen Dec 2003

U.S. Infringement Liability For Foreign Sellers Of Infringing Products, Troy Petersen

Duke Law & Technology Review

With the ever-increasing international flavor of business comes an important question for United States patent holders and foreign manufacturers alike: Can a company be held liable for patent infringement in the United States for selling an infringing product abroad that is later imported into the United States?


Why Judges Applying The Daubert Trilogy Need To Know About The Social, Institutional, And Rhetorical - And Not Just The Methodological - Aspects Of Science, David S. Caudill, Lewis H. Larue Dec 2003

Why Judges Applying The Daubert Trilogy Need To Know About The Social, Institutional, And Rhetorical - And Not Just The Methodological - Aspects Of Science, David S. Caudill, Lewis H. Larue

Boston College Law Review

In response to the claim that many judges are deficient in their understanding of scientific methodology, this Article identifies in recent cases (1) a pragmatic perspective on the part of federal appellate judges when they reverse trial judges who tend to idealize science (i.e., who do not appreciate the local and practical goals and limitations of science), and (ii) an educational model of judicial gatekeeping that results in reversal of trial judges who defer to the social authority of science (i.e., who mistake authority for reliability). Next, this Article observes that courts (in the cases it analyzes) are ...


Pfaff Revisited: How The Federal Circuit Has Elaborated On The “Ready For Patenting” Standard, Jennifer F. Miller Nov 2003

Pfaff Revisited: How The Federal Circuit Has Elaborated On The “Ready For Patenting” Standard, Jennifer F. Miller

Duke Law & Technology Review

In Pfaff v. Wells Electronics, Inc., the Supreme Court established a two-part test to determine when an invention is "on sale" for purposes of Title 35 U.S.C. §102(b). In addition to being the subject of a commercial offer for sale, an invention must be "ready for patenting" in order to be considered "on sale." Since Pfaff, the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit has had numerous opportunities to expound upon how inventors can fulfill the latter condition. This iBrief will discuss the factors the Federal Circuit has determined are indicative of an invention's "ready for ...


3d Molecular Structures: Patentable Subject Matter Under 35 U.S.C. §101?, Ben Quarmby Nov 2003

3d Molecular Structures: Patentable Subject Matter Under 35 U.S.C. §101?, Ben Quarmby

Duke Law & Technology Review

With the advent of protein engineering, the determination of a protein’s 3D structure has taken on a whole new importance. This has prompted some to call for the United States Patent and Trademark Office [USPTO] to break with tradition and allow patents on the three-dimensional structural information of proteins. This iBrief will discuss whether such information would constitute patentable subject matter under 35 U.S.C. §101, and how much protection patents on this information could actually confer.


Fairplay Or Greed: Mandating University Responsibility Toward Student Inventors, Carmen J. Mccutcheon Oct 2003

Fairplay Or Greed: Mandating University Responsibility Toward Student Inventors, Carmen J. Mccutcheon

Duke Law & Technology Review

Over twenty years have passed since the enactment of The Patent and Trademark Law Amendments Act (Bayh-Dole Act) and universities continue to struggle with their technology transfer infrastructures. Lost in that struggle are those who could be considered the backbone of university research: the students. Graduate and undergraduate students remain baffled by the patent assignment and technology transfer processes within their various institutions. Efforts should be undertaken by universities to clarify the student's position in the creative process.


Life Sciences, Technology, And The Law - Symosium Transcript - March 7, 2003, Philip R. Reilly, David H. Kaye, Jonathan J. Koehler, Richard O. Lempert Oct 2003

Life Sciences, Technology, And The Law - Symosium Transcript - March 7, 2003, Philip R. Reilly, David H. Kaye, Jonathan J. Koehler, Richard O. Lempert

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

Life sciences, Technology, and the Law Symposium held at the University of Michigan Law School Friday, March 7, 2003


A Putative Inventor’S Remedies To Correct Inventorship On A Patent, Campbell Chiang Sep 2003

A Putative Inventor’S Remedies To Correct Inventorship On A Patent, Campbell Chiang

Duke Law & Technology Review

Inventorship is a required component of patents issued in the United States, and the penalty for filing a patent with incorrect inventorship is harsh: possible invalidation of the entire patent. This iBrief explores the background on inventorship in the United States patent system, and various remedies such as 35 U.S.C. §116, 35 U.S.C. §256, and interference proceedings in correcting errors in inventorship. This iBrief will then discuss the usefulness of these various remedies to a putative inventor who was left off the inventorship of a patent.


Banning Bans On New Reproductive And Novel Genetic Technologies, Matthew Herder Aug 2003

Banning Bans On New Reproductive And Novel Genetic Technologies, Matthew Herder

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

Commentators argue that statutory prohibitions with the force of the criminal law should not be used to regulate new reproductive technologies (NRTs) and novel genetic technologies (NGTs). Bill C-13, the Assisted Human Reproduction Act, however, codifies 10 criminal bans. This paper considers the merits of the various arguments levied against Bill C-13, and the corollary claim that only a "non-prohibitive" model of legislation befits NRTs and NGTs. Three types of arguments are used to critique criminal bans: (1) "Structural" arguments hinge on the constraints of the Canadian legal system - legislation complete with prohibitions runs afoul of the Constitution Act 1867 ...


Sealing The Coffin On The Experimental Use Exception, Jennifer Miller May 2003

Sealing The Coffin On The Experimental Use Exception, Jennifer Miller

Duke Law & Technology Review

In a petition for writ of certiorari, Duke University requests that the Supreme Court reverse a Federal Circuit holding that, in its view, "seals the coffin on the experimental use exception for private universities." This iBrief discusses the Federal Circuit's decision in Madey v. Duke University and its possible effects on the progress of science.


Science And International Trade, John Garvey May 2003

Science And International Trade, John Garvey

Boston College International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Science And International Trade – Third Generation Scholarship, Jeffery Atik, David A. Wirth May 2003

Science And International Trade – Third Generation Scholarship, Jeffery Atik, David A. Wirth

Boston College International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Myth Of Science As A “Neutral Arbiter” For Triggering Precautions, Vern R. Walker May 2003

The Myth Of Science As A “Neutral Arbiter” For Triggering Precautions, Vern R. Walker

Boston College International and Comparative Law Review

This article demonstrates that science cannot be a "neutral arbiter" for triggering precautionary measures, because both making and warranting findings of risk require non-scientific decisions. Making a risk finding requires decisions about the meaning of "risk of harm," about the meaning of any modifiers for that predicate, and about the degree of confidence asserted for the finding as a whole. Determining that the available scientific evidence warrants a finding of risk requires decisions about acceptable degrees of various types of uncertaintynamely, conceptual uncertainty, measurement uncertainty, sampling uncertainty, modeling uncertainty, and causal uncertainty. This article illustrates these decisions using examples from ...


Science And “Post-Discriminatory” Wto Law, Robert E. Hudec May 2003

Science And “Post-Discriminatory” Wto Law, Robert E. Hudec

Boston College International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Cyberdemons: Regulating A Truly World-Wide Web, Andrew P. Lycans May 2003

Cyberdemons: Regulating A Truly World-Wide Web, Andrew P. Lycans

Michigan Law Review

In the decade leading up to the twenty-first century, the number of Internet-related legal disputes grew exponentially. This growth continues into the new millennium, introducing old problems in a new context. For instance, in the field of copyright, Eric Eldred, the operator of a website dedicated to posting literary works already in the public domain, challenged the Copyright Term Extension Act ("CTEA"). The CTEA blocked his plans to post works copyrighted in 1923, works which under the previous statute would have entered the public domain in 1999. Looking to trademark law, the field has become obsessed of late with providing ...


Disease And Cure?, L. A. Powe Jr. May 2003

Disease And Cure?, L. A. Powe Jr.

Michigan Law Review

Sunstein uses Franklin's remark to make two related points. First, citizens bear the burden of maintaining the American republic as a healthy, vibrant place; being a citizen is decidedly different from being a consumer. The former has duties, the latter wants (pp. 113-23). Second, and this is the gist of the slender book, the republic is jeopardized by the possibilities of the Internet. Sunstein assumes the correctness of MIT technology specialist Nicholas Negroponte's conclusion that in the not-too-distant future we will be able to create a "Daily Me" on the Internet that will provide the personalized information (including ...


Toward A More Communitarian Future? Fukuyama As The Fundamentalist Secular Humanist, June Carbone May 2003

Toward A More Communitarian Future? Fukuyama As The Fundamentalist Secular Humanist, June Carbone

Michigan Law Review

With The End of History and the Last Man, Francis Fukuyama established himself as the prophet of liberal democracy and free markets, heralding their triumph as the only form of governance capable of commanding legitimacy. Asked to reflect on his predictions a decade later, Fukuyama concluded that the greatest threat to liberalism comes from biotechnology because it alone has the potential to remake the human nature that liberal democracy was designed to serve. Fukuyama makes a compelling case that biotechnology may produce developments that should concern us; he is ironically less persuasive in articulating a liberal-democratic framework for governing the ...


Government Preferences For Promoting Open-Source Software: A Solution In Search Of A Problem, David S. Evans, Bernard J. Reddy Apr 2003

Government Preferences For Promoting Open-Source Software: A Solution In Search Of A Problem, David S. Evans, Bernard J. Reddy

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

Governments around the world are making or considering efforts to promote open-source software (typically produced by cooperatives of individuals) at the expense of proprietary software (generally sold by for-profit software developers). This article examines the economic basis for these kinds of government interventions in the market. It first provides some background on the software industry. The article discusses the industrial organization and performance of the proprietary software business and describes how the open-source movement produces and distributes software. It then surveys current government proposals and initiatives to support open-source software and examines whether there is a significant market failure that ...


Beyond Convergence And The New Media Decisions: Regulatory Models In Communications Law, Melanie Mortensen Apr 2003

Beyond Convergence And The New Media Decisions: Regulatory Models In Communications Law, Melanie Mortensen

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

While technological and economic changes have been the most influential factors in stimulating recent policy and regulatory reassessments in Canada with respect to telecommunications and broadcasting regulation, public interest and socio-political concerns should also remain significant in the design of new regulatory and policy responses to convergence and competition. When the CRTC announced that it would refrain from regulating broadcasting in new media for a period of five years, this occasion illustrated the increasing inapplicability of the sector-specific legislation from which the mandate of the CRTC is derived.

The first model addressed is the present sector-specific policy and regulatory treatment ...


Race[,] Science, History, And Law, David S. Caudill Apr 2003

Race[,] Science, History, And Law, David S. Caudill

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Software Patent Law: United States And Europe Compared, Michael Guntersdorfer Mar 2003

Software Patent Law: United States And Europe Compared, Michael Guntersdorfer

Duke Law & Technology Review

Software is a global business. Patents are increasingly the protection of choice; as a consequence, international software patent laws are of growing importance to software vendors. This article focuses on European patent law and how it differs from United States law in regards to software technology. Statutes and relevant case law of both unions are discussed and compared, providing an introductory secondary source for scholars and practitioners.


Patent Royalties Extending Beyond Expiration: An Illogical Ban From Brulotte To Scheiber, Michael Koenig Mar 2003

Patent Royalties Extending Beyond Expiration: An Illogical Ban From Brulotte To Scheiber, Michael Koenig

Duke Law & Technology Review

A recent decision by the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals, Scheiber v. Dolby Laboratories, Inc., called into question, yet dutifully applied, the somewhat disfavored Supreme Court patent case of Brulotte v. Thys Co. For thirty-eight years, Brulotte has served as an absolute prohibition on the collection of any patent royalties extending beyond the expiration date of the patent. As Justice Douglas stated in writing for the eight-Justice majority, "a patentee's use of a royalty agreement that projects beyond the expiration date of the patent is unlawful per se." Ostensibly, this concise and easily-applied exposition of the law seems sensible ...


Cyberlaw 2.0, Michael Geist Mar 2003

Cyberlaw 2.0, Michael Geist

Boston College Law Review

This Article outlines two versions of cyberlaw, The first, characteristic of the scholarship of the late 1990s, is typified by a borclerless Internet and national laws that cease to have effect at their real-space borders, the regulatory power of code, and the virtue of selfregulatory solutions to Internet and e-commerce issues. In Cybet'law 2.0, the borderless Internet becomes bordered, bordered laws become borderless. the regulation of code becomes regulated code, and selfregulation becomes industry consultation, as government shifts toward a more traditional regulatory approach. The Article assesses each of these changes, calling attention to recent developments in copyright ...


The First Sale Doctrine In The Era Of Digital Networks, Ruth Anthony Reese Mar 2003

The First Sale Doctrine In The Era Of Digital Networks, Ruth Anthony Reese

Boston College Law Review

The first sale doctrine has been essential to the balance in copyright law between authors' rights and public access to works. The growth of digital technology, however, has drastically changed the means of disseminating many types of works and, as a result, has undermined the first sale doctrine. This Article considers the long-term impact of technological change on the first sale doctrine. The Article focuses on the affordability and availability effects of the doctrine. reviewing the traditional causes and benefits of these effects, as well as the ways in which electronic commerce has weakened and could continue to weaken them ...


Protecting The Rights Of Indigenous Cultures Under The Current Intellectual Property System: Is It A Good Idea?, 3 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 88 (2003), Juan Andrés Fuentes Jan 2003

Protecting The Rights Of Indigenous Cultures Under The Current Intellectual Property System: Is It A Good Idea?, 3 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 88 (2003), Juan Andrés Fuentes

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Globalization and digital communication trends have provided new avenues and incentives for the commercial use of the folkloric artwork of indigenous peoples. Such commercial uses, however, have occurred largely without any creative control or financial benefit inuring to the original creators, people, or tribe of whom the artistic works form an integral part of their culture. Since much of the works are owned by a community as a whole, as opposed to being owned by individuals, it is difficult to fit such works into an intellectual property regime that is based on laws formed around Western notions of art and ...


Can This Brokered Marriage Be Saved? The Changing Relationship Between The Supreme Court And Federal Circuit In Patent Law Jurisprudence, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 201 (2003), Debra D. Peterson Jan 2003

Can This Brokered Marriage Be Saved? The Changing Relationship Between The Supreme Court And Federal Circuit In Patent Law Jurisprudence, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 201 (2003), Debra D. Peterson

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Congress created the Federal Circuit, in part, to provide uniformity in patent decisions throughout the United States and stability in patent law. During the first decade of the Federal Circuit’s existence, the Supreme Court largely deferred to the Federal Circuit in patent law decisions. However, the Supreme Court’s initial deference to the Federal Circuit has since been replaced by critical view of the Federal Circuit’s decisions and its decision-making processes. This article proposes that the Supreme Court has correctly abandoned its deferential mindset toward the Federal Circuit since the Federal Circuit was never intended to be the ...


The Next Wave: Federal Regulatory, Intellectual Property, And Tort Liability Considerations For Medical Device Software, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 259 (2003), Paul A. Mathew Jan 2003

The Next Wave: Federal Regulatory, Intellectual Property, And Tort Liability Considerations For Medical Device Software, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 259 (2003), Paul A. Mathew

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Counsel for the medical software technologist faces an unusually complex, ongoing, high-stakes challenge. Counsel operates in a special field of commercial, legal and regulatory forces: (1) intellectual property laws which govern the expression and protection of commercial rights derived from advances in medical science and technology; (2) existing and proposed contracts/warranty laws that govern technological commercial relationships; (3) negligence, professional liability, and product liability laws that govern the marketing of medical technologies; and, (4) a new body of regulation derived from the power of the federal government to indirectly provide for the safety, effectiveness, privacy, and security of medical ...


Stake Your (Linking) Claim: Assessing The Impact Of In Re Doyle On Patent Reissue, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 360 (2003), Grace C.Y. Leung Jan 2003

Stake Your (Linking) Claim: Assessing The Impact Of In Re Doyle On Patent Reissue, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 360 (2003), Grace C.Y. Leung

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

A common problem encountered during patent prosecution is a restriction requirement. According to In re Doyle, the failure to assert linking claims that readon non-elected claims is an error correctable by reissue. This paper argues that the Doyle court was correct in holding that Doyle was distinguishable from In re Orita. Allowance of genus claims that link previously non-elected claims comports with the patent statute. As the public is on notice that patent claims may be broadenedwithin two years, the Doyle holding ensures that the patentee is given the fullbreadth of protection necessary to “promote the Progress of Science and ...


The Inevitable Disclosure Doctrine In Illinois: Is It An Inevitable Mistake?, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 379 (2003), Juliet Ruth Otten Jan 2003

The Inevitable Disclosure Doctrine In Illinois: Is It An Inevitable Mistake?, 2 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 379 (2003), Juliet Ruth Otten

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

In several recent decisions, Illinois courts have established that an ex-employee may be restrained from using information from their former employer, that will be "inevitably disclosed", even when no non-competition agreement existed between the employee and the employer. The use of this"inevitable disclosure" doctrine allows Illinois courts to create quasi non-competition agreements even where there has been no actual or threatened misappropriation of an employer's information. This comment proposes that Illinois courts should apply the inevitable disclosure doctrine only when several limiting factors are met and, instead, should encourage employers to use reasonable confidentiality agreements so that neither ...